Social interaction and social processes.ppt(diones)


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Social interaction and social processes.ppt(diones)

  1. 1. Social interaction &Social interaction & Social ProcessesSocial Processes
  2. 2. Nature & Approaches to SocialNature & Approaches to Social InteractionInteraction  When 2 or more persons, groupWhen 2 or more persons, group meet, there will be a mutualmeet, there will be a mutual awareness & response betweenawareness & response between them, both verbal & non-verbal.them, both verbal & non-verbal.  Exchange of messages is carriedExchange of messages is carried on through the medium ofon through the medium of language.language.
  3. 3. LanguageLanguage is a system ofis a system of verbal and non-verbalverbal and non-verbal written symbols withwritten symbols with standardized meaningstandardized meaning..
  4. 4.  Non-verbalNon-verbal languagelanguage involves the use ofinvolves the use of written symbolswritten symbols..
  5. 5. Verbal languageVerbal language -involves the use of-involves the use of words or soundwords or sound symbols for things,symbols for things, objects, or ideas.objects, or ideas.
  6. 6.  Social interactionSocial interaction refers to therefers to the mutual inter stimulation &mutual inter stimulation & response between 2 or moreresponse between 2 or more persons and groups throughpersons and groups through symbols, language, gestures, &symbols, language, gestures, & expression of ideas, (PANOPIO,expression of ideas, (PANOPIO, 1997)1997)
  7. 7. 3 situations for social3 situations for social interactioninteraction PersonPerson toto personperson
  8. 8. PersonPerson to-groupto-group
  9. 9. Group-to-groupGroup-to-group
  10. 10. 2 Approaches to Social2 Approaches to Social InteractionInteraction a.a. SymbolicSymbolic interactioninteraction b.b. Functionalist viewFunctionalist view
  11. 11.  Symbolic interactionSymbolic interaction refers to therefers to the communication of thoughts &communication of thoughts & feelings between individuals thatfeelings between individuals that occurs by means of symbol.occurs by means of symbol.
  12. 12. Specific Approaches under SymbolicSpecific Approaches under Symbolic InteractionInteraction 1.1. Definition of the Situation (W.IDefinition of the Situation (W.I Thomas)Thomas) -refers to the sociological-refers to the sociological perspective that views theperspective that views the meaning people attribute to ameaning people attribute to a social setting. This process issocial setting. This process is called “negotiated interaction”called “negotiated interaction”
  13. 13. 2.2. Dramaturgy (Erving Goffman)Dramaturgy (Erving Goffman) -views social interaction as a resembling a-views social interaction as a resembling a theatrical performance in which peopletheatrical performance in which people “stage” their behavior in such a way as to“stage” their behavior in such a way as to elicit the responses they desire from otherelicit the responses they desire from other people.people.
  14. 14. 3.3. Ethno MethodologyEthno Methodology (Harold Garfinkel)(Harold Garfinkel) -studies the procedures-studies the procedures people use to make sensepeople use to make sense of their everyday lives &of their everyday lives & experiencesexperiences
  15. 15. 4.4. Social Exchange (Blau &Social Exchange (Blau & Homans)Homans) -portrays interaction as a-portrays interaction as a more or lessmore or less straightforward &straightforward & rationally calculated seriesrationally calculated series of mutually beneficialof mutually beneficial transactions.transactions.
  16. 16. bb.. Functionalist viewFunctionalist view -human interactions involves-human interactions involves little more than people actinglittle more than people acting out roles (parent, child, worker)out roles (parent, child, worker) based on social script, much asbased on social script, much as theatrical actors take their linestheatrical actors take their lines from a play.from a play.
  17. 17. THE NATURE AND SCOPE OFTHE NATURE AND SCOPE OF SOCIAL PROCESSESSOCIAL PROCESSES 1.1. THE NATURE OF SOCIALTHE NATURE OF SOCIAL PROCESSPROCESS Social ProcessSocial Process – refers to the– refers to the recurrent and patternedrecurrent and patterned interactions or responses ofinteractions or responses of individuals to one anotherindividuals to one another which have attained stability.which have attained stability.
  18. 18. 2.2. CLASSIFICATION OF SOCIALCLASSIFICATION OF SOCIAL PROCESSPROCESS a.a. Based on FormationBased on Formation 1. Universal or basic processes1. Universal or basic processes 2. Derived social processes2. Derived social processes b.b. Based on unity or oppositionBased on unity or opposition 1. Conjunctive social processes1. Conjunctive social processes 2. Disjunctive social processes2. Disjunctive social processes
  19. 19. BASED ON FORMATIONBASED ON FORMATION 1.1. Basic or universalBasic or universal social processessocial processes –– refers torefers to patterned andpatterned and recurrent responsesrecurrent responses observable in allobservable in all human societies.human societies.
  20. 20. Three Universal Social Processes a. Cooperation - involves two or more persons joining their intelligence, efforts, talents and resources together to attain a goal which can be shared. (e.g. business partnership).
  21. 21. Type of Cooperation 1. Informal cooperation - characterized as spontaneous and involves mutual give and take.
  22. 22. 22.Formal.Formal cooperationcooperation characterizedcharacterized as a deliberateas a deliberate contractualcontractual nature andnature and prescribes theprescribes the reciprocalreciprocal rights andrights and obligations ofobligations of members.members.
  23. 23. 3.Symbolic cooperation – a situation where two or more person live together harmoniously and are supportive and interdependent resulting in mutual interest.
