DANCE PRELIMINARY ACTIVITY WATCH THE DANCE PRESENTATION WHAT IS IT THAT DANCERS ARE TRYING TO TELL THE AUDIENCE? MAKE A COMMENT ON HOW THE DANCERS PRESENT THE MESSAGE.. ARE THE DANCERS GRACEFUL ENOUGH IN THEIR MOVEMENT? DESCRIBE THEIR BODY MOVEMENTS. D. ARE MOVEMENTS OF DANCERS IN HARMONY WITH THE BEATING OF MUSIC? E. CHOREOGRAPHY. DO YOU THINK THE DANCERS ARE PREPARED ENOUGH FOR THE PRESENTATION? HOW MANY FORMATIONS DO THEY HAVE? WHAT ARE THEIR HAND MOVEMENTS? F. DO THE COSTUME AND SCENERY CONFORM THE TYPE OF DANCE BEING PRESENTED? DESCRIBE THE COSTUME AND SCENERY OF THE DANCE PRESENTATION
Dance is patterned and rhythmic bodily movements, usually performed to music, that serve as a form of communication or expression. Human beings express themselves naturally through movement.
DANCE AND THE HUMAN BODY DDANCE AND THE HUMAN BODY The body can perform such actions as rotating, bending, stretching, jumping, and turning. By varying these physical actions and using different dynamics, human beings can devise an infinite number of body movements. Out of the range of movements that the body is capable of performing, every culture emphasizes certain features in its dance styles.
The ordinary potential of the body can be expanded in dance, usually through long periods of specialized training. In ballet, for example, the dancer exercises to rotate, or turn out, the legs at the hips, making it possible to lift the leg high. In India, some dancers learn to choreograph their eyeballs and eyebrows. Costuming can extend the body's capabilities. Toe or pointed shoes, stilts, and flying harnesses are a few of the artificial aids employed by dancers.
The primary elements of dance include 1. THEME THE MESSAGE BEING PORTRAYED BY THE DANCERS 2. DESIGN REFERS TO THE SKETCH HOW THE MESSAGE IS TO BE PRESENTED BY THE DANCERS. THIS INCLUDES MOVEMENT, RHYTHM, BEAT, TIME AND SPACE.
3. MOVEMENT THIS IS THE ACTION OF THE DANCERS, THE MOTION OF THE FEET, THE SWINGING OF THE ARMS, TURNING OF THE HEAD AND EVEN FACIAL EXPRESSION AND GESTURES TO INDICATE FEELING SUCH AS ANGER, HAPPINESS AND OTHERS. 4. TECHNIQUE THE MASTERY OF THE DANCERS IN PERFORMING THE MOVEMENT MASTERY INCLUDES THE KEEPING OF THE GRACE IN DOING THE ACTIONS, WHICH IS ALWAYS GOVERNED BY THE THEME OF THE DANCE.
5. MUSIC THIS SERVES AS THE BACKGROUND OF THE DANCERS TO ADD BEAUTY OF THE PRESENTATION. IT SERVES AS GUIDE OR MOTIVATION OF THE DANCERS. 6. COSTUME AND PROPERTIES COSTUME HELPS THE AUDIENCE INTERPRET THE MESSAGE OF THE DANCE. THIS INCLUDES WEAPONS SUCH AS SPEAR AND SHIELD, WHICH MAY SIGNIFY PERIODS AND REGIONS.
7. CHOREOGRAPHY Choreography, the art of composing dances; also, the movements and patterns of a dance composition. Choreography can refer to the anonymously created patterns of folk dance and non-Western classical dance; most typically the term refers to specially composed theatrical dance.
A choreographer must accommodate the requirements of music, costume, decor, and sometimes the choice of dancers. Sometimes preexisting music is used; sometimes music is newly commissioned, in which case the choreographer may choose to work closely with the composer. Similarly, choreographers may become deeply involved with creating the story, designing decor and costumes, and planning lighting.
Choreographers must know the technique and movements of their dance idiom. Familiarity with other dance styles is useful; for example, a ballet choreographer is aided by having a knowledge of various folk dances, historical dance, and elements of modern dance and jazz dance. Knowing other kinds of body movement is also helpful, such as acrobatics, pantomime and gesture, motions of fighting, and athletics. Historically, choreographers learned their art through long apprenticeship. In the 20th century such apprenticeship is sometimes supplemented by the formal study of dance composition.
