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Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
Music Section 2
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Music Section 2


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  • 1. MUSIC By Angeline Tram, Calvin Luu, and Rosalynn Nunez
  • 2. SECTION 2
    • Rise of the Individual
      • 19 th century – emergence of the individual
      • Fascination with nature, the supernatural, and individuality worked its way into artwork.
    • Franz Liszt (1811-1886) looked to extra musical sources, especially literature, for his inspiration for his musical composition.
      • Wrote Faust-Symphonie (“A Faust Symphony in Three Character Sketches after Goethe: (1) Faust, (2) Gretchen, (3) Mephistopheles”)
    • Two opposing sides about music:
      • “ Absolute music ” – E.T.A. Hoffman (1776-1822) and Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860) said music of the highest sort was “pure” instrumental music.
      • “ Program music ” – looked to specific extra-musical sources for inspiration.
    • Ludwig Van Beethoven
      • - One of the greatest composers of Western music
      • Born in Germany
      • His father was a vocalist
      • First public performance at the age of seven
      • His father taught him to play the violin and piano
      • Raising two younger brothers at the age of eighteen
      • Moved to cultural center of Holy Roman Empire, Vienna in 1792 (present-day Austria)
      • Studied composition with Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) for about a year
      • He became the next hero of the Germanic tradition when Mozart died
      • In 1801, became deaf when he was thirty-one years old
      • By 1814, he was almost completely deaf
      • In 1808, he composed his Sixth Symphony , during his “middle period”
        • In F Major, also known as the Pastoral Symphony
      • His works moved into the realm of Romanticism, an era characterized by an emphasis on personal and emotional expression- a revolt against the restraint of Classicism
    • Felix Mendelssohn (1809-47) - Pianist, musicologist, organist, conductor, and composer - His works revealed tension between Classicism and Romanticism - Fanny, his sister, were recognized as musical prodigies - In 1816-17, they studied piano in Paris with Marie Bigot - That following year was his first performance when he was nine, and started studying violin
    • - In 1819, a composition of his was performed in Berlin - He composed an opera that premiered on his twelfth birthday
    • - His sister was his “critic; he called her Minerva. Many works of his was dedicated to her
    • - In 1829-32, he embarked on a musical called Grand Tour of Italy, France, Germany, Austria, England, and Scotland
    • - “Fingals Cave” in the Hebrides in Scotland inspired the theme of his overture “Die Hebriden”
    • - He also created a theme called The Lonely Island
    • - In 1832, revised Die Hebriden and called it The Isles of Fingal
    • Bedrich Smetana (1824-84) - Czech composer, conductor, and critic - Ma Vlast (My Country or My Fatherland) is one of the hallmarks of his, a cycle of six symphonic poems each depicting a person or place to Bohemia - Movements- Vysehrad (The Highest Citadel), Vltava (The River Moldau) , Sarka (female warrior) , Z Ceskych Luhua Haju (From Bohemia’s Meadows and Forests) , Tabor (Hussite stronghold), and Blanik (mountain in Bohemia and the Hussite analogue of Valhalla)
    • - They were written in 1874 and 1879 - Vtava (Die Moldau in German), depicts the River Moldau in what is now the Czech Republic, written in 1874 - Shortly before Smetana went deaf
  • 6.
    • Jean Sibelius (1865- 1957)
    • - Began composing as a child, began musical lessons at the age of fifteen - In 1885, he attended Helsinki University to study law - Finland protest against Russians political and economical domination in the 1890s - The Swedish and Finnish languages divided the nation; the Swedish were the elite, Finnish were peasants
    • - His interest in Finnish was deepened by his interest in Aino Jarnefelt, who later became his wife - In 1889-90, after a year of study in Berlin, followed by a year of study in Vienna, he began to develop a musical style - He was disappointed that the classicism did not recognize works like recent composers, as Anton Bruckner (1824-96) and Richard Wagner (1813- 83) - He referred to himself as a dreamer and poet of Nature - From 1893 to 1897, he composed the Lemminkainen Suite , a four-movement symphonic poem based on the Finnish national epic Kalevala
    • Paul Dukas (1865-1935) - Spent most of his life in his hometown Paris - At the age of sixteen, he entered the Paris Conservatoire - One of his famous works, L’Apprenti sorcier (The Sorcerer’s Apprentice), is a symphonic scherzo based on a 1791 ballad Der Zauberlehrling by the writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
  • 7.
