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  • 1. OrganizationalOrganizational BehaviorBehavior SchermerhornSchermerhorn, Hunt, and, Hunt, and OsbornOsbornOsbornOsborn Prepared by Michael K. McCuddy Valparaiso University
  • 2. Chapter 1 Study Questions What is organizational behavior and why is it important? What are organizations like as work Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 2 What are organizations like as work settings? What is the nature of managerial work? How do we learn about organizational behavior?
  • 3. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Workplace success depends on: – Respect for people. – Understanding of human behavior in complex Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 3 – Understanding of human behavior in complex organizational systems. – Individual commitment to flexibility, creativity, and learning. – Individual willingness to change.
  • 4. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Organizations and their members are challenged to: – Simultaneously achieve high performance and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 4 – Simultaneously achieve high performance and high quality of life. – Embrace ethics and social responsibility. – Respect the vast potential of demographic and cultural diversity among people. – Recognize the impact of globalization.
  • 5. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Organizational behavior. – Study of human behavior in organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 5 organizations. – A multidisciplinary field devoted to understanding individual and group behavior, interpersonal processes, and organizational dynamics.
  • 6. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Pick up Figure 1.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 6
  • 7. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Reasons for importance of scientific thinking. – The process of data collection is controlled and systematic. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 7 controlled and systematic. – Proposed explanations are carefully tested. – Only explanations that can be scientifically verified are accepted.
  • 8. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Contingency approach. – Tries to identify how different situations can be best understood and handled. – Important contingency variables include: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 8 – Important contingency variables include: • Environment. • Technology. • Tasks. • Structure. • People.
  • 9. Study Question 1: What is organizational behavior and why is it important? Modern workplace trends. – Commitment to ethical behavior. – Importance of human capital. – Demise of “command and control.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 9 – Demise of “command and control.” – Emphasis on teamwork. – Pervasive influence of information technology. – Respect for new workforce expectations. – Changing definition of “jobs” and “career.”
  • 10. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? An organization is a collection of people working together in a division of labor to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 10 working together in a division of labor to achieve a common purpose.
  • 11. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? The core purpose of an organization is the creation of goods and services. Missions and mission statements focus attention on the core purpose. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 11 attention on the core purpose. Mission statements communicate: – A clear sense of the domain in which the organization’s products and services fit. – A vision and sense of future aspirations.
  • 12. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? A strategy is a comprehensive plan that guides organizations to operate in ways that allow them to outperform their competitors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 12 competitors. Key managerial responsibilities include strategy formulation and implementation. Knowledge of OB is essential to effectively strategy implementation.
  • 13. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 13
  • 14. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Stakeholders. – People, groups, and institutions having an interest in an organization’s performance. – Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 14 – Customers, owners, employees, suppliers, regulators, and local communities are key stakeholders. – Interests of multiple stakeholders sometimes conflict. – Executive leadership often focuses on balancing multiple stakeholder expectations.
  • 15. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational culture and diversity. – Organizational culture refers to the shared beliefs and values that influence the behavior of organizational members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 15 members. – Positive organizational cultures: • Have a high-performance orientation. • Emphasize teamwork. • Encourage risk taking. • Emphasize innovation.. • Respect people and workforce diversity. – Success in business world is tied to valuing diversity.
  • 16. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Organizational effectiveness approaches. – Systems resource approach focuses on inputs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 16 inputs. – Internal process approach focuses on the transformation process. – Goal approach focuses on outputs. – Strategic contingencies approach focuses on impact on key stakeholders.
  • 17. Study Question 2: What are organizations like as work settings? Longitudinal views of organizational effectiveness. – Short-run emphasis on goal accomplishment, Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 17 – Short-run emphasis on goal accomplishment, resource utilization, and stakeholder satisfaction. – Intermediate-run emphasis on organization’s adaptability and development potential. – Long-run emphasis on survival.
  • 18. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managers perform jobs that involve directly supporting the work efforts of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 18 others. Managers assume roles such as coordinator, coach, or team leader.
  • 19. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? The management process. – An effective manager is one whose organizational unit, group, or team consistently achieves its goals while its Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 19 consistently achieves its goals while its members remain capable, committed, and enthusiastic. – Key results of effective management: • Task performance. • Job satisfaction.
  • 20. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 20
  • 21. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? The nature of managerial work. – Managers work long hours. – Managers are busy people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 21 – Managers are busy people. – Managers are often interrupted. – Managerial work is fragmented and variable. – Managers work mostly with other people. – Managers spend a lot of time communicating.
  • 22. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 22
  • 23. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managerial mind-sets. – Reflective mind-set — managing one’s self. – Analytic mind-set — managing organizational Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 23 – Analytic mind-set — managing organizational operations and decisions. – Worldly mind-set — managing in a global context. – Collaborative mind-set — managing relationships. – Action mind-set — managing change.
  • 24. Study Question 3: What is the nature of managerial work? Managerial skills and competencies. – A skill is an ability to translate knowledge into action that results in a desired performance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 24 action that results in a desired performance. – Categories of skills. • Technical. • Human. • Conceptual.