  24. 24. Functions of Cooperation - It makes for social cohesion and integration among the members of a group. - It contributes to social stability and order - It fosters consensus and compromise in various social issues.
  25. 25. b.b. CompetitionCompetition - it is a form of impersonalized- it is a form of impersonalized struggle or opposition to secure astruggle or opposition to secure a reward or goal which cannot bereward or goal which cannot be shared. It is a form of disjointshared. It is a form of disjoint action between opposingaction between opposing individuals or group aimed toindividuals or group aimed to excel, surpass or outdo theexcel, surpass or outdo the opponent in order to achieve theopponent in order to achieve the goal. (e.g. sportsfest; rivalry)goal. (e.g. sportsfest; rivalry)
  26. 26. Type of Competition 1. Personal competition involves direct face-to-face contact between opposing parties.
  27. 27. 1. Impersonal competition – involves a struggle between persons or groups not directly aware of each other.
  28. 28. Functions of Competition - Competing individuals or groups try to outdo each other and thereby innovate ways to do so.
  29. 29. * Competition can be a driving force* Competition can be a driving force to persons to develop theirto persons to develop their potentials to the fullest and attainpotentials to the fullest and attain maximum efficiency andmaximum efficiency and effectiveness.effectiveness. * Competition can develop* Competition can develop productivity, creativity andproductivity, creativity and ingenuity.ingenuity. *Competition of members of a*Competition of members of a society for certain goals and thesociety for certain goals and the competition for scarce resourcescompetition for scarce resources lead to variation or differentiation.lead to variation or differentiation.
  30. 30. c. Conflict - is a form of highly personalized and emotionalized struggle or opposition between individuals or groups to attain scarce goals or values.( e.g. group riots, violent strikes, war or revolution) - it may involve physical violence or non-violence.
  31. 31. Functions of Conflict - Conflict may help establish unity and cohesion. Within a group which has been threatened by hostile and antagonistic feelings among the members.
  32. 32. - Internal conflict becomes aInternal conflict becomes a stabilizing and integratingstabilizing and integrating mechanism in certain instances.mechanism in certain instances. - Conflict provides an outlet for theConflict provides an outlet for the expression of suppressedexpression of suppressed emotions and frustrations.emotions and frustrations. - Competition and conflict promoteCompetition and conflict promote social change.
  33. 33. 2. Derived social processes - refers to secondary social processes that arise out of the basic social processes. a. Acculturation – it is a social process where group blends in and takes on some characteristics of another culture. Also called cultural borrowing/ imitation. (e.g. Christianization of Filipinos)
  34. 34. c. Amalgamation – refers to some kind of biological fusion through intermarriage of persons coming from different ethnic groups .(e.g. intermarriage of Filipino and Chinese) b. Assimilation – it involves some kind of interpenetration or fusion of cultural elements whereby persons or groups accept the cultural traits, attitudes, beliefs and sentiments of another through direct, friendly and continuous contacts. (e.g. Filipino immigrants to American way of life)
  35. 35. d. Differentiation – refers to the creation of interest resulting in individuals or groups needing or wanting different things or services rather than the same thing. It refers to specialization or division of labor. (e.g. adjacent stores selling different goods) e. Accommodation – refers to the social process whereby competing or conflicting individuals or groups trash out difficulties in order to minimize or stop the conflict.
  36. 36. 2.2. Truce or PactTruce or Pact –– is an agreement to cease hostilities oris an agreement to cease hostilities or fighting for a certain period of time. (e.g.fighting for a certain period of time. (e.g. peace negotiations)peace negotiations) 3.3. CompromiseCompromise –– is a process of settling differences where opposing parties withdraw theiris a process of settling differences where opposing parties withdraw their demands to adjust their relationship. It involves a give-and-takedemands to adjust their relationship. It involves a give-and-take relationship, the mutual giving of concessions.relationship, the mutual giving of concessions. Types of Accommodation 1. Domination – a process that involves a dominant- subordinate relationship where the stronger party imposes its will upon the weaker party. It involves power relations. (e.g. hold-upper and a hold-up victim)
  37. 37. 4. Mediation – is a form of settling disputes where a neutral third party intervenes and gives suggestions or recommendations to warning nations or parties to stop their hostilities. 5. Conciliation – is an accommodative processes where the third or neutral party can be anybody to settle disputes and who may or may not give recommendations to settle the conflict.
  38. 38. 6. Arbitration – it is an accommodative social process where the neutral third party has legal authority to decide on the conflict. The decision is followed by opposing parties. (e.g. judge or labor arbiter) 7. Toleration – is a form of accommodation without formal agreement. It is a result of the “live and let live ”policy where conflicting individuals or groups put up with others without trying to modify the behavior of the others.
  39. 39. BASED ON UNITY OR OPPOSITIONBASED ON UNITY OR OPPOSITION 1.1. Conjunctive Social ProcessesConjunctive Social Processes - they refer to patterned forms of social interactions which- they refer to patterned forms of social interactions which lead to unity, organization, cooperation and harmony. Theselead to unity, organization, cooperation and harmony. These include cooperation, acculturation, assimilation, differentiation,include cooperation, acculturation, assimilation, differentiation, amalgamation and accommodation.amalgamation and accommodation. 2.2. Disjunctive Social ProcessesDisjunctive Social Processes - they refer to patterned forms of social interactions which- they refer to patterned forms of social interactions which lead to disunity, disorganization, division, and disharmony.lead to disunity, disorganization, division, and disharmony. These include competition and conflict.These include competition and conflict.