Thelma Newsom, The Importance Of Infant Screening, Final Project Due 12 10 09 For Cfs 294 At Wku


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Fall 2009

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Thelma Newsom, The Importance Of Infant Screening, Final Project Due 12 10 09 For Cfs 294 At Wku

  1. 1. The Importance of Infant Screening<br />Produced as a class project at WKU for CFS 294 - Fall, 2009<br />By Thelma Newsom<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. What is the importance of Infant Screening? <br />There are many reasons for infant screenings!<br />
  4. 4. What is Infant screening?<br />Relatively quick preliminary evaluation <br />Used to determine if a child should be referred for more in-depth assessment<br />practice of testing every newborn for certain harmful or potentially fatal disorders that aren&apos;t otherwise apparent at birth<br />
  5. 5. Efficiency is the Drawback of Infant Screenings<br />Full evaluations are costly in terms of time and money<br />Screening tools are less accurate than follow-up assessment<br />Overlooks many children who might benefit from special services<br />
  6. 6. Reasons you may be concerned about your baby’s growth or development<br /><ul><li>No improvement in head control
  7. 7. No attempts to lift the head when laying facedown
  8. 8. Extreme floppiness
  9. 9. Lack of response to sounds or visual cues, such as loud noises or bright lights
  10. 10. Inability to focus on a caregiver’s eyes
  11. 11. Poor weight gain</li></ul>Every baby is different but your instincts can be right!!<br />
  12. 12. Why do we use a trained professional to screen infants?<br />Trained observation of strengths<br />and weaknesses of each child!!<br />
  13. 13. A Trained professional……….<br />Will offer several types of screening for your infant at their well baby routine visits. They can screen for problems with health, vision, hearing, and development. <br />
  14. 14. What types of screenings are there<br />1.) Developmental Screenings<br />2.) Hearing and Vision Screenings<br />3.) Health Screenings<br />
  15. 15. At What age is your child screened<br />Age for well baby check-ups<br />Age for hearing screenings<br /><ul><li>Birth
  16. 16. 2 months
  17. 17. 4 months
  18. 18. 6 months
  19. 19. 12 months
  20. 20. 15 months
  21. 21. 18 months
  22. 22. 18 months
  23. 23. or earlier if child has ear infections</li></li></ul><li>Some routine tests are……<br /><ul><li>Phenylketonuria (PKU)
  24. 24. Galactosemia
  25. 25. Sickle-cell anemia
  26. 26. Thyroid defiency or Neonatal Hypothyroidism
  27. 27. APGAR
  28. 28. Cystic fibrosis
  29. 29. Glucose – 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
  30. 30. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  31. 31. Human immunodefiency disease (HIV)</li></ul>Blood is collected from a heel stick and repeated in two weeks for some of these tests<br />babies are given a clean bill of health, early diagnosis and proper treatment can make the difference between lifelong impairment and healthy development.<br />
  32. 32. What are Developmental Screenings?<br />
  33. 33. Developmental Screening?<br />Early recognition of any developmental concerns will help an infant grow up in the most superlative growing experience possible. <br />
  34. 34. Developmental Screenings………<br />Use of growth charts and national guidelines to compare how the infant ranks in comparison to other infants their age group<br />Social/Emotional evaluations<br />Language evaluations<br />Fine motor skills<br />Gross motor skills<br />
  35. 35. Social Emotional evaluations….<br /><ul><li>Show how well a child interacts with others
  36. 36. Can take care of his or her own needs
  37. 37. Regulates his or her emotions and behaviors</li></li></ul><li>Language evaluations……..<br /><ul><li>How well a child listens to language
  38. 38. How well a child responds to language
  39. 39. How well they use vocabulary and grammar
  40. 40. shows interest in books, prints, music and his or her surroundings</li></li></ul><li>Speech milestones from birth<br />By the end of three months:<br /><ul><li>Smile when you appear
