652 visual impairment presentation (2)


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652 visual impairment presentation (2)

  1. 1. Developing 20/20 Foresight<br />A Resource Guide for Teaching Students with Vision Challenges<br />
  2. 2. Vision and Children<br />
  3. 3. The Facts<br />Vision disorders are the number one childhood disability<br />1 in 4 school age children have vision problems<br />Mentally and multiply disabled children are twice as likely to have vision problems<br />
  4. 4. The Facts<br />Only 1/3 of all children will have an eye exam before entering school<br />60% of students with learning difficulties have undetected vision problems<br />11.5% of teens have undetected/untreated eye problems<br />
  5. 5. 80% of all learning in the first 12 years is through vision<br />
  6. 6. How We See<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8. Common Vision Problems<br />
  9. 9. Hyperopia(Far-Sighted)<br />Can see objects farther away (ie blackboard), but not close up (ie. reading texts)<br />Affects 10% of population<br />Children tend to grow out of it naturally (50%)<br />Eyeball is too short<br />
  10. 10. Myopia(Near-Sighted)<br />Can see objects up close, but not far away<br />25% of population<br />More common in girls at adolescence<br />Kids who read books early tend to develop myopia<br />Eyeball is too long<br />
  11. 11. Astigmatism<br />Produces images similar to looking at a carnival mirror<br />Caused by a warp in the cornea or lens<br />Can lead to tired eyes, even after 5 minutes of reading<br />
  12. 12. Color Blindness<br />Decreased ability to distinguish between colors <br />Usually genetic cause, but can be brought on through nerve damage<br />Problems with cones cells of the eye leads to color blindness<br />There are many different types of color blindness<br />
  13. 13. Ishihara Plates<br />Readable<br />Unreadable<br />
  14. 14. If detected, vision problems are often corrected with glasses or contact lenses.<br />
  15. 15. But What if They Aren’t?<br />
  16. 16. Warning Signs for Common Vision Problems<br />Headaches with reading and writing<br />Reads below grade level<br />Holds reading material close<br />Tilts head, closes an eye or squints <br />Leaves out small words when reading<br />Easily agitated or low perseverance when reading<br />
  17. 17. Severe vision problems<br />
  18. 18. Blind or Low Vision<br />Legal blindness is defined as 20/200 vision<br />See at 20 feet what most see at 200 (10% normal)<br />90% of legally blind are Low Vision<br />Can range from seeing shadows, to reading the blackboard with special eyewear<br />Complete blindness is helped by visual memory<br />Strength of memory depends on when blindness occurred<br />
  19. 19. What Can Teachers Do?<br />
  20. 20. Strategies - Overview<br />High variation in visual impairments<br />Teacher needs variation in strategies to meet needs of students<br />Some strategies work for all, while others are only useful in specific situations<br />
  21. 21. Strategies - Courtesy<br />Speak to class when entering or leaving room<br />Call the student by name<br />Seat the student away from glaring lights and at the front of the class<br />
  22. 22. Strategies - Courtesy<br />Tactually familiarize the student to the room<br />Orally, let the student know if you need to leave or end a conversation.<br />When communicating, always identify yourself and others who are present.<br />
  23. 23. Strategies - General<br />Provide magnifying devices and screen readers<br />All visual cues must be accompanied by audio cues (describe the microscope and how to handle it)<br />All handouts should be available in large font and Braille<br />Large font is 16-18 point and up, or, enlarge 8.5x11 to 11x17 paper<br />
  24. 24. Strategies - Teaching<br />Spell out all new words<br />Provide an enlarged set of directions for a lesson<br />Use an overhead projector to show instructions<br />Use a sighted narrator or descriptive video (preferable)<br />Describe, in detail, all chalkboard writing<br />Have a sighted student carbon paper their notes<br />
  25. 25. Strategies - Teaching<br />Have 3D models or raised line drawings available <br />Whenever possible, use actual objects <br />Use audiobooks for books<br />Use a monocular or  ’Private Eye’ for long range observations<br />
  26. 26. References<br />Color blindness (2011). Retrieved June 02, 2011, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Color_blindness<br />Statistics supporting children’s comprehensive vision examinations (n.d.). Retrieved June 03, 2011 from <br /> http://www.nvo.com<br />Strategies for teaching students with vision impairments (2005). Retrieved June 02, 2011, from <br /> http://www.as.wvu.edu/~scidis/vision.html<br />Students who are blind or have low vision (2011). Retrieved June 03, 2011, from <br /> http://library.queensu.ca/websrs/faculty_guide-Strategies-Blind.html<br />Symptoms checklist: Vision quiz to identify signs of vision-based learning problems (n.d.). Retrieved June 03, <br /> 2011, from http://www.childrensvision.com/symptoms.htm<br />The need for comprehensive vision examination of preschool and school-age children (n.d.). Retrieved June 01, <br /> 2011, from http://aoa.org/x5419.xml<br />Goodrich, J. (2004). How to improve your child’s eyesight naturally: a thoughtful parent’s guide. Rochester, VT: <br /> Healing Arts Press.<br />