Related Work✦ Participant-focused ✦ Individual learning Trumbull et al., 2000 (many more in Informal Science Education) ✦ Motivation Nov et al., 2011; Rotman et al., 2012; Raddick et al., 2009
Related Work✦ Project-focused ✦ Typologies Cooper et al., 2007; Bonney et al., 2009; Wiggins & Crowston, 2010 ✦ Data quality Sheppard & Terveen, 2011; Wiggins et al., 2011; Wiggins et al., 2012
Assumptions More people Cool Miracle More Better$$$ new occurs data science ICT Better data
Reality✦ There is no money✦ Free ICT are “free as in puppies”✦ ICT is just one part of a complex sociotechnical system
Research Question✦ RQ: How do citizen science project organizers address key issues related to participation & data quality when resource constraints limit ICT options?
Research Question✦ RQ: How do citizen science project organizers address key issues related to participation & data quality when resource constraints limit ICT options?✦ Answer: Creatively! ✦ Improving participation processes ✦ Expanding participation options ✦ Investing money & time strategically
Research Design✦ Comparative case study ✦ Theoretical sampling ✦ Project-level focus
Research Design✦ Data ✦ Interviews ✦ Documents ✦ Participation ✦ Observation✦ Analysis ✦ Inductive & deductive qualitative content analysis
Case Selection✦ Same core tasks ✦ Go outside, look at stuff, submit data✦ Similar purpose ✦ Conservation, education, research✦ Contrasting resources ✦ eBird: 4.5 FTE, ~$300K/yr ✦ GSP & MW: 0.5/1.5 FTE, ~$15K/yr
Recruitment✦ #1 strategy: direct in-person contact✦ ICT solution ✦ Effortless social recommendation via existing community practices: “This report was generated automatically by eBird v3”✦ Alternate solution ✦ Data collected on paper ✦ Saturation marketing
Retention✦ ICT solution ✦ Mind-blowing data visualizations
Data Quality✦ ICT solution ✦ Algorithmically flag outliers for review by small army of experts✦ Alternate solutions ✦ Hone protocols ✦ Invest in good data entry forms ✦ Use complementary data sources
Implications for Practice✦ Good ICT is awesome - when you can afford it✦ When you can’t... ✦ Combine available ICT with other (human, organizational) resources ✦ Unique resources often taken for granted ✦ Beware of free puppies
Implications for Policy✦ Citizen science is growing up ✦ Valid to fund on scientific merit ✦ Need better means of evaluating scientific merit of citizen science✦ Consider ROI of research ✦ 1 week on oceanographic research vessel for a handful of researchers ✦ 1 year of eBird & 60M global data points used by 120K people/day
Implications for CSCW✦ When ICT options are limited, look for complementary resources & compensatory strategies✦ Opportunity for cross-context comparisons ✦ Online communities ✦ Distributed scientific work ✦ Peer production
Questions?✦ Research made possible by... ✦ U.S. NSF ✦ eBird VOSS-0943049, ✦ The Great Sunf SOCS-0968470, & OCI-0830944 ✦ Awesome CSCW ✦ reviewers ✦ Mydissertation committee
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