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  • 1. Philippine Values
    Chapter 6
  • 2. DEFINITIONOF VALUES
    - Comes from the Latin word “valere”, which means to be strong or to be worth.
    -Those standards by which a group of society judges the desirability and importance of people, ideas, actions or objects.
    -shared conceptions of or beliefs in what are considered desirable or undesirable.
    • Something deserving of one’s best effort, something worth living for, and if need be worth dying for.
  • DEFINITION OF VALUES
    - Enduring conception of the preferable which influences choice and action.
    - The ideals, customs, institutions, etc. of a society toward which the members of the group have an affective regard.
    • Refers to the utility of a thing, the environmental conditions at the time of evaluation.
    • 3. quality of anything which renders it desirable or useful.Worth implies intrinsic excellence or desirability.
  • VALUE CLARIFICATION PROCESSES
    7 Aspects of Values
    Choosing 1. Value is chosen freely.
    2. Chosen among alternatives and with consideration of the consequences of choice.
  • 4. VALUE CLARIFICATION PROCESSES
    Affirming/ Prizing
    3. There’s celebration; the person is happy for his choice
    4. There’s public affirmation of the choice
  • 5. VALUE CLARIFICATION PROCESSES
    Acting
    5. The value must be acted upon; it must be evident in one’s behavior.
    6. Acting must be repeatedly done in some fashion to a fashion to a variety of similar experiences.
  • 6. FUNCTIONS OF VALUES
    -provides the framework within which judgments are made. Values are guides for behavior.
    • give purpose and direction to the lives of people.
    • 7. Make things desirable, satisfying, and worthy of approval.
    • 8. define what are important to people, what are worth living for and if need be, what are worth dying for.
    • 9. Provide gap between knowledge and action.
    • 10. Have a primidoral place in education, in the total formation of the person
  • THEORIES ON THE ORGIN OF VALUES
    1.” Inner Man” or Mentalistic Theory of Values
    by William James.
    “All our obligations, all what we call good and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are OUR constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires. The value one places on any given thing..the goodness or badness of it..is purely the product of each heart and mind”
  • 11. 2. “Outer Man” or Behavioral Theory of Values
    by B. F Skinner
    “ Values come from your personal experiences. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad. Values are created by a never- ending series of a combination of behavioral reinforcements and extinctions”
  • 12. 3. “ID”; “Ego” and “Superego” Theory of Values
    by Sigmund Freud
    “We have evolutionary-based instinctual drives- id based drives – to prefer certain things. We develop overtime a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want- Ego based drives- and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not- superego based drives- that spend a good amount of time in a tension-producing conflict between these drives, we experience pleasure.
  • 13. 4. The Labeling Theory or Cultural Relativism Theory of Values
    “ Ideas, things, events, behavior are neither good nor bad per se. It is society which labels them as either good or bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, then it becomes good; when society labels it as bad then it becomes bad.“
  • 14. CLASSIFICATION Of VALUES
    Economic values- objects with material Value.
    Behavioral values – internalized guides to behavior
    a. Instrumental values or the mode of behavior.
    b. Terminal values or the results of behavior.
  • 15. 3. Social Values- values arising from interpersonal relations.
    a. Prescriptive or “thou shall” values
    b. Proscriptive or “thou shall not” values
    4. Non- social or self- concern values
    5. Moral and Spiritual Values.
  • 16. 8 CATEGORIES OF VALUES
    Affection
    Respect
    Skills
    Enlightenment
    Influence
    Wealth
    Well- being
    Responsibility
  • 17. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN’S VIRTUES
    Temperance
    “Eat not to dullness; drink not to elevation”
    2. Silence
    “Speak not buy what may benefit others or you; avoid trifling coversation”
    3. Order
    “Let all your things have their places; perform without without fail what you resolve”
  • 18. 4. Resolution
    “ Resolve to perform what you ought; perform without fail what your resolve”
    5. Frugality
    “Make no expense but to do well to others or yourself; That is, waste nothing.
