Lyn collective behavior


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Lyn collective behavior

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Collective Behavior And Social Movements
  2. 2. Nature And Meaning Of Collective Behavior  Collective Behavior - refers to ways of thinking, feeling, and acting which develop among a number of people and which are relatively spontaneous and unstructured - refers to relatively non-routine actions that engage large, often anonymous, groups of people.
  3. 3. Collective behavior includes
  4. 4. crowd mass
  5. 5. craze Fads and fashion
  6. 6. Disaster behavior
  7. 7. Public
  8. 8. Theories About Collective Behavior 1. Ignorant mass Theory – The belief that collective behavior is the result of uneducated, thoughtless, and impulsive behavior.
  9. 9. 2. Rational Decision Making Approach - This theory presents an opposite view of the Ignorant Mass theory. •Collective behavior can be brought About by rational, and intelligent decision when people are confronted by situations.
  10. 10. 3. Emergent Norm Perspective - This Holds that collective behavior is not characterized by unanimity but by differences in expressions and emotions.
  11. 11. 4. Emotional and Social Contagion theory - The belief that transformation of individuals into a crowd “puts them in possession of a collective mind” that makes people think, feel, and act differently from the way they would if they were alone.
  12. 12.  5. Convergence Perspective – This approach holds that participants in a collective behavior are motivated by common forces within them, such as similarity or commonality of aspirations, characteristics, social class, income, education, interest and needs. Example: ORGANIZED FUND RAISING; PROTEST MOVEMENTS GROUP MOBILIZATION EXPRESSING THE CAUSE OF THE POOR
  13. 13. For example: Rallies carried by the farmers, student activist and by other protest movements.
  14. 14. The collectivity is considered homogeneous as they share many things in common.
  15. 15. 6. Value – Added Approach - according to Smelsers (1982), there exist certain conditions which may bring about collective behavior Ex: structural strain.
  16. 16. Preconditions for Collective Behavior  Neil Smelmers (1982) found that collective behavior does not simply spring up at any time, in any place. According to him, there are six conditions, these determining factor occurs in sequences so that each one creates social environment that makes the next one possible.
  17. 17.  1. Structural Conduciveness - Social conditions must favor collective action. Ex: Ethnic groups with opposing value system live together in the same area.
  18. 18. 2.Social and Structural Stains - Social strain can spring from a sudden disruption of the existing social order, from long-term social change, values conflict between different segments of the society. Ex; Rich and poor
  19. 19.  3. Generalized Belief - The participants develop vague perceptions of the event or situation, thereby making it more difficult to define and analyze EXAMPLE: “PANIC BUYING”
  20. 20. 4.Precipitating Events - This refers to a dramatic episode that happens to confirm people’s generalized belief. EX: the assassination of Senator “NINOY” on August 21, 1983 led to mass demonstrations and EDSA Revolution and eventual booting out of the former president Ferdinand Marcos.
  21. 21.  5. Mobilization of Participants - After the facts are in and interpreted by leaders and molders of public opinion, people begin acting on their beliefs. Mass hysteria break out, social movements are organized, protest rallies and street violence erupts. EX: JOURNALISTS AND MEDIA MEN PROTEST THE MAGUINDANAO MASSACRE
  22. 22. 6. Social Control - Attempts to stop or deflect the collective behavior may only fuel the mass hysteria. With an intensity and zeal of mass actions, social control becomes ineffective.
  23. 23. Types or Collective Behavior Blumer (1946) classified collective behavior into crowds, mass, public, fashion, fad, crazes and disaster behavior.
  24. 24. 1. Crowds – These are temporary collections of people gathered around a person, an issue, an attention- getting object, or an event. They are short-lived, present-oriented, and relatively unstructured.
  25. 25.  A. Milling – refers to the physical and verbal activities of people in a relatively unstructured situation.  B. Anonymity – is shown when members of the crowd are not collectively and individually identified.  C. Spontaneity – refers to the fact that the members of the crowd join the group spontaneously or voluntarily. Characteristics of Crowd
  26. 26.  C. Spontaneity – refers to the fact that the member of the crowd join the group spontaneously or voluntarily due to their intense interest or emotion.  D. Circular Interaction – is a mutual intensification of the feeling experienced by the members of the crowd. Refers to the spread of the particular emotion in the crowd.  E. Heightened Suggestibility – refers to the greater tendency on the part of the individual to respond uncritically to the suggestion of the leader of the group.
  27. 27. Types of Crowd 1. Casual Crowd – refers to spontaneous congregations whose members come and go, giving but temporary attention to the person or object which has aroused their interest.
  28. 28. 2. Conventional Crowd – refers to a planned gathering of people at specific events at a definite place and time.
