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Bpa presentation

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BPA Exposure - Correlation to Prostate Cancer

BPA Exposure - Correlation to Prostate Cancer

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  • 1. Bisphenol A exposure and Prostate Cancer Lauren Miller, Angie Moss, Michael Wallingford, Pamela
  • 2. What is Bisphenol A?  Bisphenol A has been in use for about fifty years in the industrialized world.  Industrial chemical used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics.  Frequently used in food and beverage containers  Inner liners of metallic food and beverage containers to prevent corrosion  Used on thermal papers like cash register and ATM receipts
  • 3. Hazard Assessment: MSDS (Sigma Aldrich) 4, 4’ – Isopropylidenediphenol (C15H16O2) Health risk: 3* (*additional chronic hazards present) Exposure controls: Engineering: mechanical exhaust required PPE: Respirator, chemical gloves, safety googles, other protective clothing Toxicological Information: “To the best of our knowledge, the chemical, physical, and toxicological properties have not been thoroughly investigated. Environmental Information: Indication of bioaccumulation
  • 4. Regulatory/Legal  Superfunds Amendments and Reauthorization Act, Section 313- BPA manufacturers must submit an annual toxic chemical release report  Listed as an irritant in the EU and US according to MSDS
  • 5. BPA Exposures  Primary exposure is via ingestion  BPA migrates from food/beverage containers  Migration is increased when container is heated  Other possible routes are inhalation and dermal migration  Exposure is widespread; more than 90% of Americans have been exposed to bisphenol a at some point.
  • 6. Hazard Assessment: Estimated BPA exposures (National Toxicology Program) Population BPA micrograms/kg bw/day Infant 0-6months formula fed 1-11 Infant 0-6months breast fed 0.2-1 Infant 6-12 months 1.65-13 Child 1.5-6 years 0.043-14.7 Adult- General Population 0.008 Adult- Occupational 0.043-100
  • 7. Regulatory/Legal: European Union  The EU currently has suggested a temporary tolerable daily intake of 5μg/kg bw/day pending further study results, a drop from the previous TDI of 50μg/kg bw/day.  European Food Safety Administration believes health risk for all population group is low because “estimates for...exposure...are 3-5 times lower than the proposed t- TDI”
  • 8. Regulatory/Legal: United States  No current TDI as defined by the FDA- current assessment is that BPA is safe at “the very low levels that occur in some foods”  Some studies have been initiated by the National Center for Toxicological Research; findings will be published in peer-reviewed scientific literature.  Have published a rule amending food additive regulations to no longer provide for the use of BPA based epoxy resins as coatings in infant formula packaging because this use has been abandoned. (2013)
  • 9. Regulatory/Legal: States  California, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York, Iowa, Minnesota, Connecticut, and Wisconsin have banned BPA in all baby bottles and sippy cups.  Washington and Vermont have both banned it in all sports bottles, reusable food/beverage containers, as well as baby bottles and sippy cups  Colorado vetoed House Bill 12-1174 in February 2012, which proposed to ban BPA in baby bottles and sippy cups.
  • 10. Risk Characterization
  • 11. Prostate Cancer  Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer- related death in U.S. men  Approximately 15% of men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer in their lifetime  With the 1987 introduction of prostate-specific antigen testing, the newly enhanced ability to diagnose the disease caused incidence to spike to 240 age-adjusted cases per 100,000 men by 1992. After this “catch-up” period rates dropped for three years, but are now back on the rise. •Previous research has linked elevated estrogen levels during pregnancy to increased risk of prostate cancer in males.
  • 12. Prostate Cancer  BPA is a suspected endocrine disruptor  Acts by interfering with the biosynthesis, secretion, action or metabolism of naturally occurring hormones.  In animal models, estrogens can drive carcinogenesis of the prostate and have long been suspected of playing a role in human prostate cancer  Scientists have hypothesized that prenatal exposure to estrogen-like compounds including BPA may account for recent increases in the rates of prostate cancer.
  • 13. Study Published in Public Library of Science  Focus on observations in this study – Exposure to BPA Correlates with Early-Onset Prostate Cancer and Promotes Centrosome Amplification and Anchorage- Independent Growth in Vitro  Breakdown  Centrosome Amplification is when there are two or more centromeres/centromere defect  Anchorage-Independent Growth is when cells grow exponentially/out of control  Seemed to make use of viable scientific research methods specific for their hypothesis  Recognized it’s limits because there are limits
  • 14. Centromere is key to proper cell division  Centromeres have a dynamic and specialized functional regions  Centromere region is where sister chromatids are attached  During mitosis/cell division spindle poles will adhere to the centromere region Centromeres: Chromosomal Regions Essential to Mitosis/Cell Division
  • 15. Mitosis
  • 16. Possible Cancerous Cells Centromere Defect