    • Camille Saint-Saens (1835-1921) - A French composer, pianist, organist, and writer - His first piano performance was at the age of ten, he played concerti by Mozart and Beethoven - Charles Gounod (1818-93) described him as the French Beethoven - Saens turned thirteen in 1848 and entered the Paris Conservatoire to study organ - He sold one of his composition to buy a telescope in 1858 - Danse macabre (1874) is a symphonic poem, an orchestral work that has a descriptive or narrative subject - Dance of Death (Totentanz in german) (Danse macabre in French) was an influence in the artistic community - The image was inspired by the outbreak of the bubonic plague (The Black Death) - Danse macabre was based on a poem by French poet Henri Cazalis (1840-1909) - He received great support from the Hungarian composer/pianist Franz List often credited with the invention of the tone poem - It influenced other French composers such as Cesar Franick (1822-90), Ernest Chausson (1855-99), Henri Duparc (1848-1933), and Paul Dukas
  • 8.
    • Hector Berlioz (1803-1869)
      • Started in music when his dad taught him how to play the flageolet (similar to the penny whistle); Later learned to play the flute, guitar, and piano
      • Started writing his own music at the age of 13 or 14
      • At 17, he followed his parents’ wishes and entered medical school in Paris
      • Dropped med school to join the Conservatoire in 1826
      • Loved Shakespeare, and became obsessed with Harriet Smithson (his “Ophelia” or his “Juliet). Stalked her for two years, then they met and got married, but the romance was short-lived
      • Started the idea of idée fixe (in French, “obsession”), a theme in that represents the artist’s love in his compositions
    • Robert Schumann (1810-1856)
      • One of the most important German composers of the Romantic era
      • Son of Augustus Schumann
      • Composing by the time he was seven
      • Gave his first public piano performance in 1821 when he was 11
      • Entered law school in 1828 in Leipzig for his parents but dropped out because he hated it
      • Worked with Friedrich Wieck, Weick’s daughter Clara, Jean Paul Richter, E.T.A. Hoffman
      • In 1831, Schumann began to have paint and weakness in his right hand which stopped him from performing and only to music criticism
      • Fell in love with then 15 year old Clara Wieck (father disapproved of the relationship) and got married after years of secrecy
      • Fell in love with Ernestine von Fricken in 1835 which inspired Carnaval
  • 9.
    • Edvard Grieg (1843-1907)
      • Born in Norway, most important Scandinavian composer of his generation
      • Mother was a popular concert pianist; trained Edvard when he six
      • By 15, he was composing music, joined the Leipzig Conservatory the same here
      • Moved to Copenhagen where he met his vocalist cousin , Nina Hagerup and got engaged in 1864
      • Was asked to composed music for Peer Gynt, a playwright, in Jaunary of 1874, thinking it was only bits and pieces of music. He competed the final score in 1875, and was first performed in 1876
    • Petrovich Mussorgsky (1839-1881)
      • One of the “Mighty Handful” or “Russian Five” composers
      • Wrote Pictures at an Exhibition in 1874 during his mature period and peak of his career
      • It’s a piano suite based on Viktor Hartmann (1834-1873), a friend of Mussorgsky’s who died the previous year
      • Has ten movements: The Gnome, The Old Castle, Tuileries, Bydlo (Polish Farm Cart), Unhatched Chicks, Damuel Goldenberg and Shmuyle, Marketplace at Limoges, Catacombs, Baba-yaga (the Hut on Fowl’s Legs), and The Great Game of Kiev.