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Test construction report Test construction report Presentation Transcript

  • TraditionalApproaches to Classroom AssessmentSelected Response Tests andConstructed-Response Tests
  • Format of the Test • Based on objectives written for the lesson Objective: Given the context, the student can recognize the meaning of the new word.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 2 www.brainybetty.com
  • Format of the Test Test item: Encircle the letter that represents the correct meaning of the underlined word. 1. Parents have every good intention whenever they make a decision for their child. A. command B. desire C. direction D. need2/5/2013 copyright 2006 3 www.brainybetty.com
  • Format of the Test Objective: The student can associate the qualities of the leading characters with their names. Test item: Column A is a list of the descriptions of the main characters in Huckleberry Finn. The names of the main characters are listed in column B. On the blank, write the letter of the description that matches each character.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 4 www.brainybetty.com
  • Format of the Test (continuation of previous slide) A B ___ 1. cruel A. Becky ___ 2. sneaky, lying, scheming B. Jim ___ 3. always by himself C. Tom a loner D. Aunt Polly ___ 4. popular, outgoing, E. Widow fun-loving Douglas2/5/2013 copyright 2006 5 www.brainybetty.com
  • Format of the Test Objective: The student can write a plausible alternative ending to a story. Test item: After reading the story, Huckleberry Finn, think of a different ending to the story that would be believable. Write the answer using 5 – 7 sentences on the space provided.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 6 www.brainybetty.com
  • Format of the Test Objective: The student will recognize whether certain events occurred in the story. Test item: Circle T if the incident happened in Huckleberry Finn and F if it did not. 1. Tom broke his leg. T F 2. Jim gained his freedom. T F2/5/2013 copyright 2006 7 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 1. High IQ children always get high grades in school. Avoid terms denoting indefinite degree (large, long time, regularly), or absolutes (never, only, always).2/5/2013 copyright 2006 8 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 2. Mother Mary Joseph said, ―I would have her distinguished by Christ- like charity and a limpid simplicity of soul.‖ Construct statements that are definitely true or definitely false, without additional qualifications. If opinion is used, attribute it to some source.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 9 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 3. If a plane crashed on the Mexican-American border, half the survivors would be buried in Mexico and half in the U.S. Avoid trick items.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 10 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 4. The use of double negatives is not an altogether undesirable characteristic of diplomats and academicians. Avoid using double-negative statements. State the referent .2/5/2013 copyright 2006 11 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 5. Prayers should not be outlawed in schools. Highlight the negative in italics, by underlining, or upper case letters. Also, cite the referent.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 12 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 6. Of the objective items, true-false items are the least time-consuming to construct. This is a good item.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 13 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 7. ADHD is a neuro-behavioral developmental disorder, and stimulant medications are appropriate and generally safe treatments for ADHD. Avoid double-barreled items. Each item should measure a single idea.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 14 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 1. Construct statements that are definitely true or definitely false, without additional qualifications. If opinion is used, attribute it to some source. 2. Use relatively short statements and eliminate extraneous material. 3. Keep true and false statements at approximately the same length, and be sure that there are approximately equal numbers of true and false items.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 15 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 4. Avoid using double-negative statements. 5. Avoid the following: a. verbal clues, absolutes, and complex sentences; b. broad general statements that are usually not true or false without further qualifications; c. terms denoting indefinite degree (large, long time, regularly), or absolutes (never, only, always);2/5/2013 copyright 2006 16 www.brainybetty.com
  • TRUE – FALSE ITEMS 5. Avoid the following: d. placing items in a systematic order (TTFF, TFTF, and so on); e. taking statements directly from the text and presenting them out of context.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 17 www.brainybetty.com
  • Advantages of True-False Tests Cover more material than with any other item format Take less time to construct Is easier to score
  • Disadvantages of True-False Tests Tend to emphasize rote memorization of knowledge Presume that the answer to the question or issue is unequivocally true or false Allow for and sometimes encourage a high degree of guessing
  • MATCHING ITEMS • Homogeneity • Order of Lists • Easy guessing • Poor directions • Too many correct responses • Ambiguous lists2/5/2013 copyright 2006 20 www.brainybetty.com
  • MATCHING ITEMS Match A and B. A B 1. Lapu-Lapu A. became the First Woman President 2. Del Pilar B. became the First President 3. Jose Rizal C. became the Second President 4. Sergio Osmeña D. known as our National Hero 5. Corazon Aquino E. became the First Filipino Hero 6. Manuel Quezon F. known as the Hero of Tirad Pass2/5/2013 copyright 2006 21 www.brainybetty.com