  • 17. Study Hypothesizes  Urinary BPA levels may be associated with prostate cancer and may have a prognostic value  BPA exposure can disrupt mitosis/cell division; specifically affecting the centromere region causing some cells to have improper coding  Proposed that if there is exposure early in life to an estrogenic compound- BPA- it may reprograms stem cells  Proposed this study could be an addition to the growing field of epigenetics, linking this chemical to altered DNA in fetuses and the potential for later life disease
  • 18. Limits within the study  Research was done with cell based model studies and cannot be extrapolated to humans  Data observed should not be considered conclusive but rather seen as preliminary findings  Obviously, important to replicate study results and ultimately long term human studies need to be done
  • 19. Observed Effects on Centromere Regions  Numbers of centromeres were scored using fluorescence microscopy  Observed increase in abnormal centromeres in cells exposed to the BPA  Conclusion  Low doses of BPA promoted centrosome amplification/altering of the centromere and causing adverse effects thus may play a long term role in prostate carcinogenesis
  • 20. Urinary BPA Levels May show Correlation with Prostate Cancer  Stratified analyses showed the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate Cancer was highly significant among patients < 65 and that it was not significant for those >65. Perplexing and at face value this suggests that higher BPA exposure is associated with earlier onset of Prostate Cancer. However, based on theory of epigenetics the findings do raise the possibility of early life reprogramming of prostate cancer in humans
  • 21. BPA Exposure correlated with Prostate Carcinogenesis Chronic BPA exposure promotes independent abnormal growth in cells Representative of colonies after 2 weeks incubation Cells with the BPA exposure formed larger colonies compared with those grown in absence of BPA
  • 22. American Chemistry Council  News Release  For Immediate Release - Washington (Jan. 6, 2014)  STUDY CLAIMING INCREASED PROSTATE CANCER RISK FROM BPA EXPOSURE IS NOT SUPPORTED BY RELIABLE HUMAN EXPOSURE DATA  “The weight of scientific evidence on BPA has been extensively evaluated by government and scientific bodies around the world, which have declared it safe as used in food contact materials.”
  • 23. Concerns Observed in the Available Research  The effects of low-dose exposure to BPA in lab animals (done in determining affect on estrogen levels) are not always reproducible.  Need to exercise caution when extrapolating these findings to humans; the study was derived from animal studies and cell based models.  How could an analogous study on men be done?  To obtain results of early exposure to BPA and it’s relation to prostate cancer would take 50 plus years  More research is needed- but does this justify holding out on a ban on BPA?
  • 24. References  Bienkowski, Brian. "BPA Exposure Linked to Prostate Cancer." Scientific American Global RSS. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/bpa-exposure- linked-to-prostate-cancer/>.  "Bisphenol A." EFSA Topic:. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/topics/topic/bisphenol.htm>.  "Bisphenol A (BPA) Action Plan Summary | Existing Chemicals | OPPT | US EPA." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/actionplans/bpa.html>.  "Bisphenol A Action Plan." EPA Existing Chemicals. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2010. <http://www.epa.gov/oppt/existingchemicals/pubs/actionplans/bpa_action_plan.pdf>.  "Bisphenol-A." Toxics in Our Lives:. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.saferstates.com/toxics_in_our_lives/chemicals_of_concern/BPA.html>.  "Colorado lawmaker proposes BPAÂ ban." KDVRcom. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://kdvr.com/2012/02/20/colorado-lawmaker-proposes-bpa-ban/>.  "Exposure to Bisphenol A Correlates with Early-Onset Prostate Cancer and Promotes Centrosome Amplification and Anchorage-Independent Growth In Vitro." PLOS DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090332 (2014): 1-8. Print.
  • 25. References  "Food." FDA Regulations No Longer Authorize the Use of BPA in Infant Formula Packaging Based on Abandonment; Decision Not Based on Safety. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.fda.gov/Food/NewsEvents/ConstituentUpdates/ucm360147.htm>.  "Google." Google. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2014. <http://www.google.com/search?client=safari&rls=en&q=lowdosepeerfinalrpt-2.pdf&ie=UTF- 8&oe=UTF-8>.  "News & Events." Bisphenol A (BPA): Use in Food Contact Application. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.fda.gov/newsevents/publichealthfocus/ucm064437.htm>.  "Oncocytic Renal Neoplasms A Molecular Approach To A Common ...." Eureka Alert. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.readanybook.com/oncocytic-renal-neoplasms-a-molecular- approach-to-a-common-diagnostic-challenge-famonzon-et-all-pathology-case-reviews-2010- pdf-i226647>.  "Prostate Cancer Risk From BPA Exposure Is Not Supported By Reliable Human Exposure Data." Prostate Cancer Risk From BPA Exposure Is Not Supported By Reliable Human Exposure Data. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Apr. 2014. <http://www.americanchemistry.com/media/pressreleasestranscripts/acc-news- releases/prostate-cancer-risk-from-bpa-exposure-is-not-supported-by-reliable-human-exposure- data.html>.