Dance and the Human Mind Besides giving physical pleasure, dancing can have psychological effects. Feelings and ideas can be expressed and communicated; sharing rhythms and movements can make a group feel unified. In some societies, dancing often leads to trance or other altered states of consciousness. These states can be interpreted as signaling possession by spirits, or they may be sought as a means to emotional release.
A state of trance may enable people to perform remarkable feats of strength, endurance, or danger, such as dancing through hot coals. In some societies shamans dance in trance in order to heal others physically or emotionally. The modern field of dance therapy developed as a means to help people express themselves and relate to others.
KINDS OF DANCE 1.) dances for participation, which do not need spectators; and 2.) dances for presentation, which are designed for an audience.
Presentational dances are often performed in royal courts, temples, or theaters; the dancers may be professionals, and the dance may be considered art. The movements tend to be relatively difficult and require specialized training. Dances for participation include work dances, some forms of religious dance, and recreational dances such as folk dances and popular, or social, dances. To ensure that everyone in a community can take part in them, such dances often consist of repetitive step patterns that are easy to learn.
Dance and Society Dance often occurs at rites of passage, or ceremonies performed when an individual passes from one role to another. Thus, birth, initiation, graduation, marriage, succession to political office, and death may be marked by dancing. Dance may also be a part of courtship. In some societies dances may be the only events at which young people of different sexes can meet. In contemporary society, dances also provide important occasions for young people to socialize.
Work too may be in the form of dance. Rhythmic movements may make the work go more quickly and efficiently, as in Japanese rice-planting dances. Dance is an art form in some cultures, and in the 20th century some dances that originated as elaborate religious rituals or court entertainments have been adapted to the theater.
HISTORY OF DANCE
Written as well as visual evidence of dance has survived from the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Egyptian tombs depict people who seem to be dancers, often in acrobatic positions such as backbends; these figures probably represent professional entertainers who were slaves. Dancing was essential to agricultural and religious festivals such as the dance-rituals enacting the cyclic death and rebirth of the god Osiris (symbolizing the seasonal cycle of the Nile). The Greeks admired dancing, including it among the activities fostered by their art, religion, and philosophy. Greek warrior or pyrrhic dances were part of military training. Religious dances, especially those honoring Dionysus, the god of wine, are believed to be the origin of the dance in Greek drama. In tragedy, the chorus used symbolic gestures and dance steps to accompany the spoken or sung verse. The ancient Romans are known especially for their development of pantomime. Although professional Roman dancers, pantomimists, jugglers, and acrobats worked as traveling entertainers, dance degenerated under the Romans, some of whom saw it as immoral. Written as well as visual evidence of dance has survived from the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East. Egyptian tombs depict people who seem to be dancers, often in acrobatic positions such as backbends; these figures probably represent professional entertainers
who were slaves. Dancing was essential to agricultural and religious festivals such as the dance-rituals enacting the cyclic death and rebirth of the god Osiris (symbolizing the seasonal cycle of the Nile).
The Greeks admired dancing, including it among the activities fostered by their art, religion, and philosophy. Greek warrior or pyrrhic dances were part of military training. Religious dances, especially those honoring Dionysus, the god of wine, are believed to be the origin of the dance in Greek drama. In tragedy, the chorus used symbolic gestures and dance steps to accompany the spoken or sung verse.
The ancient Romans are known especially for their development of pantomime. Although professional Roman dancers, pantomimists, jugglers, and acrobats worked as traveling entertainers, dance degenerated under the Romans, some of whom saw it as immoral.
MEDIEVAL EUROPE The Christian church, which dominated the European Middle Ages, disapproved of dancing. Dancing continued among the people, however, both in communal festivals and as entertainment. Variations of medieval peasant dances continue today as folk dances. Some peasant dances, taken over and adapted by the aristocracy, became courtly social dances that in turn evolved into ballet.
BALLET AND MODERN DANCE Ballet originated in the courts of Italy and France during the Renaissance, becoming primarily a professional discipline by the late 17th century. Since that time, even though its style and subject matter continue to evolve, it has remained a major art form of Western culture. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries the American dancers Isadora Duncan and Ruth St. Denis rebelled against ballet. In Europe the Swiss educator Émile Jaques-Dalcroze, the Hungarian dancer Rudolf von Laban, and the German dancer Mary Wigman also experimented with new ways of expression. The work of these modern dance pioneers led to the development of important new dance idiom.