    6. Industry
    “ Lose not time, be always employed in something useful; cut- off all unnecessary actions”
  • 19. 8. Justice
    “ Wrong none by doing injuries; or omitting the benefits that are your duty”
    9. Moderation
    “ Avoid extremes; Forbear resenting injuries so much as you think they deserve”
    10. Cleanliness
    “ Tolerate no cleanliness in body, clothes, or habituation”
  • 20. 11. Tranquility
    “ Be not disturbed at trifles or at accident common or unavoidable”
    Chastity
    “ Rarely use venery but for health or offspring, never to dullness, weakness or the injuries your own or another’s peace or reputation
    13. Humility
    “ Imitate Jesus or Socrates”
  • 21. BIOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL ORIGIN OF THE FILIPINO AND OPPOSING VALUE ORIENTATION
    Filipino is a hodgepodge, a mixture or blending of different racial strains, the indigenous or primitive strains, mixing and blending with the oriental or eastern strains and with the occidental or western strains but with the Malay strain Predominating.
  • 22. Filipino is pulled towards the opposite directions of two conflicting value orientation- the eastern or oriental and the western or occidental value orientation. Filipino inconsistency in his patterns of behavior. They gravitate toward the opposing value orientation ,such as non- rationalism vs. rationalism , personalism vs. impersonalism; particularism vs. universalism and nationalism vs. internationalism.
  • 23. THE FILIPINO ORIENTAL AND OCCIDENTAL VALUE ORIENTATIONS DICHOTOMY
    Non- Rationalism vs. Rationalism
    Non- rationalism involves the belief in the supremacy of nature and forces outside of oneself like the belief in ghost, spirits, gods or deities, and other supernatural beings.
  • 24. Rationalism
    - Involves a belief that by systematic planning, studying, and training, one can actually control and manipulate his or her destiny; one is thus greatly responsible for his or her own success or failure. A rational person is scientific- oriented, liberal and skeptical.
  • 25. Rationalism
    - Involves a belief that by systematic planning, studying, and training, one can actually control and manipulate his or her destiny; one is thus greatly responsible for his or her own success or failure. A rational person is scientific- oriented, liberal and skeptical.
  • 26. Impersonalism
    - Refers to the tendency to eliminate the influence of friendship or kinship in working relations. Behavior is depersonalized, standardized, or institutionalized.
  • 27. Particularism vs. Universalism
    Particularism- Tendency of a person to center his or her concern on his or her sub- groups made up of relatives, friends, colleagues, associates, religious affiliates or members of his or her ethnic/ regional group in the larger society to which he or she belongs
  • 28. Universalism
    - Refers to the tendency to focus one’s attention and concern on the promotion of the national and common weal. The emphasis is on the general welfare of the whole society.
  • 29. Nationalism vs. Internationalism
    Nationalism
    - The advocacy of making one’s own nation distinct and separate from the others in intellectual, social, cultural, economic, political, and moral matters. It is the feeling of oneness among the nationals who seek to establish the identity and the good of the nation in these matters.
  • 30. Internationalism
    - The belief in having friendly relations between and among nations for their mutual and common benefit. It is the advocacy of making nations of the world as one global community, removing all geographical, cultural, social and cultural barriers towards the community of nations and making all peoples as citizens of the world
  • 31. GENERAL FILIPINO VALUES
    Bahalana
    Utangnaloob
    Amor propio
    Fatalism
    SIR
    Use of Euphemisms
    Pakikisama
    Hiya or shame
    Paggalang
    Gaya gaya
    Crab mentality l
    Lagay system
    Filipino time
    Bakasakali attitude
    Fiesta syndrome
  • 32. 1. LIST TWO TV PROGRAMS. ANALYZE AND COMMENT ON THE VALUES THAT THEY PROMOTE. WHAT POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE VALUES DO THEY PROMOTE OR INCULCATE?
    2. RECALL 2 TV ADVERTISMENTS. ANALYZE THE VALUE CONTENT OF THOSE ADS. WHAT ARE THE NEGATIVE AND POSITIVE VALUES DO THEY PROMOTE?