  29. 29.  3.Acting Crowd – refers to an emotionally excited volatile collection of people who focus on a controversial event that provokes their indignation, anger, and desire to act. Ex: an accident of police brutality
  30. 30. 4.Expressive Crowd – refers to an emotionally charged congregation of people whose member are carried away by enthusiasm and other intense feelings. Ex: Rock festival
  31. 31. 5. Panics – refers to situations in which people are largely affected by fear and collective fight. Ex: Stampedes and panic buying
  32. 32. Role of Rumor in Collective Action  Rumor – is an unverified story that circulates from a person to person and is accepted as fact, although its sources may be vaque or unknown. As a rumor travels it tends to grow shorter, more concise, more easily grasped and told. Fewer words and fewer details are mentioned. People tend to “correct” details to make the story possible.  Rumor differ from gossip. Gossip involves known fact. Further, gossip deals with the personal affairs of individuals whereas rumor typically deal with events and issues of greater importance and magnitude.
  33. 33.  Mass – refers to a diffused collectively of people, each responding independently to the same stimulus or event. ex: migration to USA; pilgrimage in Mecca  Fashion, Fads, Crazes  Fashion – refers to the relatively, short-lived socially variations in clothing and adornment, art, housing and furniture, and other areas of behavior. Ex: modern Trends in hair and dresses styles.
  34. 34.  Fads – refers to passing fancies or novelties of interest related to some trivial deviations from the conventional behavior. ex: use of homosexual language and slang words.  Craze – refers to a new activities which become important in the life of the community. ex: dance craze; computer games craze
  35. 35.  Disaster Behavior –this type of behavior is elicited in times of disaster and calamities, such as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, typhoons or hurricanes, and epidemics. It combines panic, crowd and mass behavior. Ex: Behavior observed during the Mt. pinatubo eruption, floods in Leyte towns, Baguio earthquakes
  36. 36.  Public – Turner(1987) defines the public as “a dispersed group of people interested in and divided about an issue, engaged in discussion of that issue with a view to registering a collective opinion.”  Public opinion – refers to the collective product of the discussion and arrival at a decision. Ist is expected to affect the course of action of some decision-making group of individuals.  Ex: people engaged in discussion of charter change issue; election scandal isssue
  37. 37. Division of Public  1. interest group – it has an immediate in the way an issue is met. Is shapes and sets the opinion. Ex: Political parties; business community  2. Disinterest group – it includes the spectators in the position of a judge. It holds a strategic and decisive place because the position and decision would be determine which of the competing schemes would be carried out.
  38. 38.  Pressure Group – it is also similar to interest group whose activity is to pressure decision- making bodies to act favorably on the side of the issue it is fighting for. ex: the Catholic church; workers associations.  Following – it is a group which is interested enough to follow issues but which makes no attempts to form opinions regarding it.  Neutral or Listening public – it is composed of individuals who have not yet decided which side to follow.
  39. 39. Meaning and Nature of Social Movements  Social movement  – as an interrelated and co-acting unity of persons with some degree of organizational continuity to promote or resist change in the society of which it is a part. - refers to an interested and motivated gathering of people which aims to modify or change the society’s structure or ideology in a concerted and deliberate manner. Ex: Women’s Liberation movement, environmental Protection Movement
  40. 40. Comparison of Collective Behavior And Social Movement  Collective Behavior – refers to relatively non- routine actions that engage large, often anonymous, group of people. It does not follow the established norms and patterns of behavior.  Social movement – on the other hand, is another form of social behavior which also occurs outside the institutional framework of our everyday life. It is a “conscious, collective, organized attempt to bring about resist large- scale change in the social order by non- institutionalized means (1973 Wilson)
  41. 41. Types of Social Movements  1. Alternative movements – refers to movements that aim to achieve some limited but specific change in individuals. EX: religious Movements on Morality and Ethics  2. Redemptive movements – refers to movements that also focus on the individual, but they seek total, not partial change. Ex: Christian Movements; Couples for Christ
  42. 42.  3. Reformative Movements - refers to movements that emphasize changing society rather than individuals. Their aim is moderate or partial change since they view the present social order as basically workable. Ex: Civil rights movements; human rights movements  4. Transformative Movements - refers to movements that aim at total in the existing social order. ex: the Philippine Revolution of 1896; the French Revolution.
  43. 43. Mass communication  1. Meaning and Nature of Mass communication Mass Media) - refers to an organized communication through organizational structures. It is directed towards a relatively large audience during a short periods of time or even instantly. (Wright, 1894) Collective behavior and social movements depend heavily on mass communication among many people
  44. 44. 2. Form of Mass Media A. Prints 1. Newspaper 2.Magazines 3. Tabloids 4. Journals 5. Pamphlets/Leaflets
  45. 45. B. Electronic/ Broadcast 1. Radio 2. Television 3. Motion Picture 4. Computer 5. internet 6. Audio and Video Tapes
  46. 46.  3. Roles of Mass Media  The mass media perform the following roles: A. To provide information to a large number of people B. To provide education to the masses C. to provide entertainment D. To clarity/ventilate issue and concerns E. to serve as avenues for propaganda F. To provide avenues for expression of partisan and non-partisans ideas. G. to generate public opinion or call for collective behavior and social movements. H. To serve as a vehicle for the expression of arroused feelings, pent-up emotions and redress of grievances.
  47. 47. THE END