  41. 41. Startle upon hearing loud sounds
  42. 42. Make “cooing” sounds
  43. 43. Quiet or smile when spoken to
  44. 44. Seem to recognize your voice
  45. 45. Cry differently for different needs</li></li></ul><li>Speech milestones from birth<br />By the end of six months:<br /><ul><li>Make gurgling sounds when playing with you or left alone
  46. 46. Babble repetitive syllables, such as “ba,ba,ba”
  47. 47. Use his or her voice to express pleasure and displeasure
  48. 48. Move his or her eyes in the direction of sounds
  49. 49. Respond to changes in the tone of your voice
  50. 50. Notice that some toys make sounds
  51. 51. Pay attention to music</li></li></ul><li>Speech milestones from birth<br />By the end of twelve months:<br /><ul><li>Try to imitate words
  52. 52. Say a few words, such as “dada,” “mama” and “uh-oh”
  53. 53. Understand simple instructions, such as “Please drink your milk”
  54. 54. Understand “No”
  55. 55. Turn and look in the direction of sounds</li></li></ul><li>Speech milestones from birth<br />By the end of eighteen months:<br /><ul><li>Point to an object or picture when it’s named
  56. 56. Recognize names of familiar people, objects and body parts
  57. 57. Follow simple directions accompanied by gestures
  58. 58. Say up to ten words</li></li></ul><li>Speech Milestones from birth<br />By the end of twenty-four months:<br /><ul><li>Ask for common foods by name
  59. 59. Use simple phrases, such as “more milk”
  60. 60. Begin to use pronouns, such as ‘mine”
  61. 61. Ask one to- to two-word questions, such as “go bye-bye?”
  62. 62. Follow simple commands without the help of gestures
  63. 63. Say more words every month
  64. 64. Speak 50 words and understand more
  65. 65. Be difficult to understand</li></li></ul><li>Signs of potential distress or deviations from expected findings<br /><ul><li>Cleft lip or cleft palate
  66. 66. Circumoral pallor
  67. 67. Lip movement asymmetrical
  68. 68. Reflexes absent or incomplete
  69. 69. Protruding tongue</li></li></ul><li>Fine motor/ adaptive skills<br /><ul><li>Child’s ability to use small muscle’s
  70. 70. Ability to use hand eye coordination movements
  71. 71. Problem solve</li></li></ul><li>Gross motor skills……..<br />Is the child’s ability to use his or her large muscles (rolling over, sitting, jumping)<br />
  72. 72. How you cAn support developmental screenings?<br />Sharing information with your child’s health care professional<br />Asking about any concerns you may have<br />Following recommendations you may have<br />Scheduling additional evaluations<br />
  73. 73. Hearing and vision screenings…<br />Identify hearing and vision deficits that may interfere with development and learning <br />Must be detected and treated very early <br />
  74. 74. Eyes<br />Expected findings<br /> Slate gray or blue eye colorNo tearsFixation at times - with ability to follow objects to midlineRed reflexBlink reflexDistinct eyebrowsCornea bright and shinyPupils equal and reactive to light<br />
  75. 75. Should I Request Additional Tests?<br />Why Should I Request Additional Tests?<br />If you have a family history of an inherited disorder?<br />Have you previously given birth to a child who&apos;s affected by a disorder?<br />Did an infant in your family die because of a suspected metabolic disorder?<br />Do you have another reason to believe that your child may be at risk for a certain condition?<br />
  76. 76. Health screenings……….<br />Usually take place as a well child check-up<br />Child care professional weighs and measure your child (length weight and head circumference)<br />Head to toe exam<br />Asks about illnesses and healthy habits<br />Ensures child’s immunizations are up to date<br />Administer vaccinations<br />
  77. 77. What do they mean by baby measurements?<br />Head to toe exam:<br /><ul><li>Head
  78. 78. Ears
  79. 79. Eyes
  80. 80. Mouth
  81. 81. Skin
  82. 82. Heart and lungs
  83. 83. Abdomen
  84. 84. Hips and legs
