Perception and the Self inInterpersonal Communication Chapter 3 Angell’ Beswetherick
The Self in Interpersonal Communication Self-Concept – The way you see yourself. http://bahaicoherence.blogspot.com/2009/11/self-identity.html
The Self in Interpersonal CommunicationSources of Self-Concept: Others’ images – How significant others see you. Social Comparisons – How you compare to your peers. Cultural Teachings – How you fulfill the teachings of your culture. Self-Evaluations – How you evaluate your own feelings and behavior.
The Self in Interpersonal Communication Self-Awareness – How well you know yourself. The more you understand about why you view yourself the way you do – the more you will understand who you are. Using the Johari model, additional insight can be gained for self-awareness.
The Johari Window -The Four Selves- Known to Self Not Known to Self OPEN SELF Blind SelfKnown to Information about yourself that Information about yourself that Others you and others know others know but you don’t knowNot Known Hidden Self Unknown Self Information about yourself that Information about yourself thatto Others you know but others don’t know neither you nor others know
The Self in Interpersonal Communication5 ways you can increase your self-awareness Ask yourself about yourself. Honestly answer yourself about who you are, good and bad. Listen to others. Pay attention to what others are saying about you, verbally and non-verbally. Actively seek information about yourself.Ask others about you. Not by being too forward, but asking questions such as “Do you think I am a pushover with my children?” See your different selves. Visualize how you’re seen by others (your mom, dad, children, husband/wife, boss, your kids friends, etc.) Increase your open self. You may find connections that you had missed before. You will also likely increase meaningful, intimate dialogue which will help you know yourself better.
The Self in Interpersonal Communication Self-Esteem – The measure of how valuable you think you are. High self-esteem = think highly of yourselfLow self-esteem = usually think negatively of yourselfUsually, the better self-esteem you have, the better you feel about yourself. This in turn, generally, means you’ll perform better. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/making- change/200910/how-high-self-esteem-can-get- us-down
The Self in Interpersonal Communication5 ways to increase self-esteem Attack self-destructive beliefs.Get rid of those unrealistic expectations you have set for yourself or ideas that are unproductive. Like being perfect, or having to please others. Seek out nourishing people. Be around people that are positive and optimistic. Work on projects that will result in success. Don’t set yourself up for failing. Remind yourself of your successes.Don’t focus solely on failures or negative experiences. Think of the successes and learn from the failed experiences. Secure Affirmation. Remind yourself that “I am”, “I can”, and “I will”.
Assignment #1Choose 3 of the following, find pictures that represent these and post on Tumblr. Make sure you label each picture with what it represents and your name. 1. Self-Concept 4. Open self 2. Self-Awareness 5. Hidden self 3. Blind self 6. Unknown self
Assignment #2Watch the following video on YouTube. http://youtu.be/Z-Ji8zrtrIwAnswer the following questions and answer on the Discussion Board.Also reply to one other classmates post. 1. According to the video above, what did Jim Clark experience as a child that lowered his self esteem? 2. What do you think turned around his self- esteem and how he then became successful?
Perception in Interpersonal Communication Perception – The process in which you become aware of objects, events, and especially people through senses (sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing). Perceptions result from your own experiences, desires, needs and wants, loves and hatreds.Why is perception so important in Interpersonal Communication? It influences communication choices because it depends on how you see the world or how you see yourself to determine the message you send out or what you listen to.
Perception in Interpersonal Communication The 5 Stages of PerceptionStage One: Stimulation – Your senses are stimulated. (smell, taste, feel, see, or hear)Stage Two: Organization – Organize the information that your senses pick up. They can be organized in 3 ways. Rules – Proximity, similarity, or contrast. Schemata ScriptsStage Three: Interpretation–Evaluation – Influenced by your experiences, needs, wants, values, beliefs, expectations, etc.Stage Four: Memory – Your perceptions and interpretations- evaluations are put into memory until retrieved later.Stage Five: Recall – Accessing the information that you stored into memory.
Impression Formation Impression Formation – AKA Person Perception. You go through a variety of processes to form an impression of another person. http://www.straitstimes.com
Impression FormationThe 6 Processes in Impression Formation Self-Fulfilling Prophecy – a prediction that comes true because you act on it as if it were. Implicit Personality Theory – The system of rules that tell you which characteristics go together. Perceptual Accentuation – Leads you to see what you expect or want to see. Primacy-Recency – The first impression is most influential (Primacy). Or the last impression is most influential (Recency). Consistency – Maintaining balance between perceptions and attitudes. Attribution of Control – The positive or negative impression we get from the actions of others. Self- Serving Bias – Taking credit for the positive and denying responsibility for the negative. Example: I got an A! (saying it’s you that earned it). The teacher gave me a D! (The teacher did it, not you!) Overattribution - Attributing everything about a person to specific characteristics. Example: Sara his lazy because she’s never had to work for anything, her parents give her everything. Fundamental Attribution Error – Thinking people do what they do because of the kind of person they are rather than the situation they are in.
Impression Formation4 Ways to Increase Accuracy in Impression Formation • Analyze Impressions o Recognize your own role in perception. o Avoid early conclusions. • Check Perceptions o Describe what you see/hear. o Seek Confirmation. • Reduce Uncertainty • Increase Cultural Sensitivity
Impression Management: Goals and Strategies Impression Management – The processes you go through to communicate the impression that you would like others to have of you. The goal you have is what will determine which strategy you use. Sometimes these can work for you and give the impression that you are wanting to give, but sometimes they can backfire. (Pg. 72)
Impression Management: Goals and StrategiesGoals and Strategies of Impression Management To Be Liked: Immediacy and Affinity-Seeking Strategies. To Be Believed: Credibility Strategies. To Excuse Failure: Self-Handicapping Strategies. To Excuse Failure: Self-Handicapping Strategies. To Secure Help: Self-Deprecating Strategies. To Hide Faults: Self-Monitoring Strategies. To Be Followed: Influencing Strategies. To Confirm Self-Image: Image-Confirming Strategies.
Assignment #3Post a video on the Facebook “like” page that shows one of the Impression Management Goals & Strategies.