  • 25. Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? Learning is an enduring change in behavior that results from experience. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 25 Organizational learning is the process of acquiring knowledge and utilizing information to adapt successfully to changing circumstances.
  • 26. Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? . Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 26
  • 27. Study Question 4: How do we learn about organizational behavior? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 1 27
  • 28. Chapter 2 Study Questions What is a high-performance organization? What is multiculturalism, and how can workforce diversity be managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 28 workforce diversity be managed? How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? What are key OB transitions in the new workplace?
  • 29. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? High-performance organizations. – Value and empower people, and respect diversity. – Mobilize the talents of self-directed work teams. Use cutting-edge technologies to achieve success. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 29 – Use cutting-edge technologies to achieve success. – Thrive on learning and enable members to grow and develop. – Are achievement-, quality-, and customer-oriented, as well as being sensitive to the external environment.
  • 30. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Stakeholders. – The individuals, groups, and other organizations affected by an Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 30 organizations affected by an organization’s performance. Value creation. – The extent to which an organization satisfies the needs of strategic constituencies.
  • 31. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 31
  • 32. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Total quality management (TQM). – A total commitment to: • High-quality results. • Continuous improvement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 32 • Continuous improvement. • Customer satisfaction. – Meeting customers’ needs. – Doing all tasks right the first time. – Continuous improvement focuses on two questions: • Is it necessary? • If so, can it be done better?
  • 33. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Human capital. – The economic value of people with job-relevant abilities, knowledge, ideas, energies, and commitments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 33 Knowledge workers. – People whose minds rather than physical capabilities create value for the organization. Intellectual capital. – The performance potential of the expertise, competencies, creativity, and commitment within an organization’s workforce.
  • 34. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Empowerment. – Allows people, individually and in groups, to use their talents and knowledge to make Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 34 use their talents and knowledge to make decisions that affect their work. Social capital. – The performance potential represented in the relationships maintained among people at work.
  • 35. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Learning and high-performance cultures. – Uncertainty highlights the importance of organizational learning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 35 organizational learning. – High-performance organizations are designed for organizational learning. – A learning organization has a culture that values human capital and invigorates learning for performance enhancement.
  • 36. Study Question 1: What is a high- performance organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 36
  • 37. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism, and how can workforce diversity be managed? Workforce diversity. – Describes differences among people with respect to age, race, ethnicity, gender, physical ability, and sexual orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 37 sexual orientation. Multiculturalism. – Refers to pluralism and respect for diversity and individual differences in the workplace. Inclusivity. – The degree to which the organization’s culture respects and values diversity.
  • 38. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism, and how can workforce diversity be managed? Diversity biases in the workplace. – Prejudice. – Discrimination. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 38 – Discrimination. – The glass ceiling effect. – Sexual harassment. – Verbal abuse. – Pay discrimination.
  • 39. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism, and how can workforce diversity be managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 39
  • 40. Study Question 2: What is multi-culturalism, and how can workforce diversity be managed? Managing diversity. – Developing a work environment and organizational culture that allows all organization members to reach their full potential. A diversity mature organization is created when: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 40 A diversity mature organization is created when: – Managers ensure the effective and efficient utilization of employees in pursuit of the corporate mission. – Managers consider how their behaviors affect diversity. Well-managed workforce diversity increases human capital.
  • 41. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ethical behavior. – “Good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 41 – “Good” or “right” as opposed to “bad” or “wrong” in a particular setting. The public demands that people in organizations act according to high moral standards.
  • 42. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Immoral managers. – Do not subscribe to any ethical principles; pursuit of self-interest. Amoral managers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 42 Amoral managers. – Ethics is simply not on this manager’s “radar screen.” Moral managers. – Incorporate ethical principles and goals into their personal behavior .
  • 43. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 43
  • 44. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ways of thinking about ethical behavior. – Utilitarian view –– the greatest good for the greatest number of people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 44 – Individualism view –– best serving long-term self-interests. – Moral-rights view –– respects and protects the fundamental rights of all human beings. – Justice view –– fair and impartial in the treatment of all people.
  • 45. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Different types of justice. – Procedural justice –– properly following rules and procedures in all cases. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 45 and procedures in all cases. – Distributive justice –– treating people the same under a policy, regardless of demographic differences. – Interactional justice –– treating people affected by a decision with dignity and respect.
  • 46. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Ethical dilemmas. – Occur when someone must choose whether or not to pursue a course of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 46 whether or not to pursue a course of action that, although offering the potential of personal or organizational benefit or both, may be considered unethical.
  • 47. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Rationalizations for unethical behavior. – Pretending the behavior is not really unethical or illegal. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 47 or illegal. – Saying the behavior is really in the organization’s or person’s best interest. – Assuming the behavior is acceptable if others don’t find out about it. – Presuming that superiors will support and protect you.
  • 48. Study question 3: How do ethics and social responsibility influence human behavior in organizations? Organizational social responsibility. – The obligation of organizations to behave in ethical and moral ways as institutions of the broader society. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 48 broader society. – Managers should commit organizations to: • Pursuit of high productivity. • Corporate social responsibility. – A whistleblower exposes others’ wrongdoings in order to preserve high ethical standards.