Modern Dance, tradition of theatrical dance unique to the 20th century. Modern dance flourished in areas that lacked strong ballet traditions, such as in the United States where ballet companies were imported from Europe. Although modern dance originated in Europe, by 1930 the United States had become the center for dance experimentation. Many early modern dances were miniatures—solos of highly compressed effect. They were unlike anything known, for dance at that time was dominated by late 19th-century ballets, which were characterized by large casts, a great variety of dance numbers, and spectacular scenic effects. But ballet itself was not always so monumental in scale, and just as ballet has evolved over the centuries as a changing tradition, so also has modern dance during its shorter period of existence.
FOLK DANCE A participatory dance form, folk dance is usually traditional and performed by members of a community. Although not easy to define, the term seems best to fit those dances originated by agricultural peoples for secular and sometimes ritual purposes, in countries that also have an art form of dance. The Balkan kolo, English morris dance, and North American square dance (see Kolo; Morris Dance; Square Dance) are examples, as are Maypole dances and the different kinds of sword dance. Folk dances are usually group forms that are passed from one generation to another. Some folk dances, however, are not traditional; many Israeli folk dances, for example, were choreographed in the 20th century in the style of European folk dances, to serve similar purposes (see Hora). Today, folk dances are frequently performed onstage, for which they are usually adapted for presentation to an audience.
POPULAR OR SOCIAL DANCE Some recreational dance forms, especially in industrialized societies, are termed popular dances or social dances. In that they are for participation, are relatively easy to learn, and generally originate from the people rather than from a choreographer, they resemble folk dances. Unlike most folk dances, these social dances tend to be couple dances and are popular only for a short time. The social dances of the nobility in the Middle Ages, Renaissance, and baroque eras were derived from folk dances. In the late 18th and 19th centuries, with the growth of the middle class, social dancing expanded beyond the aristocracy and, as ballroom dance, became popular in Europe and North America. The waltz and polka of the peasants, like dances of earlier eras, became transformed into social dances.
THEATRICAL DANCE The 20th-century social dances, as well as the innovations in ballet and modern dance, influenced the growth of dance in motion pictures and musicals. In Hollywood the American choreographer Busby Berkeley created elaborate group production numbers, and the American dancers Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers combined ballroom and tap dancing. The groundbreaking dance sequences in Oklahoma! (1943), in which American choreographer Agnes de Mille integrated dance into the plot, inspired others to create a larger role for dance in musicals. In West Side Story (1957), choreographed by the American ballet master Jerome Robbins, dance was for the first time the vehicle through which much of the musical's plot was expressed. In the 1970s dance became even more important on Broadway in shows such as A Chorus Line (1975) and Dancin' (1978). See also Jazz Dance; Musical or Musical Comedy.
ASIAN CLASSICAL DANCE Drama, music, and dance are closely interrelated in Asia. Frequently relying on symbolic gestures, masks or elaborate makeup, and magnificent costumes, Asian dances often narrate stories based on mythology, historical events, and legends. Performances may last for many hours.
INDIA In India, classical dance forms that almost disappeared have been revived on the basis of old manuscript descriptions and of temple carvings depicting dance positions. Dance-dramas and solo dance forms based on the Hindu epics draw on symbolic hand gestures called mudras. Many of India's folk dances share specific characteristics with the more refined classical dances. See also Indian Dance.
JAPAN Japan is rich in folk dances, many of them of a religious nature. In addition, Japan possesses two major forms of dance-drama, nō and kabuki.nō, about 500 years old, is an extremely slow-paced dance and opera form full of symbolic meanings. Kabuki, developed in the 17th century, is a more popular form in which many theatrical devices are used. See also Japanese Music; Japanese Drama.
CHINA Peking opera is the best-known genre of Chinese dance-drama. Developed in the mid-19th century from earlier varieties of Chinese opera, it includes spectacular acrobatics as an important part of the action. In the 1950s the Chinese government began promoting productions based on European ballet and emphasizing themes relevant to China's contemporary political and social environment. See also Chinese Music.
