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# Earth

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### Earth

1. 1. • The Earth is a planet that is almost spherical in shape and is made up of LAND, WATER, AND AIR. • Large masses of land, called CONTINENTS, comprise about one-fourth of its surface. • 75% of it is covered with water. • The blanket of air surrounding Earth is called ATMOSPHERE.
2. 2. LAYERS OF THE EARTH  The outermost layer of the Earth is the CRUST.  Made up of loose solid rocks where continents and oceans are located.  The thickness of the continents and oceans varies from 10-65 km. crust
3. 3. 2ND LAYER OF THE EARTH • MANTLE which is 2,880 km thick. • It is composed of solid rocks in the upper portion while, very hot molten rocks in its lower portion. • The boundary between crust and mantle was discovered by ANDRIZA MOHOROVICIC. • The boundary named as the MOHOROVICIC DISCONTINUITY or MOHO, varies from place to place.
4. 4. 3RD LAYER OF THE EARTH • The CORE is divided into two parts: • OUTER CORE and INNER CORE. • Outer core is about 2880- 4960 km thick. • It is composed of molten iron and nickel. Studies of earthquake waves suggest that the outer core is made up of liquid(molten metals).
5. 5. INNER CORE  INNER CORE is believed to be made up of solid materials.  It has a diameter of about 2560-2880 km.  The entire core has an approximate temperature of 4700°C.
6. 6. SEISMOGRAPH  An instrument that measures the forces and direction of earthquake waves.  The density of the layers was suggested by the study of earthquake waves.  The center of the Earth is known to be very hot because of the magma released from volcanoes.
7. 7. SCIENCE IDEAS • The layers of the Earth are the CRUST, the MANTLE, and the CORE. • The CRUST is the outermost layer of the Earth. • The MANTLE, which lies beneath the crust, is composed of solid rock and hot molten rock. • The CORE, is made up of molten iron, nickel in its outer portion and solid materials in its inner structure. • The layers of the solid Earth is being studied using modern instruments like the SEISMOGRAPH.