  • 49. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership. – Society expects and demands ethical decisions Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 49 – Society expects and demands ethical decisions and actions from businesses and other social institutions. – Corporate governance. • The active oversight of management decisions, corporate strategy, and financial reporting by Boards of Directors.
  • 50. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Corporate governance and ethics leadership (cont.). – Ethics leadership. • Making business and organizational decisions with Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 50 • Making business and organizational decisions with high moral standards that meet the ethical test of being “good” and not “bad,” and of being “right” and not “wrong.” . – Integrity. • Acting in ways that are always honest, credible, and consistent in putting one’s values into practice.
  • 51. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior. – Quality of work life. • The overall quality of human experience in the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 51 • The overall quality of human experience in the workplace. • Commitment to quality of work life is an important value within organizational behavior. • Theory Y provides the theoretical underpinnings for contemporary quality of work life concepts.
  • 52. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Positive organizational behavior (cont.). – Positive organizational behavior focuses on practices that value human capacities and encourage their full utilization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 52 encourage their full utilization. – Positive organizational behavior is based on the core capacities of: • Confidence. • Hope. • Optimism. • Resilience.
  • 53. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation. – Globalization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 53 – Globalization. • The worldwide interdependence of resource flows, product markets, and business competition. – Job migration. • The shifting of jobs from one nation to another.
  • 54. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Globalization, job migration, and organizational transformation (cont.). – Global outsourcing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 54 • Involves employers cutting back on domestic jobs and replacing them with contract workers in other nations. – Job migration and global outsourcing have contributed to organizations redesigning themselves for high performance in a changed world.
  • 55. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning. – Shamrock organizations. • Relatively small core group of permanent, full-time Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 55 • Relatively small core group of permanent, full-time employees with critical skills. • Outside operators contracting to core group to perform essential daily activities. • Part-timers hired by core group on an as-needed basis.
  • 56. Study question 4: What are key OB transitions in the new workplace? Personal management and career planning (cont.). – Personal management. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 2 56 • Understand one’s self, exercising initiative, accepting responsibility, working well with others, and continually learning from experience. – Self-monitoring. • Observing and reflecting on one’s own behavior and acting in ways that adapt to the situation.
  • 57. Chapter 3 Study Questions Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 57 What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? How does cultural diversity affect people at work? What is a global view on organizational learning?
  • 58. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Most organizations must achieve high performance within a complex and competitive global environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 58 global environment. Globalization refers to the complex economic networks of international competition, resource suppliers, and product markets.
  • 59. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Forces of globalization. – Rapid growth in information technology and electronic communication. – Movement of valuable skills and investments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 59 – Movement of valuable skills and investments. – Increasing cultural diversity. – Implications of immigration. – Increasing job migration among nations. – Impact of multicultural workforces.
  • 60. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Globalization is contributing to the emergence of regional economic alliances. Important regional alliances. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 60 – European Union (EU). – North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). – Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC).
  • 61. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Outsourcing. – Contracting out of work rather than accomplishing it with a full-time permanent workforce. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 61 Off shoring. – Contracting out work to persons in other countries. Job migration. – Movement of jobs from one location or country to another.
  • 62. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Global managers. – Know how to conduct business in multiple countries. – Are culturally adaptable and often Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 62 – Are culturally adaptable and often multilingual. – Think with a worldview and are able to map strategy in the global context. – Have a global attitude. – Have a global mindset.
  • 63. Study Question 1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior? Culture. – The learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society. – The “software of the mind.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 63 – The “software of the mind.” – Helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one another. – Cultural intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness in cross-cultural situations.
  • 64. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Language. – Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture. – Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 64 – Whorfian hypothesis — considers language as a major determinant of thinking. – Low-context cultures — the message is conveyed by the words used. – High-context cultures — words convey only a limited part of the message.
  • 65. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Time orientation. – Polychronic cultures. • Circular view of time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 65 • Circular view of time. • No pressure for immediate action or performance. • Emphasis on the present. – Monochronic cultures. • Linear view of time. • Create pressure for action and performance. • Long-range goals and planning are important.
  • 66. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Use of space. – Proxemics. • The study of how people use space to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 66 • The study of how people use space to communicate. • Reveals important cultural differences. – Concept of personal space varies across cultures. – Space is arranged differently in different cultures.
  • 67. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Religion. – A major element of culture. – Can be a very visible aspect of culture. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 67 – Can be a very visible aspect of culture. – Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior. – Influences conduct of economic matters.
  • 68. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Values and national culture. – Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes. – Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 68 – Hofstede’s five dimensions of national culture: • Power distance. • Uncertainty avoidance. • Individualism-collectivism. • Masculinity-femininity. • Long-term/short-term orientation.
  • 69. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Power distance. – The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members. – Respect for hierarchy and rank in Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 69 – Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations. – Example of a high power distance culture — Indonesia. – Example of a low power distance culture — Sweden.
