Goals and the role of place Type Primary Goals Physicality Action & Action ✓ Intervention Conservation &Conservation ✓ StewardshipInvestigation Science ✓ Virtual Science Education & Education ✓ Outreach Wiggins & Crowston, 2011
Contribution types Data collection• Most common• Observations & measurements Data processing• On the rise• Entirely virtual• Image recognition & puzzle solving Data transcription• On the rise• Mostly virtual
Participant experienceSharing my data/experiences• Fits into daily life• People like to share their passionsWorking on their/our tasks• Novel tasks• Can reinforce hierarchyPlaying games & solving puzzles• Fits into daily life• Explicit symbolic rewards, entertaining
What does it accomplish?engage%cri)cal%thinking%(Trumbull%et%al%2000)%science%learning,%bonding%(Kountoupes%and%Oberhauser%2008)%environmental%ac)on;%social%networks%(Overdevest%et%al.%2004)%social%capital%(Ballard%2008)%improved%policy%(Wing%et%al.%2008)%
What does it accomplish?documen(ng*range*shi0s*(Bonter*et*al.*unpublished*data)*iden(fying*poten(al*mismatches*(Batalden*et*al.*2007)*iden(fying*vulnerable*species*(Crimmins*et*al*2008,*2009)*health*planning*(Leve(n*and*Van*de*Water*2008)*an(cipa(ng*eﬀects*on*water*sources*(e.g.,*CoCoRaHS)*processing large image data sets(e.g., Zooniverse projects)applying human computa:on skills(e.g., Foldit)
Galaxy Zoo Classifying images of galaxies Participation involves: Looking at pictures of galaxies online Answering a few questions about themStarted in 2007 by a team of academic astronomers Instant success and exciting new discoveries Galaxy Zoo 1, Year 1: 50M classifications, 150K volunteers Galaxy Zoo 2, Year 2: 60M classifications in 14 months Hanny’s Voorwerp Green Pea galaxies
eBird Collecting bird abundance and distribution data Participation involves: Choosing observation methods Recording bird observations (analog or digital) Entering observations and metadata onlineLaunched in 2002 by Cornell Lab of Ornithology(with National Audubon Society)World’s largest biodiversity data set: 100M recordsCurrently receives about 3M observations/monthData used in research and decision-making for landmanagement, policy (and recreation)
Crowds vs CommunitiesIs citizen science crowdsourcing?When is it crowdsourcing, and when is it not?What separates a crowd from a community?Crowdsourcing versus communitysourcing?
Motivations Galaxy ZooMotivations: similar to other participant surveysForums: evidence of shared interests & practices AliceReader to Leader......to Scientist! http://blog.galaxyzoo.org/2009/07/01/shes-an-astronomer-alice-sheppard/
More than just motivationMotivations Intrinsic (altruism) Extrinsic (money) DynamicPersonal Values (domain, science)Individual Goals (contributing) http://www.flickr.com/photos/verbeeldingskr8/4875710270/
Implications for DesignWho will participate?Why will theyparticipate?How will they berewarded?How can experiences beexpanded? http://www.flickr.com/photos/andymangold/4335799638/
Which Came First?Science-first project design Tech focuses on data entry Experiences are usually simplified scienceCitizen-first project design Tech focuses on ease of use Experience adapts existing leisure practices Self-rewarded & socially rewarded http://www.flickr.com/photos/hammer51012/495218105/
ICTs for Citizen Science Web-based data entry & social tools“Vanilla” websiteCMSCustom platform Mobile GamesCitizenSort image courtesy of Eric Graham
Images courtesy of Nathan Prestopnik and the CitizenSort team at Syracuse University US NSF Grant # 09-68470
Online CommunitiesWe don’t know much!Primary social & communication tool in virtual (place-independent) projectsBut what about... Place-dependent projects Pre-existing communities Scale of participationCohesive systems vs system assemblages
What makes it a community?How did you judge whether a citizen scienceproject you reviewed has an onlinecommunity or not? Blogs + forums + social media Leaderboards, visibility of others’ data, “shared checklists”Were there signs of offline community? What are the implications of that?
Communities in Citizen SciencePrimary recruitment method (in place-based) Not feasible for entirely virtual projectsImportant for retention Come for the coffee, stay for the conversationMain community engagement strategies Traditional: tapping into existing communities Virtual: creating a new community
Typologies• Lawrence, A. (2006). “No Personal Motive?” Volunteers, Biodiversity, and the False Dichotomies of Participation. Ethics, Place & Environment, 9(3), 279-298.• Bonney, R., Ballard, H., Jordan, R., McCallie, E., Phillips, T., Shirk, J., et al. (2009). Public Participation in Scientific Research: Defining the Field and Assessing Its Potential for Informal Science Education. A CAISE Inquiry Group Report (Tech. Rep.).• Danielsen, F., Burgess, N., Balmford, A., Donald, P., Funder, M., Jones, J., et al. (2009). Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conserva4on Biology, 23(1), 31–42.• Cooper,C. B., Dickinson, J., Phillips, T., & Bonney, R. (2007). Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems. Ecology and Society, 12(2).• Wilderman, C. C. (2007). Models of community science: design lessons from the field. Proceedings of Citizen Science Toolkit Conference.• Wiggins,A. & Crowston, K. (2011). From Conservation to Crowdsourcing: A Typology of Citizen Science. Proceedings of the 44th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.• Wiggins, A. & Crowston, K. (2012). Goals and Tasks: Two Typologies of Citizen Science Projects. Proceedings of the 45th Annual Hawaii International Conference on Systems Sciences. 16
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