  • MATCHING ITEMS Column A gives descriptions associated with Philippine heroes. Indicate which name in column B matches the description by writing the letter on the blank. Each name may be used only once. A B ___ 1. Known as the First Filipino hero A. Lapu-Lapu ___ 2. Known as the National Hero B. Andres Bonifacio ___ 3. Called the Hero of Tirad Pass C. Gregorio del Pilar ___ 4. Called the Sublime Paralytic D. Emilio Jacinto E. Apolinario Mabini F. Jose Rizal G. Macario Sakay2/5/2013 22 copyright 2006 www.brainybetty.com
  • MATCHING ITEMS 1. Keep both the list of descriptions and the list of options short and homogenous – they should both fit on the same page. Title the lists to ensure homogeneity and arrange the descriptions and options in some logical order. 2. Make sure that all options are possible distracters/distractors for each description to ensure homogeneity of lists.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 23 www.brainybetty.com
  • MATCHING ITEMS 3. The list of descriptions should contain the longer phrases , while the options should consist of short phrases, words, or symbols. 4. Each description in the list should be numbered (each is an item), and the list of options should be identified by letter.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 24 www.brainybetty.com
  • MATCHING ITEMS 5. Include more options than descriptions. If the option list is longer than the description list, it is harder for students to eliminate options. If the option list is shorter, some options must be used more than once. Always include some options that do not match any of the descriptions, or some that match more than one, or both. 6. In the directions, specify the basis for matching and whether options can be used more than once.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 25 www.brainybetty.com
  • Advantages of Matching Tests Are simple to construct and to score Are ideally suited to measure associations between facts Can be more efficient than multiple- choice questions because they avoid repetition in measuring associations Reduce the effects of guessing
  • Disadvantages of Matching Tests Tend to ask students trivial information Emphasize memorization Can accommodate no more than five options, thus limiting the size of any particular matching item for most commercial answer sheets
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 1. Cinderella was an - - . A. orphan B. slave C. princess D. girl Be sure that there is one and only one correct or clearly best answer.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 28 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 2. In what year did humans first set foot on the moon? A. 1957 B. 1963 C. 1969 D. 1975 Arrange lists in alphabetical or chronological order.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 29 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 3. The free-floating structures within the cell that synthesize protein are called - - . A. chromosomes B. lysosomes C. mitochondria D. free ribosomes Be sure wrong answer choices (distracters) are plausible. Eliminate unintentional grammatical clues. Rotate the position of the correct answer from item to item randomly.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 30 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 4. The principal value of a balanced diet is that it - - . A. increases your intelligence B. promotes mental health C. promotes physical health D. improves self-discipline Cite the source/referent.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 31 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 5. Some test items - - . A. are too difficult B. are objective C. are poorly constructed D. have multiple defensible answers The stem of the item should clearly formulate a problem. Include as much of the item as possible, keeping the response options as short as possible. However, include only the material needed to make the problem clear and specific. Be concise— don’t add extraneous information.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 32 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 6. Which of the following are not associated with pneumonia? A. quiet breathing B. fever C. clear chest x-ray D. A and C E. B and C2/5/2013 copyright 2006 33 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS Use negative questions or statements only if the knowledge being tested requires it. In most cases it is more important for the student to know what a specific item of information is rather than what it is not. Highlight the ―not‖ with uppercase letters, italics, or underlining to minimize the likelihood of someone misreading the item.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 34 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 7. When 53 Americans were held hostage in Iran, - - . A. the United States did nothing to try to free them B. the United States declared war on Iran C. the United States first attempted to free them by diplomatic means and later attempted a rescue D. the United States expelled all Iranian students Keep the length and form of all the answer choices equal.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 35 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 8. The square root of 256 is - - . A. 14 B. 16 C. 4 x 4 D. both A and C E. both B and C F. all of the above G. none of the above2/5/2013 copyright 2006 36 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS Use the option ―none of the above‖ sparingly and only when the keyed answer can be classified unequivocally as right or wrong. Don’t use this option when asking for a best answer. Avoid using ―all of the above.‖ It is usually the correct answer and makes the item too easy for students with partial information.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 37 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS 9. When a test item and the objective it is intended to measure match in learning outcome and conditions, the item - - . A. is too easy B. has content validity C. should be discarded D. is called an objective item2/5/2013 copyright 2006 38 www.brainybetty.com
  • MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS Include from three to five options (2 – 4 distracters + 1 correct answer) to optimize testing for knowledge rather than encourage guessing. To increase the difficulty of a multiple- choice item, increase the similarity of content among options.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 39 www.brainybetty.com
  • HIGHER LEVEL MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS • Use pictorial, graphical, or tabular stimuli (Using a map) 1. In what direction would someone have to travel to get from the Philippines to Singapore? A. northeast B. northwest C. southeast D. southwest2/5/2013 copyright 2006 40 www.brainybetty.com
  • HIGHER LEVEL MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS • Use analogies that demonstrate relationships 1. Physician is to humans as veterinarian is to --. A. animals B. fruits C. minerals D. vegetables2/5/2013 copyright 2006 41 www.brainybetty.com
  • HIGHER LEVEL MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS • Require the application of previously learned principles or procedures to novel situations 1. Which of the following best describes how Darwin’s notion of the ―survival of the fittest‖ within the animal world applies to the current competitive residential construction industry? A. Home builders who construct the strongest and most durable homes will survive in the long term. B. Those builders in existence today are those who have formed alliances with powerful financial institutions.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 42 www.brainybetty.com
  • HIGHER LEVEL MULTIPLE-CHOICE ITEMS • Require the application of previously learned principles or procedures to novel situations 1. Which of the following best describes how Darwin’s notion of the ―survival of the fittest‖ within the animal world applies to the current competitive residential construction industry? C. Those builders who emphasize matching their homes to the changing structure of the family will survive in the future. D. The intense competition for a limited number of qualified home buyers will eventually ―weed out‖ poorly managed construction firms.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 43 www.brainybetty.com
  • Advantages of Multiple-Choice Tests Have considerable versatility in measuring objectives from the knowledge to the evaluation level Can sample a substantial amount of course material in a relatively short time (since writing is minimized)
  • Advantages of Multiple-Choice Tests Can be scored highly objectively Can be written so that students must discriminate among options that vary in degree of correctness Reduce effects of guessing Are amenable to item analysis
  • Disadvantages of Multiple- Choice Tests Can be time-consuming to write Can sometimes have more than one defensible correct answer if not carefully written
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 1. The evolutionary theory of _____ is based on the principle of _____. Omit only key words; don’t eliminate so many elements that the sense of the content is impaired.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 47 www.brainybetty.com
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 2. Columbus discovered America in _____. Be sure the answer that the student is required to produce is factually correct. Be sure the language used in the question is precise and accurate in relation to the subject matter area being tested.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 48 www.brainybetty.com
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 3. The capital of the Philippines is _____. If at all possible, items should require a single-word answer, or a brief and definite statement. Avoid statements that are so indefinite that they may be logically answered by several terms.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 49 www.brainybetty.com
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 4. In what year did Corazon Aquino become president of the Philippines? Be sure the question or statement poses a problem to the examinee. A direct question is often more desirable than an incomplete statement (it provides more structure).2/5/2013 copyright 2006 50 www.brainybetty.com
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 5. _____ blanks cause much frustration in _____. Word the statement such that the blank is near the end of the sentence rather than near the beginning. This will prevent awkward sentences.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 51 www.brainybetty.com
  • COMPLETION ITEMS 6. In five kilometers, there are _____. If the problem requires a numerical answer, indicate the units in which it is to be expressed.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 52 www.brainybetty.com
  • Advantages of Completion Tests Is relatively easy to construct Eliminates guessing since the question requires recall Takes less time to complete than multiple-choice items so greater amounts of content can be covered
  • Disadvantages of Completion Tests Encourage a relatively low level of response complexity Can be difficult to score responses since the stem must be general enough so as not to communicate the correct answer
  • Disadvantages of Completion Tests Tends to measure the recall of specific facts, names, places, and events as opposed to more complex behaviors due to the restriction of an answer to a few words