  • 70. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Uncertainty avoidance. – The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity. – Preference for structured versus unstructured Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 70 – Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations. – Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture — France. – Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture — Hong Kong.
  • 71. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Individualism-collectivism. – The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 71 or group interests. – Preferences for working individually or in groups. – Example of an individualistic culture — United States. – Example of a collectivist culture — Mexico.
  • 72. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Masculinity-femininity. – The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 72 stereotypical masculine or feminine traits. – Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships. – Example of a masculine culture — Japan. – Example of a feminine culture — Thailand.
  • 73. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Long-term/short-term orientation. – The tendency of a culture to emphasize future- oriented values versus present-oriented values. – Adoption of long-term or short-term Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 73 – Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons. – Example of a long-term orientation culture — South Korea. – Example of a short-term orientation culture — United States.
  • 74. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 74
  • 75. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Understanding cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism. Parochialism — assuming that the ways of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 75 – Parochialism — assuming that the ways of one’s own culture are the only ways of doing things. – Ethnocentrism — assuming that the ways of one’s culture are the best ways of doing things.
  • 76. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 76
  • 77. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people. – Universalism versus particularism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 77 – Universalism versus particularism. • Relative emphasis on rules and consistency, or on relationships and flexibility. – Individualism versus collectivism. • Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, or on group interests and consensus.
  • 78. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Neutral versus affective. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 78 – Neutral versus affective. • Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment, or on emotion and expressed feelings. – Specific versus diffuse. • Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement, or on involvement with the whole person.
  • 79. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people (cont.). – Achievement versus prescription. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 79 – Achievement versus prescription. • Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status, or on ascribed status.
  • 80. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward time. – Sequential view of time. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 80 – Sequential view of time. • Time is a passing series of events. – Synchronic view of time. • Time consists of an interrelated past, present, and future.
  • 81. Study Question 2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences? Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment. – Inner-directed cultures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 81 – Inner-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it. – Outer-directed cultures. • Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it.
  • 82. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Multinational corporation (MNC). – A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 82 foreign country. – Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home. – Have enormous economic power and impact. – Bring benefits and controversies to host countries.
  • 83. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Multicultural workforces and expatriates. – Styles of leadership, motivation, decision making, planning, organizing, and controlling vary from country to country. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 83 vary from country to country. – Expatriates. • People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time. • Can be very costly for employers. • Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success.
  • 84. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 84
  • 85. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Ethical behavior across cultures. – Ethical challenges result from: • Cultural diversity. • Variations in governments and legal systems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 85 • Variations in governments and legal systems. – Prominent current issues. • Corruption and bribery. • Poor working conditions. • Child and prison labor. • Business support of repressive governments. • Sweatshops.
  • 86. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 86
  • 87. Study Question 3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work? Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism. – Multinational businesses should adopt core or Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 87 – Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect fundamental human rights. – Beyond the threshold, businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions, foundations, and needs of different cultures.
  • 88. Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Organizational learning. – The process of acquiring the knowledge necessary to adapt to a changing environment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 88 environment. Global organizational learning. – The ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational adaptation.
  • 89. Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Are management theories universal? – Answer is “no.” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 89 – Cultural influences should be carefully considered in transferring theories and their applications across cultures.
  • 90. Study Question 4: What is a global view on organizational learning? Best practices around the world. – Global organizational learning should identify best practices around the world. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 3 90 best practices around the world. – Potential high-performance benchmarks exist throughout the world. – Cultural diversity enriches global organization learning.
  • 91. Chapter 4 Study Questions What is personality? How do personalities differ? What are value and attitude differences Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 91 What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity?
  • 92. Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality. – The overall profile or combination of characteristics that capture the unique nature of a person as that person reacts and interacts with others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 92 with others. – Combines a set of physical and mental characteristics that reflect how a person looks, thinks, acts, and feels. – Predictable relationships are expected between people’s personalities and their behaviors.
  • 93. Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 93
  • 94. Study Question 1: What is personality? Heredity and environment. – Heredity sets the limits on the development of personality characteristics. – Environment determines development within these limits. – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 94 – About a 50-50 heredity-environment split. – Cultural values and norms play a substantial role in the development of personality. – Social factors include family life, religion, and many kinds of formal and informal groups. – Situational factors reflect the opportunities or constraints imposed by the operational context.
  • 95. Study Question 1: What is personality? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 95
  • 96. Study Question 1: What is personality? Personality and the self-concept. – Personality dynamics. • The ways in which an individual integrates and organizes social traits, values and motives, personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 96 personal conceptions, and emotional adjustments. – Self-concept. • The view individuals have of themselves as physical, social, and spiritual or moral beings. • Self-esteem. • Self-efficacy.
  • 97. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? “Big Five” personality dimensions. – Extraversion • Being outgoing, sociable, assertive. – Agreeableness. • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 97 • Being good-natured, trusting, cooperative. – Conscientiousness. • Being responsible, dependable, persistent. – Emotional stability. • Being unworried, secure, relaxed. – Openness to experience. • Being imaginative, curious, broad-minded.
