The first machine patented in the United States that showed animated pictures or movies was a device called the "wheel of life" or "zoopraxiscope". Patented in 1867 by William Lincoln, moving drawings or photographs were watched through a slit in the zoopraxiscope. However, this was a far cry from motion pictures as we know them today. Modern motion picture making began with the invention of the motion picture camera.
HISTORY OF MOTION PICTURE
The Frenchman Louis Lumiere is often credited as inventing the first motion picture camera in 1895. But in truth, several others had made similar inventions around the same time as Lumiere. What Lumiere invented was a portable motion-picture camera, film processing unit and projector called the Cinematographe, three functions covered in one invention.
The Cinematographe made motion pictures very popular, and it could be better be said that Lumiere's invention began the motion picture era. In 1895, Lumiere and his brother were the first to present projected, moving, photographic, pictures to a paying audience of more that one person.
HISTORY OF MOTION PICTURE
The Lumiere brothers were not the first to project film. In 1891, the Edison company successfully demonstrated the Kinetoscope, which enabled one person at a time to view moving pictures. Later in 1896, Edison showed his improved Vitascope projector and it was the first commercially, successful, projector in the U.S..
" The cinema is an invention without a future " - Louis Lumière
THE NATURE OF MOTION PICTURE Motion Picture, a series of images that are projected onto a screen to create the illusion of motion. Motion pictures—also called movies , films , or the cinema — are one of the most popular forms of entertainment, enabling people to immerse themselves in an imaginary world for a short period of time.
THE NATURE OF MOTION PICTURE
The images that make up a motion picture are all individual photographs. But when they appear rapidly in succession, the human eye does not detect that they are separate images. This results from persistence of vision, a phenomenon whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed. Although we do not experience the images as individual photographs, we do notice the differences between them. The brain then perceives these differences as motion.
THE NATURE OF MOTION PICTURE
Motion pictures are recorded using specially designed cameras that capture the images on rolls of film. After being processed and printed, the film is run through a projector, which shines light through the film so that the images are displayed on a screen. Most movies have accompanying sound.
TYPES OF MOTION PICTURE
There are many types of motion pictures, but the most significant categories are the following:
1. Feature films
2. Animated films,
4. Experimental films
5. Industrial films, and
6. Educational films.
Feature films are the movies most commonly shown in large movie theaters. They typically last at least one and one-half hours and tell a fictional story or a story based on real events but portrayed by actors. The list of prominent feature films is far too long to recount in this article, but some of the best-known include The Birth of a Nation (1914), Metropolis (1926), Citizen Kane (1941), Casablanca (1942), On the Waterfront (1954), The Sound of Music (1965), The Godfather (1972), Star Wars (1977), Gandhi (1982), Jurassic Park (1993), and Titanic (1997).
Animated movies follow the same format as features, but use images created by artists. These films create the illusion of movement from a series of two-dimensional drawings, three-dimensional objects, or computer-generated images. The first animated feature was the German film Die Abenteuer des Prinzen Achmed (The Adventures of Prince Achmed, 1926). Other notable ones include Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937), Dumbo (1941), Sleeping Beauty (1959), Yellow Submarine (1968), Heavy Traffic (1973), the Czech film Neco z Alenky (Alice, 1988), the Japanese film Majo no Takkyubin (Kiki’s Delivery Service, 1989), Beauty and the Beast (1991), and The Lion King (1994). In some films, animated characters interact with human actors, as in Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988).
Another form of film is the documentary, which deals primarily with fact, not fiction. Documentaries do not often appear in theaters, but they are seen regularly on cable and broadcast television. Some well-known documentaries are Nanook of the North (1922), The Silent World (1956), Harlan County, U.S.A. (1976), Eyes on the Prize (1987), and Hoop Dreams (1994).
An experimental film is a sequence of images, literal or abstract, which do not necessarily form a narrative. An experimental film can be animated, live action, computer generated, or a combination of all three. Five noteworthy experimental films are the French film Un Chien Andalou (An Andalusian Dog, 1929), Meshes of the Afternoon (1943), A Movie (1958), Eraserhead (1978), and Privilege (1991).
Industrial films are made by companies that wish to publicize their products or generate a favorable public image.
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Educational films are specifically intended to be shown in classrooms. Their aim is to instruct, on subjects from history to driving skills.
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PEOPLE WHO MAKE A MOTION PICTURE
Many different people contribute their skills and talents to the making of a film. The stars and other actors who appear on the screen are only part of the story; most of those who work on a production do not appear on camera.
