Perception: Comes from Latin words “perceptio or percipio” means, receiving and collecting. Is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information.
We can categorize perception as: Internal Perception and External Perception
Internal Perception(proprioception): - tells us what is going on in our bodies.
External or Sensory Perception(Exteroreception): - tells us about the world outside our bodies.
Question: At what point do we become aware of stimuli or events?
Answer: We do become aware of stimuli or events if the level of stimulation is high and exceed the threshold of a particular sense. Meaning, stimulus can only be perceived if its amount goes above threshold. Below it, threshold is not perceivable anymore.
Much success in being happy and successful depends on your ability to respond intelligently and adapt appropriately to changes in your environment. Process of changing sensation into perceptions is influenced by whether you are alert, sleepy, worried, emotional, motivated or affected by legal or illegal drugs.
Structuralist vs. Gestalt Psychologists
Gestalt: - a German word that means pattern or configuration.
Structuralist- -believe that add together hundreds of basic elements to form complex perceptions.
Gestalt Psychologist - believed that our brains followed a set of rules that specified how individual elements were to be utilized as meaningful ones.
Illusion - distorts stimuli that actually exist. It is experienced by people with normal mental conditions.
Hallucination - the perception of somebody or something that not is really there.
people who are hallucinating perceive objects or events that have no external reality. This is mostly experienced by people who are psychologically disturbed.
Figured – Ground Rule
. States that in organizing stimuli, we tend to automatically distinguished between a figure, against a background
Proximity Rule States that in organizing stimuli objects that are physically close to one another will be grouped together.
Exam ple of proximity rule The fifteen figures above form a unified whole (the shape of a tree) because of their proximity.
Closure Rule States that in organizing stimuli, we tend to fill in any missing parts of a figure and see the figure as complete.
Example of closure rule Although the panda above is not complete, enough is present for the eye to complete the shape. When the viewer's perception completes a shape, closure occurs.as same as the second figure.
Similarity Rule States that in organizing, we normally grouped together stimuli that appear similar to one another.
Example of similarity rule The example above (containing 11 distinct objects) appears as as single unit because all of the shapes have similarity. Unity occurs because the triangular shapes at the bottom of the eagle symbol look similar to the shapes that form the sunburst.
Continuity Rule States that in organizing, we tend to favor smooth or continuous paths when interpreting a series of points or lines.
Example of continuity rule Continuation occurs in the example above, because the viewer's eye will naturally follow a line or curve. The smooth flowing crossbar of the "H" leads the eye directly to the maple leaf.
Is there accuracy in perception? Yes, because we inherit similar sensory systems whose information is processed and interpreted by similar areas of the brain. Another reasons our perceptions are reasonably accurate is that we have had prior experiences about the sizes, shapes and colors of the object.
Trickery and magic Most research psychologists do not believe that you can receive information outside normal sensory channels, called extra sensory perception.
4 General extra Sensory Perceiving Activities: Telepathy Clairvoyance Precognition Psychokinesis
Telepathy It is the ability to transfer one’s thought to another or to read the thoughts of another.
Clairvoyance The ability to perceive events or objects that are out of sight.
Precognition This is the ability to perceive or accurately predict future events. This may take the form of prophetic dreams that foretell the future.
Psychokinesis It is the ability to exert influenced over inanimate objects by sheer willpower (mind over matter). The person can move objects without touching them.