  • 98. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Social traits. – Surface-level traits that reflect the way a person appears to others when interacting in various social settings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 98 various social settings. – An important social trait is problem-solving style. • The way a person goes about gathering and evaluating information in solving problems and making decisions.
  • 99. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Information gathering in problem solving. – Getting and organizing data for use. – Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 99 – Sensation-type individuals prefer routine and order and emphasize well-defined details in gathering information. – Intuitive-type individuals like new problems and dislike routine.
  • 100. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Information evaluation in problem solving. – Making judgments about how to deal with information once it has been collected. – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 100 – Feeling-type individuals are oriented toward conformity and try to accommodate themselves to other people. – Thinking-type individuals use reason and intellect to deal with problems and downplay emotions.
  • 101. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 101
  • 102. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Personal conception traits. – The way individuals tend to think about their social and physical settings as well as their major beliefs and personal orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 102 major beliefs and personal orientation. – Key traits. • Locus of control. • Authoritarianism/dogmatism. • Machiavellianism. • Self-monitoring.
  • 103. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Locus of control. – The extent to which a person feels able to control his/her own life. – Externals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 103 – Externals. • More extraverted in their interpersonal relationships and more oriented toward the world around them. – Internals. • More introverted and more oriented towards their own feelings and ideas.
  • 104. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 104
  • 105. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Authoritarianism/dogmatism. – Authoritarianism. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 105 • Tendency to adhere rigidly to conventional values and to obey recognized authority. – Dogmatism. • Tendency to view the world as a threatening place.
  • 106. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? People with a high-Machiavellian personality: – Approach situations logically and thoughtfully. – Are capable of lying to achieve personal goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 106 – Are rarely swayed by loyalty, friendships, past promises, or others’ opinions. – Are skilled at influencing others. – Try to exploit loosely structured situations. – Perform in a perfunctory or detached manner in highly structured situations.
  • 107. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? People with a low-Machiavellian personality: – Accept direction imposed by others in loosely structured situations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 107 structured situations. – Work hard to do well in highly structured situations. – Are strongly guided by ethical considerations. – Are unlikely to lie or cheat.
  • 108. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Self-monitoring. – A person’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external situational factors. – High self-monitors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 108 – High self-monitors. • Sensitive to external cues. • Behave differently in different situations. – Low self-monitors. • Not sensitive to external cues. • Not able to disguise their behaviors.
  • 109. Study Question 2: How do personalities differ? Emotional adjustment traits. – How much an individual experiences distress or displays unacceptable acts. Type A orientation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 109 – Type A orientation. • Characterized by impatience, desire for achievement, and perfectionism. – Type B orientation. • Characterized as more easygoing and less competitive in relation to daily events.
  • 110. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Values. – Broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcomes. Values influence behavior and attitudes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 110 – Values influence behavior and attitudes. – Parents, friends, teachers, and external reference groups can influence individual values. – Values develop as a product of learning and experiences.
  • 111. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Pick up Figure 4.5 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 111
  • 112. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Gordon Allport’s values categories. – Theoretical values. – Economic values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 112 – Economic values. – Aesthetic values. – Social values. – Political values. – Religious values.
  • 113. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Maglino’s categories of workplace values. – Achievement. – Helping and concern for others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 113 – Helping and concern for others. – Honesty. – Fairness.
  • 114. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Attitudes. – Are influenced by values and are acquired from the same sources as values. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 114 from the same sources as values. – Are more specific and less stable than values. – An attitude is a predisposition to respond in a positive or negative way to someone or something in one’s environment.
  • 115. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 115
  • 116. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? The attitude-behavior relationship is stronger when: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 116 – Attitudes and behaviors are more specific. – There is freedom to carry out the behavioral intent. – The person has experience with the attitude.
  • 117. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Attitudes and cognitive consistency. – Cognitive dissonance. • Describes a state of inconsistency between an Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 117 • Describes a state of inconsistency between an individual’s attitudes and his or her behavior. – Cognitive dissonance can be reduced by: • Changing the underlying attitude. • Changing future behavior. • Developing new ways of explaining or rationalizing the inconsistency.
  • 118. Study Question 3: What are value and attitude differences among individuals, and why are they important? Attitudes and cognitive consistency (cont.). – Dissonance reduction choices are influenced Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 118 by: • The degree of control a person has over the situation. • The magnitude of the rewards involved.
  • 119. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Workforce diversity. – The presence of individual human characteristics that make people different Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 119 characteristics that make people different from one another. Challenge of workforce diversity. – Respecting individuals’ perspectives and contributions and promoting a shared sense of organizational vision and identity.
  • 120. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? As workforce diversity increases, the possibility of stereotyping and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 120 discrimination increases. – Demographic characteristics may serve as the basis for stereotypes.
  • 121. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Equal employment opportunity. – Nondiscriminatory employment decisions. • No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 121 • No intent to exclude or disadvantage legally protected groups. – Affirmative action. • Remedial actions for proven discrimination or statistical imbalance in workforce.
