DNA vs. RNA
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DNA vs. RNA

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About the types RNA, codons, polypeptides, and the difference between DNA and RNA.

About the types RNA, codons, polypeptides, and the difference between DNA and RNA.

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DNA vs. RNA Presentation Transcript

  • 1. DNA vs RNA
    • By GBPO
  • 2. What is RNA?
    • Nucleic acid involved in putting genetic code into action
    • long chain of nucleotides
    • Copied base sequence of DNA that directs protein synthesis
  • 3. Functions of RNA
    • Involved only in protein synthesis
    • Controls assembly of amino acids into proteins
  • 4. Messenger RNA
    • Holds copy of original DNA segment
    • Carries copy to other parts of the cell
  • 5. Ribosomal RNA
    • Make up the two subunits of ribosomes
  • 6. Transfer RNA
    • Carries amino acids to ribosomes as specified
  • 7. Review so Far
    • RNA found in nucleus
    • Basically throw-away DNA copy that puts DNA code to work
    • Three kinds
      • mRNA
      • tRNA
      • rRNA
  • 8. Polypeptides
    • Proteins are made by joining amino acids in long chains
    • Only certain polypeptides make up certain amino acids.
    • Order they are joined determines properties of the different proteins.
  • 9. Codons
    • group of three nucleotide bases in mRNA
    • Specify amino acid needed for protein
    • In decoding genetic messages the DNA needs to be converted into a strand of RNA that is used to make proteins.
  • 10. Codons and Polypeptides
    • The order of amino acids and the function determine shape.
    • A codon is a three-letter “word” in mRNA that stands for a certain amino acid.
      • ATG makes one needed for blonde hair
  • 11. Codons and Polypeptides
    • Almost all amino acids can be specified by more than one codon
    • All polypeptide sequences start with the AUG codon (methionine) but certain codons end, or terminate, that chain
  • 12. DNA vs. RNA
  • 13. DNA vs. RNA
    • Sugar
      • DNA: deoxyribose
      • RNA: ribose
    • Bases
      • RNA: Adenine, Uracil, Cytosine, Guanine
      • DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine, Guanine
  • 14. DNA vs. RNA
    • Roles:
      • DNA: Holds codes for proteins
      • RNA: Puts codes into action
    • RNA: single stranded
    • DNA: double stranded