INDONESIA In Indonesia, especially in Java, graceful female dancers formerly entertained royalty with refined forms of court dance; they lived at court, and their dances were not seen by the public. In Bali, masked dramas with kings and clowns, war dances, and spirit-possession dances remain a part of village life. See also Indonesian Dance.
FILIPINO DANCES Most Philippine dances were originally patterned after European dances during the Spanish regime. Pandango Sa Ilaw, Cariñosa, Rigodon and Balitao are examples of these dances Filipinos are known for. Aside from these western-influenced dances, ethnic-created dances such as Tinikling made its way to nationwide recognition. Despite its apparent adaptation to western dances, still Filipinos pay tribute to their cultural roots. Every district in the islands has its own folk dance, interpreted attractively in festivals and local shows, which have added to the country’s reputed contribution to world’s illustration of traditional arts.
The following are examples of popular Philippine folk dances:
Binasuan - Originated in Pangasinan Province “meaning with the use of drinking glasses”, this vibrant dance basically shows off balancing skill of the performers. Glasses filled with rice wine are placed on the head and on each hand carefully maneuvered with graceful movements. This dance is common in weddings, fiestas and special occasions.
PandanggosaIlaw - The word pandanggo comes from the Spanish dance “fandango”characterized with lively steps and clapping while following a varying ¾ beat. Pandanggo requires excellent balancing skill to maintain the stability of three tinggoy, or oil lamps, placed on head and at the back of each hand. This famous dance of grace and balance originated from Lubang Island, Mindoro.
Rigodon - Originated from Spain, this dance is commonly performed at formal affairs like inaugural balls where prominent members of the government participate and enjoy.
Maria Clara - Maria Clara is the main female character in Jose Rizal’s Noli Me Tangere -a literary piece that features the colonial situation of the Filipinos during the Spanish regime. She was characterized as a Filipina woman of virtue and nobility. This dance is a mix of Spanish gracefulness and customized native props, such as bamboo castanets and Asian fan. Female dancers wear Maria Clara dress that typifies the European style, while men are in barong tagalog, a traditional Filipino embroidered long-sleeve shirt made of pineapple fiber. Cariñosa - Cariñosa is a word that describes an affectionate, friendly and lovable woman. This dance is performed in flirtatious manner with fans and handkerchiefs to assist the dancers’ hide-and-seek movements.
Maglalatik - Originally performed in Binan, Laguna as a mock-war dance that demonstrates a fight between the Moros and the Christians over the prized latik or coconut meat during the Spanish rule, this dance is also shown to pay tribute to the town’s patron saint, San Isidro Labrador. It has a four-part performance such as the palipasan and the baligtaran showing the intense battle, the paseo and the escaramusa- the reconciliation. Moro dancers wear read trousers while the Christian dancers show up in blue. All dancers are male; with harnesses of coconut shells attached on their chests, backs, thighs and hips.
Tinikling - Tinnikling is considered the national folkdance with a pair of dancers hopping between two bamboo poles held just above the ground and struck together in time to music. Originated from Leyte Province, this dance is in fact a mimic movement of “tikling birds” hopping over trees, grass stems or over bamboo traps set by farmers. Dancers perform this dance with remarkable grace and speed jumping between bamboo poles.
La Jota Manileña - It is a dance named after the capital city of the Philippines, Manila, where an adaptation of Castilian Jota afloats with the clacking of bamboo castanets played by the dancers themselves. The costume and the graceful movements of the performers noticeably inspired by Spanish Culture.
PasiginOrigin: Pasig A dance interpreting toil in the life of the fishermen in the river called Pasig. Manifesting the native means of catching the fish.
Sublian - The term “subli” is from two tagalog words “subsub” meaning falling on head and “bali”, which means broken. Hence, the dancers appear to be lame and crooked throughout the dance. This version is originally a ritual dance of the natives of Bauan, Batangas, which is shown during fiestas as a ceremonial worship dance to the town’s icon, the holy cross.
Itik-itik - According to history of this dance, a young woman named Kanang (short for Cayetana) happened to be the best performer in the province of Surigao del Norte. At one baptismal reception, she was asked to dance the Sibay, and began improvising her steps in the middle of her performance imitating the movements of an “itik”, a duck, as it walks with choppy steps and splashes water on its back while attracting its mate. Because of its unusual steps and fascinating interpretation, the audience began imitating her.