  • 122. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Demographic characteristics. – The background characteristics that help shape what a person becomes. Important demographic characteristics for the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 122 Important demographic characteristics for the workplace. – Gender. – Age. – Able-bodiedness. – Race. – Ethnicity.
  • 123. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender. – No consistent differences between men and women in: • Problem-solving abilities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 123 • Problem-solving abilities. • Analytical skills. • Competitive drive. • Motivation. • Learning ability. • Sociability.
  • 124. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Gender (cont.). – As compared to men, women: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 124 • Are more conforming. • Have lower expectations of success. • Have higher absenteeism. • Are more democratic as leaders.
  • 125. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Age. – Aging workforce. – Older workers are more susceptible to stereotyping. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 125 – Older workers are more susceptible to stereotyping. – Age discrimination lawsuits are increasingly common in the United States. – Small businesses tend to value older workers. – Experienced workers, who are usually older, tend to perform well, be absent less, and have low turnover.
  • 126. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Able-bodiedness. – Despite evidence of effective job performance, Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 126 most disabled persons are unemployed. – Most disabled persons want to work. – More firms are likely to hire disabled workers in the future.
  • 127. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Racial and ethnic groups. – African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanic Americans make up an ever- increasing percentage of the American Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 127 increasing percentage of the American workforce. – Potential for stereotypes and discrimination can adversely affect career opportunities. – Race cannot be a BFOQ.
  • 128. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Important lessons regarding demographic characteristics. – Respect and deal with the needs and concerns Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 128 – Respect and deal with the needs and concerns of people with different demographics. – Avoid linking demographics to stereotypes. – Demography is not a good indicator of individual-job fits.
  • 129. Study Question 4: What are individual differences and how are they related to workforce diversity? Aptitude. – A person’s capability of learning something. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 4 129 Ability. – A person’s existing capacity to perform the various tasks needed for a given job. – Includes relevant knowledge and skills.
  • 130. Chapter 5 Study Questions What is the perception process? What are common perceptual distortions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 130 distortions? How can perceptions be managed? What is attribution theory?
  • 131. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Perception. – The process by which people select, organize, interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 131 interpret, retrieve, and respond to information. – People process information inputs into responses involving feeling and action. – The quality or accuracy of a person’s perceptions has a major impact on responses.
  • 132. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 132
  • 133. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 133
  • 134. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 134
  • 135. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information attention and selection. – Selective screening. • Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 135 • Lets in only a tiny portion all the information that is available. – Two types of selective screening. • Controlled processing. • Screening without perceiver’s conscious awareness.
  • 136. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Organization of information. – Schemas. • Cognitive frameworks that represent organized knowledge about a given concept or stimulus Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 136 knowledge about a given concept or stimulus developed through experience. – Types of schemas: • Self schemas. • Person schemas. • Script schemas. • Person-in-situation schemas.
  • 137. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information interpretation. – Uncovering the reasons behind the ways Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 137 stimuli are grouped. – People may interpret the same information differently or make different attributions about information.
  • 138. Study Question 1: What is the perception process? Information retrieval. – Attention and selection, organization, and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 138 – Attention and selection, organization, and interpretation are part of memory. – Information stored in memory must be retrieved in order to be used.
  • 139. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 139
  • 140. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Stereotypes or prototypes. – Combines information based on the category or class to which a person, situation, or object Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 140 or class to which a person, situation, or object belongs. – Individual differences are obscured. – Strong impact at the organization stage.
  • 141. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Halo effects. – Occur when one attribute of a person or situation is used to develop an overall Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 141 situation is used to develop an overall impression of the individual or situation. – Likely to occur in the organization stage. – Important in the performance appraisal process.
  • 142. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Selective perception. – The tendency to single out those aspects of a situation, person, or object that are consistent Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 142 situation, person, or object that are consistent with one’s needs, values, or attitudes. – Strongest impact is at the attention stage. – Perception checking with other persons can help counter the adverse impact of selective perception.
  • 143. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Projection. – The assignment of one’s personal attributes to other individuals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 143 other individuals. – Especially likely to occur in interpretation stage. – Projection can be controlled through a high degree of self-awareness and empathy.
  • 144. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Contrast effects. – Occur when an individual is compared to other Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 144 people on the same characteristics on which the others rank higher or lower. – People must be aware of the impact of contrast effects in many work settings
  • 145. Study Question 2: What are common perceptual distortions? Self-fulfilling prophecy. – The tendency to create or find in another situation or individual that which one expected Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 145 situation or individual that which one expected to find. – Also called the “Pygmalion effect.” – Can have either positive or negative outcomes. – Managers should adopt positive and optimistic approaches to people at work.
  • 146. Study Question 3: How can perceptions be managed? Impression management. – A person’s systematic attempt to behave in ways that create and maintain desired Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 146 ways that create and maintain desired impressions in others’ eyes. – Successful managers: • Use impression management to enhance their own images. • Are sensitive to other people’s use of impression management.
  • 147. Study Question 3: How can perceptions be managed? Distortion management. – Managers should: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 147 • Balance automatic and controlled information processing at the attention and selection stage. • Broaden their schemas at the organizing stage. • Be attuned to attributions at the interpretation stage.
