Murdock (1945) listed about eighty-eight of universal patterns of culture, a number of common elements. These are:
Durkheim (1947) initiated three basic schemes for comparative studies of culture in order to find out the similarities and the differences in culture.
These are as follows:
study of specific differences in societies
specific similarities among societies
Factors That Account For Diversities Or Differences in Culture
While all peoples have their respective cultures, there are observable differences in their cultural ways, practices, beliefs, norms and values and other cultural aspects.
The following account for cultural difference:
1. Cultural Variability
There are differences in culture because people devise different solutions to the problems of existence. People make choices to satisfy their varied needs. While some people stick to their traditional and conservative values and ways of doing things, others who are more enterprising and change-oriented seek new ways of satisfying their needs and interests through inventions, innovations, and advanced technologies.
2. Cultural Relativity
Differences in culture also arise due to differences in beliefs, values, norms, and standards that societies use for interpreting the same or similar cultural trait. Standards of behavior must be understood within a society’s cultural context.
3. Environmental Differences
People live in different kinds of environment.
According to Huxley – (1965), among the factors that give rise to cultural differences are the kind of one’s environment, the available human and natural resources, the extent of exposure to other people from whom they can borrow ideas and their cultural heritage.
4. Human ingenuity and ability to absorb and expand new culture
Although human beings are similarly endowed with the same biological make-up, some people appear to be more adaptive, integrative, creative and responsive to their natural and social environments. Some people are more inventive: they are risk-takers and trail blazers with pioneering spirits, adventures, and innovators.