Pantomina - Meaning "Dance of the Doves", this dance is the highlight of Sorsogon’sKasanggayahan Festival every third week of October. Groups of participants, mainly elderly in colourful costumes, dance to the tune of Pantomina song. It is a courtship dance originated from immitating the courtship and lovemaking of doves that then showed during the dance where men attempt to please the women.
Sakuting - Originated in Abra, this dance interprets a mock fight between Ilokano Christians and non- Christians with training sticks as props. It is traditionally performed during Christmas at the town plaza or from house-to-house as a caroling show. As a return, the dancers receive presents or money locally known as “aguinaldo”.
Jota ManileñaOrigin: Manila A dance that originated in the capital city around the 19th century. Like the other Jotas in Philippine folk dances, this is an adaptation of the Castillian Jota, but the castanets are made of bamboo and are only held, not fastened, to the fingers. It is recognizably Iberian in flavor.
DugsoTribe: TalaindigOrigin: Bukidnon A dance of thanksgiving.
Bagobo Rice Cycle This Bagobo tribal dance protrays the cycle of planting and harvesting of rice.
BinaylanTribe: HigaononOrigin: AgusanThe Bagobo tribe from the central uplands of Mindanao originated this dance which imitates the movement of a hen, her banog, or baby chicks, and a hawk. The hawk is sacred, and it is believed that the hawk has the power over the well-being of the tribe. The hawk tries to capture one of the chicks and is killed by the hunters.
KadalTahaw - Tiboli dance- south cotabato A tribal dance performed by Tiboli tribe, this dance that mimics the hopping and flying behavior of Tahaw bird is performed to celebrate good harvest.
Kuratsa - Commonly performed during festivals in Bohol and other Visayan towns, this dance portrays a young playful couple’s attempt to get each other’s attention. It is performed in a moderate waltz style.
Pangalay- Zamboanga Del Sur A muslim dance. Originally performed by wealthy families during a wedding celebration, this fingernail dance is now a popular festival dance in Sulu.
BangaTribe: Kalinga "Banga" literally mean pots. The Banga or pot dance is a contemporary performance of Kalinga of the Mountain Province in the Philippines. This dance illustrate the languid grace of a tribe otherwise known as fierce warriors. Heavy earthen pots, as many as seven or eight at a time, are balanced on the heads of maidens as they trudge to the beat of the "gangsa" or wind chimes displaying their stamina and strength as they go about their daily task of fetching water and balancing the banga.
Salisid - Kalinga, Cordillera This is a courtship dance that symbolizes a rooster trying to attract the attention of a hen. This is performed and portrayed by both male and female dancers as the rooster and hen respectively. The dance starts when each of them are given a piece of cloth known as "ayob" or "allap".
WATCH A DANCE PRESENTATION APPRECIATE THE DANCE BY ANSWERING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS: THEME. WHAT IS IT THAT DANCERS ARE TRYING TO TELL THE AUDIENCE? DESIGN. MAKE A COMMENT ON HOW THE DANCERS PRESENT THE MESSAGE.
C. TECHNIQUE. ARE THE DANCERS GRACEFUL ENOUGH IN THEIR MOVEMENT? DESCRIBE THEIR BODY MOVEMENTS. D. ARE MOVEMENTS OF DANCERS IN HARMONY WITH THE BEATING OF MUSIC?
E. CHOREOGRAPHY. DO YOU THINK THE DANCERS ARE PREPARED ENOUGH FOR THE PRESENTATION? HOW MANY FORMATIONS DO THEY HAVE? WHAT ARE THEIR HAND MOVEMENTS? F. DO THE COSTUME AND SCENERY CONFORM THE TYPE OF DANCE BEING PRESENTED? DESCRIBE THE COSTUME AND SCENERY OF THE DANCE PRESENTATION.
Other Philippine Ethnic Dances: Banog - Cordillera In this dance, performers portray hunters shielding their chickens from the famishing hawk. The hawk ends up entrapped and dies in the hands of hunters. Palok - Kalinga, Cordillera - A tribal dance. The natives of Kalinga perform this dance in most of their social events. Male dancers hold gangsa or gong- a percussion instrument made of copper, and beat it with wooden stick.