  • 148. Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Attribution theory aids in perceptual interpretation by focusing on how people attempt to: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 148 attempt to: – Understand the causes of a certain event. – Assess responsibility for the outcomes of the event. – Evaluate the personal qualities of the people involved in the event.
  • 149. Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Factors influencing internal and external attributions. – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 149 – Distinctiveness — consistency of a person’s behavior across situations. – Consensus — likelihood of others responding in a similar way. – Consistency — whether an individual responds the same way across time.
  • 150. Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Fundamental attribution error. – Applies to the evaluation of someone’s else behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 150 behavior. – Attributing success to the influence of situational factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of personal factors.
  • 151. Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Self-serving bias. – Applies to the evaluation of our own behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 151 – Attributing success to the influence of personal factors. – Attributing failure to the influence of situational factors.
  • 152. Study Question 4:What is attribution theory? Techniques for effectively managing perceptions and attributions. – Be self-aware. – Seek a wide range of differing information. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 5 152 – Seek a wide range of differing information. – Try to see a situation as others would. – Be aware of different kinds of schemas. – Be aware of perceptual distortions. – Be aware of self and impression management. – Be aware of attribution theory implications.
  • 153. Chapter 6 Study Questions What is motivation? What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 153 individual needs and motivation? What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation?
  • 154. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Motivation refers to forces within an individual that account for the level, direction, and persistence of effort expended at work. – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 154 – Direction — an individual’s choice when presented with a number of possible alternatives. – Level — the amount of effort a person puts forth. – Persistence — the length of time a person stays with a given action.
  • 155. Study Question 1:What is motivation? Categories of motivation theories. – Content theories. • Focus on profiling the needs that people seek to fulfill. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 155 fulfill. – Process theories. • Focus on people’s thought or cognitive processes. – Reinforcement theories. • Emphasize controlling behavior by manipulating its consequences.
  • 156. Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Content theories. – Motivation results from the individual’s attempts to satisfy needs. Major content theories. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 156 Major content theories. – Hierarchy of needs theory. – ERG theory. – Acquired needs theory. – Two-factor theory. Each theory offers a slightly different view.
  • 157. Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 157
  • 158. Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? ERG theory. – Existence needs. • Desire for physiological and material well-being. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 158 – Relatedness needs. • Desire for satisfying interpersonal relationships. – Growth needs. • Desire for continued personal growth and development.
  • 159. Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Acquired needs theory. – Need for achievement (nAch). • The desire to do something better or more efficiently, to solve problems, or to master complex tasks. Need for affiliation (nAff). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 159 – Need for affiliation (nAff). • The desire to establish and maintain friendly and warm relations with others. – Need for power (nPower). • The desire to control others, to influence their behavior, or to be responsible for others.
  • 160. Study Question 2: What do the content theories suggest about individual needs and motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 160
  • 161. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Process theories. – Focus on the thought processes through which people choose among alternative courses of action. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 161 action. The chapter focuses on two process theories: – Equity theory. – Expectancy theory.
  • 162. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Equity theory. – People gauge the fairness of their work outcomes in relation to others. – Felt negative inequity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 162 – Felt negative inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively less than others in proportion to work inputs. – Felt positive inequity. • Individual feels he/she has received relatively more than others in proportion to work inputs.
  • 163. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Equity restoration behaviors. – Change work inputs. – Change the outcomes received. Leave the situation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 163 – Leave the situation. – Change the comparison person. – Psychologically distort the comparisons. – Take actions to change the inputs or outputs of the comparison person.
  • 164. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Coping methods for dealing with equity comparisons. – Recognize that equity comparisons are inevitable in the workplace. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 164 workplace. – Anticipate felt negative inequities when rewards are given. – Communicate clear evaluations for any rewards given. – Communicate an appraisal of performance on which the reward is based. – Communicate comparison points that are appropriate in the situation
  • 165. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 165
  • 166. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? A person’s motivation is a multiplicative function of expectancy, instrumentality, and valence (M = E x I x V). Motivational implications of expectancy theory. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 166 Motivational implications of expectancy theory. – Motivation is sharply reduced when, expectancy, instrumentality, or valence approach zero. – Motivation is high when expectancy and instrumentality are high and valence is strongly positive.
  • 167. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Extrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes given to the individual by some other person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 167 individual by some other person. Intrinsic rewards. – Positively valued work outcomes that the individual receives directly as a result of task performance.
  • 168. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards. – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 168 – Clearly identify the desired behaviors. – Maintain an inventory of rewards that have the potential to serve as positive reinforcers. – Recognize individual differences in the rewards that will have a positive value for each person.
  • 169. Study Question 3: What do the process theories suggest about individual motivation? Guidelines for the distribution of extrinsic rewards (cont.). – Let each person know exactly what must be done to receive a desirable reward; set clear target antecedents and give performance feedback. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 169 and give performance feedback. – Allocate rewards contingently and immediately upon the appearance of the desired behaviors. – Allocate rewards wisely in terms of scheduling the delivery of positive reinforcement.