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Analyze relationships. The colors blue and gray are related to cool temperatures. What effect would these colors have on a picture you might draw? • Compare and contrast positions. Compare and contrast the two characters to illustrate how they responded differently to conditions in the story.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 56 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • State necessary assumptions. When Columbus landed on San Salvador, what did he assume about the land he had discovered? Were his assumptions correct? • Identify appropriate conclusions. What are some of the reasons for and against building a landfill near homes?2/5/2013 copyright 2006 57 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Explain cause-and-effect relations. Choose one of the American pioneers we have studied and give some of the reasons they traveled west. • Formulate hypotheses. What can you predict about a coming storm by observing clouds?2/5/2013 copyright 2006 58 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Organize data to support a viewpoint. Based on the table (of new homes built and cars purchased for each month over the past year), support the viewpoint that our economy is either growing larger or smaller.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 59 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Point out strengths and weaknesses. What is either a strength or a limitation of the following musical instruments for a marching band: oboe, trumpet, tuba, violin?2/5/2013 copyright 2006 60 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Integrate data from several sources. Imagine you are celebrating your birthday with nine of your friends. Two pizzas arrive but each is cut into four pieces. What method would you choose to ensure that everyone gets a piece of the pizza?2/5/2013 copyright 2006 61 www.brainybetty.com
  • CONTENT FOR ESSAY ITEMS • Evaluate the quality or worth of an item, product, or action. What should be considered in choosing a balanced meal from the basic food groups?2/5/2013 copyright 2006 62 www.brainybetty.com
  • ESSAY ITEMS 1. Have clearly in mind what mental processes you want the student to use before starting to write the question. 2. Write the question clearly and unambiguously define the task to the student.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 63 www.brainybetty.com
  • 3. Start essay questions with such words and phrases as compare, contrast, give reasons for, give original examples of, predict what would happen if, and so on. Do not begin with such words as what, who, when, and list because those words generally lead to tasks that require only recall of information.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 64 www.brainybetty.com
  • ESSAY ITEMS 4. A question dealing with controversial issue should ask for and be evaluated in terms of the presentation of evidence for a position rather than the position taken.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 65 www.brainybetty.com
  • ESSAY ITEMS 5. Establish reasonable time and/or space limits for each essay question to help the student complete the question and to indicate the level of detail for the response you have in mind. Indicate such limits in the statement of the question. 6. Use essay questions with content and objectives that cannot be satisfactorily measured by objective items.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 66 www.brainybetty.com
  • ESSAY ITEMS 7. Avoid using optional items. That is, require all students to complete the same items. Allowing students to select three of five, four of seven, and so forth decreases test validity and decreases your basis for comparison among students. 8. Be sure each question relates to an instructional objective.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 67 www.brainybetty.com
  • SCORING ESSAY ITEMS 1. Write good essay items. 2. Use mostly restricted response rather than extended response items, for in- classroom assessments. 3. Use a predetermined scoring scheme (rubric). 4. Use the scoring scheme consistently. Don’t favor one student over another or get stricter or more lax over time.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 68 www.brainybetty.com
  • SCORING ESSAY ITEMS 5. Cover the names on the papers before beginning scoring (e.g., with sticky notes). In this manner you are more likely to rate papers on their merits, rather than on your overall impression of the student. 6. Score each student’s answer to the same question before going on to the next answer. In other words, do all of the answers to the first question before looking at the answers to the second.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 69 www.brainybetty.com
  • SCORING ESSAY ITEMS 7. Try to keep scores for previous items hidden when scoring subsequent items to avoid having a student’s score on an earlier question influence your evaluation of his or her later answer. 8. Try to re-evaluate your papers before returning them. When you come across discrepant ratings, average them!2/5/2013 copyright 2006 70 www.brainybetty.com
  • Advantages of the Essay Item Is most effective in assessing complex learning outcomes Is relatively easy to construct Emphasizes essential communication skills in complex academic disciplines Eliminates guessing
  • Disadvantages of the Essay Item Is difficult to score May yield unreliable scores Covers a limited sample of total instructional content Encourages bluffing
  • PACKAGING THE TEST 1. Group together all items of similar format. 2. Arrange test items from easy to hard. 3. Space the items for easy reading. 4. Keep items and options on the same page. 5. Position illustrations immediately above the items to which they refer. 6. Check your answer key.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 73 www.brainybetty.com
  • PACKAGING THE TEST 7. Determine how students record answers. 8. Provide space for name and date. 9. Check test directions. 10. Proofread the test. 11. Avoid gender and racial bias.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 74 www.brainybetty.com
  • Thank you.2/5/2013 copyright 2006 75 www.brainybetty.com