( Text taken from http://understandingfilm.wetpaint.com/page/Production+Roles+and+Responsibilities?t=anon)
The producer is responsible for turning a film idea into a successful motion picture. The producer must find money to pay for the production, hire actors and the production team, supervise the production process, and make arrangements for distributing the finished film to theaters.
The Screenwriter (Screenplay)
While the dialogue in a film may seem natural to the viewer, it is carefully crafted by a writer. The screenwriter does far more than provide dialogue for the actors. He or she also shapes the sequence of events in a film to ensure that one scene leads logically to the next and the film tells its story in a logical and interesting way. When using a novel or play as a starting point, the screenwriter inevitably rearranges, adds or eliminates scenes to make sure the final order or sequence of scenes makes sense when presented on the screen. The screenwriter also includes descriptions of settings and often suggests movements or gestures for the actors. Like the producer, the screenwriter’s role is generally overlooked by the movie-going public, yet is essential to the completion of any film. If there is no script, there is no movie.
MULTI-AWARDED PINOY SCREENWRITERS: PETE LACABA & RICKY LEE
The Production Designer or Art Director
Before one inch of film is shot, the production designer is the first artist to translate the script into visual form. He or she creates a series of storyboards that serve as the film’s first draft. A storyboard is a series of sketches, paintings or watercolors arranged on panels to show the visual progression of the story from one scene to the next. The production designer determines the palette of colors to be used and often provides important suggestions about the composition of individual shots. Creating this sketch of the film on storyboards also ensures the visual continuity of the film from start to finish. Storyboards serve as the director’s visual guide throughout the production.
Primarily responsible for overseeing the shooting and assembly of a film.
Directly responsible for the picture’s final appearance. The director is sometimes referred to as the author or auteur of a film because of his or her essential involvement with its creation.
While the director might be compared to a novel’s author as a film’s primary visionary, he or she would not be able to make the film without the help of numerous other artists and technicians…
He works at the center of film production, but is inextricably linked with dozens of other people to get the job done.
PEOPLE WHO MAKE A MOTION PICTURE: The Cinematographer
After the production designer, art director and costume designer have finished their work on the film’s physical elements, the director of photography, or DP, is responsible for capturing their handiwork on celluloid. The DP is an expert in photographic processes, lighting and the camera’s technical capabilities. When the director wants a shot to achieve certain visual or atmospheric qualities, the DP achieves it through his or her choice of lighting, film stock and careful manipulation of the camera. During shooting, the director and cinematographer work closely to shape each shot, using the storyboards created by the production designer as a guide. This craft is referred to as cinematography.
The Film Editor
Shortly after shooting begins, the editor begins to organize the footage—known as the daily rushes—and arranges individual shots into one continuous sequence. Even in a single scene, dozens of different shots have to be chosen and assembled from hundreds of feet of film. The editor’s choices about which shots to use and the order in which to place them have a profound effect on the appearance of the final film.
The Sound Designer & Composer
Music has been an integral part of movies since their invention in the 1890s. Even the simplest silent films were accompanied by a piano or organ player. The silent movie palaces of the 1920s were equipped with elaborate organs and orchestra pits to accommodate large groups of live musicians. When sound was integrated into the film-making process, music, sound effects and dialogue became essential tools for enhancing a film’s visual qualities. Writing movie music has been a full-time profession since the 1930s and is still a critical component in filmmaking.
For the audience, actors are the most visible and tangible part of the production. While they are obviously essential to any film, they are pieces in a much larger puzzle. Behind every actor is a director guiding his or her performance, a cinematographer creating the perfect light and film exposure, a screenwriter providing plot and dialogue, an art director designing the physical environment and a costume designer providing the proper attire. Considering an actor’s role within this larger context also suggests that his or her job is much more difficult than just appearing on the set and reciting lines.
SEGMENTS IN FILMMAKING PROCESS
Pre-production includes everything required to plan the film and any arrangements that need to be made prior to firing up the camera(s). From visiting locations and getting permission from the owners to use the facility or land if necessary, to script-writing, to storyboarding.
Writing A Script How to write a good script, find your characters' voices, and format it correctly.
Planning and Storyboarding It can be very helpful to your crew if you have solid technical plans for them to work from.
Filming Locations All about finding the right location and securing permission to use it.
On location, production includes setup, teardown, and everything that happens in between. From the moment the cameras start rolling, your set should be well-lit, your mics placed properly, and your camera handled expertly.
After principal filming has been completed, you need to take the raw footage and turn it into a film. This can be the most time-consuming part of the process, but there's lots of knowledge here that will make it easier on you.
Editing is the process of taking the shots and putting them together in a linear way. (http://www.filmmakerschool.com/editing.html)
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