Lumagen - Kalinga, Cordillera A tribal dance. This is a traditional thanksgiving dance by the Kalinga tribe performed to celebrate good harvest and events such as birth of first-born child, victory in battles and weddings. Idudu- Abra, Cordillera A tribal dance. This dance stages a common family life in the Itneg or Tinguian society. It illustrates the family as the main foundation of the tribe’s community. Several traits of an ordinary family are shown. It depicts a father plowing the field while the mother caring for the children. But as soon as the father finishes work, the mother takes over on planting, sowing and all the remaining chores to do in the field. At this time the father is left to take care of the kids. During the dance a Local singer breaks into an Idudu or lullaby to put the baby to sleep. Idudu, a dance taken from Idudu lullaby, obviously portrays the different roles in a Tinguian family Dinuyya - CordilleraIfugao dance Famous in the Ifugao region, this dance is regularly staged during festivals in Lagawe. Three kinds of gong instruments such as, ordinary gongs, tobtob- a brass gong played by beating with open palms and, hibat, a kind of gong played by beating the inner surface with a softwood are used in this dance.
Bendayan - Benguet This dance, which is more known as Bendian, is performed to commemorate the arrival of headhunters in their district. Performers dance in a circle and show off their lively traditional steps. Binaylan - Agusan This is a ritual dance, which originated from the Bagobo tribe living in the central uplands of Mindanao, imitating the movements of a hen, her banog or baby chicks, and a hawk. The hawk is sacred and is believed that it has the power over the well being of the tribe. The hawk tries to capture one of the baby chicks and is killed by the hunters. Malakas at maganda - Leyte A Tribal dance. This dance depicts the birth of the first man and woman who came out of a bamboo tree. It has been said that the woman named “maganda” (beautiful) and the first man “malakas” (strong) are the parents of the whole community in the island. The dance demonstrates how a bird discovered the noise coming from the inside of the bamboo and perched until it opened. A man and a woman came out of the big bamboo tree and, the birth of this legendary couple is amusingly interpreted in this dance.
Burung-Talo - Sulu The dance is a unique fighting dance in a form of martial arts by the Tausug tribe. Performers demonstrate a battle between hawk and a cat. With their acrobatic movements and tough facial expressions, this dance is highlighted with the accompanying energetic beat of drums and gongs. Kadal-Blelah- South Cotabato A tribal dance where in the dancers perform simulation of movements of birds.
SayawsaCuyo - PalawanCuyo is a small island and capital of Palawan. There, the feast day of St. Augustin is traditionally celebrated with parades, processions and small performances by groups coming from all over Cuyo Island and the nearby islets. Island dances, blended with strong Old Cuyo ethnicity and Spanish-influenced steps, are all brought out when Cuyo celebrates its festivals. Today, pretty young girls daintily swirl hats to the waltz and other European steps designed to bring out the freshness and glow of the performers. Karatong - Palawan A Muslim dance. During the festival of San Agustine in the island of Cuyo, the celebration also includes the blossoming of mango trees. The parade starts from the church patio and ends at the town plaza with ladies waving their colorful props “Bungamangga” that symbolize the flowers of mango tree, while men lively strike their karatong instruments; creating a scene of joy among reveling towns folk. Dugso - Bukidnon A thanksgiving dance from the talaindig tribe.
Gayong-gayong - Capiz -A Muslim dance. In rural gatherings, this dance offers much fun. Gayong is a pet name for Leodegario. According to the legend and to the words of the song, Gayong and Masiong (pet name for Dalmacio) once attended a feast commemorating the death of a townsman. While eating, Masiong choked on a piece of Adobo so he called, "Gayong! Gayong!" to ask for help to dislodge a bone from the Adobo meal from his throat. In this dance, Masiong’s liking for feasts and the consequence of his gluttony are held up to playful ridicule. KapaMalong-Malong - Cotabato A Muslim dance. This Maranao dance is performed with women wearing malong and shawl, mantle or head piece, whereas men wear sash or waist band, shorts or bahag and head gear or turban traditionally worn in the fields. Pagapir - Lanao del Sur This dance is usually performed to commence an important affair. Dancers of this dance are usually from the royal court or high society group of Lanao Province. They use apir or fan to coordinate with their small steps called kini-kini, which symbolizes their good manners and prominent family background.