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According to William James, all our obligations, all of what we call good and what we call bad, do not exist as good and bad per se. They are OUR constructions and are for each of us but a product of each individual’s wants, needs and desires.
BF Skinner posits that values come from your personal experience. You get punished or rewarded for things you did, and that reinforcement is what determines what you’ll deem good and bad.
ID, EGO AND SUPEREGO THEORY OF VALUES AND PREFERENCES
Freud posits that we have evolutionary-based instinctual drives – ID based dives to prefer certain things; we develop over time a consciousness of ways to interact with our external world to get what we want – EGO based drives – and we have a set of culturally and parentally induced should and should not – SUPEREGO based drives – that spend a good amount of time in a tension – producing conflict between what we value and what we prefer.
According to this theory, things, ideas, events, behavior, are neither good nor bad per se. It is society which labels them as either good or bad. If a society comes to an agreement that something is good, then it becomes good; when society labels it as bad, then it becomes bad.