Lesson 3: Rizal’s Early Years• Rizal: Life and Works• As we have seen, many of the historians highlight the family’s exceptional religiousness and moral rectitude, and liberally attribute to these influences Rizal’s almost superhuman character. Zaide’s account of his boyhood• His was a happy home, filled with parental affection,
impregnated with family joys, and sanctified by prayers.• In the midst of such peaceful, refined, God-loving family, he spent the early years of his childhood.• The beauties of Calamba impressed him as a growing child and deeply influenced his mind and character.Osias, emphasize onthe role of religion…• It became natural for Jose to love the Christian life and to be religious. It was part of his inheritance. Religion was an important element in his
early training.• Being religious was one of the salient and fine qualities, even a dominant one, which made up the typical inheritance of the times. Osias attributed hisbeing religious to his mother Teodora.• The parents were determined to raise the boy to become strong in body, mind, and spirit. The Spartan mother wanted her beloved Jose to become a man who would be loyal to his duties and to do
nothing that would bring sorrow and remose to her heart. Furthermore, she was anxious that he would become not only an ordinary Christian, but a good and true Christian. Coates also acknowledgesTeodora’s influenceon Rizal’s religious character• The tow influences from his home which were most deeply to affect his life were interrelated:
• respect for religion and the morality it enjoined, and • respect for truth.• It was a piece of exceptional good fortune for the boy that when much of the Catholicism of the Philippines was medievally superstitious he was nurtured in religion by his mother who approached it in a rational way. Ma. Guerero notes that…• The family would pray the Rosary every night. When he was sent to Biñan, Jose hear
Mass every day, usually at four o’clock in the morning, and so he records, “went often to the chapel of Our Lady of Peace.”The family rules and regulations• Their daily lives were governed by an adherence to correctness of behavior and demeanor. Coates narration…• Quarrelling, noise, gossip and idle chatter were taboo.• The slightest display of bad temper or dissatisfaction
would be met with a gentle but pointed reprimand.• Perfect table manners and perfect deportment were the rule.• Anyone seen slouching would be told at once to pull themselves up, while every skirt, even of the youngest girls, had to come down to the heel, and skirts so arranged that ankles did not show, even with the young ladies were seated. Adherence to the truth…
• If there was one thing Teodora Alonso and her husband disliked more than gossip, it was lies.• Telling the truth was a tradition on both sides of the family.• Rizal was brought up in a home which was completely devoid of deceptions.• If the children asked some inconvenient question, Francisco Mercado, rather than telling half-truth, would keep silent; in due course the question would answer itself.
The formation of character• In the earlier slides we have already seen how different historians attribute Rizal’s exceptional character and intelligence to his parents especially to his mother.• At this point we begin to see the historians’ attempt to create for us a confluence of extraordinary circumstances surrounding Rizal that would later be responsible for his own exceptional being.
• While in conduct he derived much from his father, his ideas and intellectual development were more influenced by his mother, who were the more learned of the two. Fernandez concludes…• Such was the intellectual and moral climate in which the personality of Jose was develop– an atmosphere of work, seriousness, devotion to duty, piety and rigor.• The Rizal family—was closely knit unit without fissures, in
which the spirit of solidarity was of primary importance, and the striving for culture was the leitmotive of the home. The overview of Hero’s education pattern…• Rizal’s first education received from his mother,• his first lessons from another teacher,• his trip Biñan to further his education, and his unhappiness there,• the traumatic effect on the
family brought about by his mother’s imprisonment• his schooling in Manila.• Most historians do not fail to mention the anxiety brought about by separation that Rizal felt when he left Calamba for the first time for his early schooling in BiñanLearning that last a lifetime…• Francisco and Teodora hired a private tutor for Jose. • In Calamba he learned how to write. It is sad that his father paid an old man to teach him
the elements of Latin. These classes, however, lasted only five months owing to the death of the old man. (Fernandez). From tutorial toformal education…• He went to school in Calamba, but after a short time it was clear that he had leaned all there was to learn form his teacher there. This having been verified by Francisco, the boy was made to stop going to school. He was at the time seven yeas old. (Fernadez)
• When he was nine, his private tutor died in the meantime, he was take by Paciano to Biñan one Sunday; he would lodge in an Aunt’s house ther e and continue to his studies in a private school.• He was not to stay there very long; it would not be enjoyable at all.• He did not like the town; it struck him of being ‘large and rich, but ugly and dismal’• Nor was he particularly fond of his schoolmaster, Justiniano Aquino Cruz.
Justiniano Aquino Cruz• Momorization was the method used in teaching, and extreme severity was ther rule, according to Rizal. The lessons were interspersed with the blows with the palmeta.• Jose’s reaction to all these punishments was one of intense resentment.• He felt humiliated and humbled, but resigned himself in order to learn and thus carry out his father’s
will. Jesuits’ influences• He had been subjected thereafter to one of the world’s most thorough and gripping systems of indoctrination, the Jesuit ratio, studiorum, under tight and constant discipline, with every incentive of competition and reward.• Few students of the Jesuits ever outgrow their affection, trust and instinctive deference to these superb teachers. (Ma. Guerero) Boy genius…
• Rizal paid attention to the lessons that his sisters received from their tutors. This great diligence was not forced on him by his mother. (Fernandez)• Jose mastered his alphabet when he was three years old, and before he was five could read Spanish version of Vugate from which his mother had taught him at her knee. (Russel and Rodriguez)• He liked to read, or be read to; he liked at times to be alone; he liked to hear his
elders argue; he liked to go to church to see the people there; he liked to reason.Beyond limitation…• In his earliest childhood he seemed undersized and undervitalized; but when he was six years old there came to his father’s house his uncle Manuel, a figure of health and a resolute practitioner of open-air sports, who took Jose in hand and with daily exercises and rigorous living built his body to normal strength and agility.
Physical Education Coats’ version of story…• In the same year, when he was six, an uncle who was an exponent of the then little-understood science of physical culture came to stay with the family at Calamba.• Seeing how pale and delicate the boy was, the uncle insisted on young Jose coming with him on walks, taught him to ride a horse and to swim, and the importance of taking such
exercise regularly. Health and illnesses…• The physical condition of Jose Rizal left much to be desired. Not only he was short, he was also underweight. He was often plagued with fever, and this debilitated him very much.• Although he himself does not specify the nature of those spells of fever, it seems reasonable to describe them as malarial, since they were recurrent.
Melancholy…• Rizal had certain tendency toward depression. Of this we shall give more proof as we go through the ricg and colorful images in the kaleidoscope of his life.• From Biarritz, he wrote to Blumentritt, his wailing wall, on the eve of his departure, saying that were it not for his great faith in God he would have committed a great folly. (Fernandez)