  85. 85. Genitalia</li></li></ul><li>Vital Signs<br />Temperature - range 36.5 to 37 axillary<br />Common variations<br />Crying may elevate temperatureStabilizes in 8 to 10 hours after delivery<br />Signs of potential distress or deviations from expected findings<br />Temperature is not reliable indicator of infectionA temperature less than 36.5 <br />
  86. 86. Vital Signs<br />Heart rate - range 120 to 160 beats per minute <br />Common variations<br />Heart rate range to 100 when sleeping to 180 when cryingColor pink with acrocyanosisHeart rate may be irregular with crying<br />Signs of potential distress or deviations from expected findings<br />Although murmurs may be due to transitional circulation-all murmursshould be followed-up and referred for medical evaluationDeviation from rangeFaint sound <br />
  87. 87. Vital signs con’t……<br />Respiration - range 30 to 60 breaths per minute<br />Common variations<br />Bilateral bronchial breath soundsMoist breath sounds may be present shortly after birth <br />Signs of potential distress or deviations from expected findings<br />
  88. 88. Vital signs con’t……<br /> Asymmetrical chest movementsApnea &gt;15 secondsDiminished breath soundsSeesaw respirationsGruntingNasal flaringRetractionsDeep sighingTachypnea - respirations &gt; 60Persistent irregular breathingExcessive mucusPersistant fine cracklesStridor<br />
  89. 89. General growth guidelines for your baby:<br />a baby may grow 1/2 to 1 inch a month and <br />gain 5 to 7 ounces a week. <br />Expect your baby to double his or her birth weight by ages 5 to 6 months.<br />Birth to 6 months<br />
  90. 90. General growth guidelines for your baby:<br />a baby may grow 3/8 inch a month <br /> gain 3 to 5 ounces a week. <br />Expect your baby to double his or her birth height and triple his or her birth weight by age 1.<br />6 to 12 months<br />
  91. 91. A list of Childhood vaccinations<br />AGE<br />Vaccine<br />Birth-2 months<br />1-4 months<br />2 months<br />4 months<br />6 months<br />6-18 months<br />12-15 months<br />15-18 months<br />24 months-18 years<br />Hepatitis B<br />Hepatitis B<br />DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV<br />DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV<br />DTaP, Hib, PCV<br />Hepatitis B, IPV<br />Hib, MMR, PCV<br />DTaP<br />Hepatitis A (in select areas)<br />
  92. 92. You can help your baby by:<br /><ul><li>-holding your baby
  93. 93. Offer nutritious foods
  94. 94. -provide physical activities for your child
  95. 95. -schedule resting periods within your daily routine
  96. 96. -plan time to spend together to read, sing, talk, and play to support your child’s brain development</li></li></ul><li>Right click and highlight on one of the links below to access a website that will allow you to plot your own child’s growth chart<br /><br /><br />
  97. 97. The Importance of Infant Screenings!!!!!<br />Produced as a class project at WKU for CFS 294 - Fall, 2009<br />By Thelma Newsom<br />
  98. 98. Bibliography<br />Angela Perry, M. (2001). American Medical Association Guide to Talking to Your Doctor. New York, Chichester, Weinheim, Brisbane, Singapore, Toronto: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. .<br /> <br />Daniel Rauch, M. F. (2009, May 11). MedLine Plus. Retrieved December 2009, from<br /> <br />Driscoll, A., & Nagel, N. G. (2008). Early Childhood Education, Birth-8 (4th edition ed.). Boston, New York, San Francisco: Pearson and AB.<br /> <br />Howard, V. F., Williams, B. F., & Lepper, C. (2005). Very Young Children with Special Needs (3rd edition ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey; Columbus, Ohio: Pearson, Merrill Prentice Hall.<br /> <br />Jay L. Hoecker, M. (n.d.). Retrieved December 2009, from Mayo Clinic:<br /> <br /> (2009). Retrieved December 2009, from The Nemours Foundation.<br />National Center on Birth defects and Developmental Disabilities. (2005, September 20). Retrieved December 2009, from National Center on Birth defects and Developmental Disabilities:<br /> <br />Resick, L. K. (1996). CCIT staff, Duquesne University. Retrieved December 2009, from<br />