  • 170. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Reinforcement. – The administration of a consequence as a result of a behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 170 result of a behavior. – Proper management of reinforcement can change the direction, level, and persistence of an individual’s behavior.
  • 171. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 171
  • 172. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Law of effect. – Theoretical basis for manipulating consequences of behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 172 consequences of behavior. – Behavior that results in a pleasant outcome is likely to be repeated while behavior that results in an unpleasant outcome is not likely to be repeated.
  • 173. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 173
  • 174. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). – The systematic reinforcement of desirable work behavior and the nonreinforcement or Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 174 work behavior and the nonreinforcement or punishment of unwanted work behavior. – Uses four basic strategies: • Positive reinforcement. • Negative reinforcement. • Punishment. • Extinction.
  • 175. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Positive reinforcement. – The administration of positive consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 175 to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in similar settings. – Rewards are not necessarily positive reinforcers. – A reward is a positive reinforcer only if the behavior improves.
  • 176. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Principles governing reinforcement. – Law of contingent reinforcement. • The reward must be delivered only if the desired Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 176 • The reward must be delivered only if the desired behavior is exhibited. – Law of immediate reinforcement. • The reward must be given as soon as possible after the desired behavior is exhibited.
  • 177. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Scheduling reinforcement. – Continuous reinforcement. • Administers a reward each time the desired Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 177 • Administers a reward each time the desired behavior occurs. – Intermittent reinforcement. • Rewards behavior periodically — either on the basis of time elapsed or the number of desired behaviors exhibited.
  • 178. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 178
  • 179. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Negative reinforcement. – Also known as avoidance. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 179 – The withdrawal of negative consequences to increase the likelihood of repeating the desired behavior in a similar setting.
  • 180. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Punishment. – The administration of negative consequences Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 180 or the withdrawal of positive consequences to reduce the likelihood of repeating the behavior in similar settings.
  • 181. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Implications of using punishment. – Punishing poor performance enhances performance without affecting satisfaction. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 181 performance without affecting satisfaction. – Arbitrary and capricious punishment leads to poor performance and low satisfaction. – Punishment may be offset by positive reinforcement from another source.
  • 182. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Extinction. – The withdrawal of the reinforcing consequences for a given behavior. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 182 consequences for a given behavior. – The behavior is not unlearned; it simply is not exhibited. – The behavior will reappear if it is reinforced again.
  • 183. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 183
  • 184. Study Question 4: What are reinforcement theories and how are they linked to motivation? Ethical issues with reinforcement usage. – Is improved performance really due to reinforcement? – Is the use of reinforcement demeaning and dehumanizing? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 6 184 dehumanizing? – Will managers abuse their power by exerting external control over behavior? – How can we ensure that the manipulation of consequences is done in a positive and constructive fashion?
  • 185. Chapter 7 Study Questions How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? What are job-design approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 185 What are job-design approaches? How are technology and job design related? What alternative work arrangements are used today?
  • 186. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Job satisfaction. – The degree to which individuals feel positively or negatively about their jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 186 or negatively about their jobs. – Job satisfaction can be assessed: • By managerial observation and interpretation. • Through use of job satisfaction questionnaires.
  • 187. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Implications of key work decisions for job satisfaction. – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 187 – Joining and remaining a member of an organization. • Satisfied workers have better attendance and less turnover. – Working hard in pursuit of high levels of task performance. • Three alternative relationships between performance and satisfaction.
  • 188. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: satisfaction causes performance. – Managerial implication — to increase Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 188 – Managerial implication — to increase employees’ work performance, make them happy. – Job satisfaction alone is not a consistent predictor of work performance.
  • 189. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: performance causes satisfaction. – Managerial implication — help people achieve high performance, then satisfaction will Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 189 high performance, then satisfaction will follow. – Performance in a given time period is related to satisfaction in a later time period. – Rewards link performance with later satisfaction.
  • 190. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Argument: rewards cause both satisfaction and performance. – Managerial implications. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 190 – Managerial implications. • Proper allocation of rewards can positively influence both satisfaction and performance. • High job satisfaction and performance-contingent rewards influence a person’s work performance. • Size and value of the reward should vary in proportion to the level of one’s performance.
  • 191. Study Question 1: How are motivation, job satisfaction, and performance related? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 191
  • 192. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 192
  • 193. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Scientific management. – Sought to improve work efficiency by creating small, repetitive tasks and training workers to do these tasks well. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 193 do these tasks well. – Job simplification. • Standardizes work procedures and employs people in clearly defined and highly specialized tasks. • Intent is to increase efficiency, but it may be decreased due to the motivational impact of unappealing jobs.
  • 194. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Job enlargement and job rotation. – Job enlargement. • Increases task variety by combining into one job two or more tasks that were previously assigned to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 194 two or more tasks that were previously assigned to separate workers. – Job rotation. • Increases task variety by periodically shifting workers among jobs involving different tasks. – Enlargement and rotation use horizontal loading to increase job breadth.
  • 195. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Job enrichment. – The practice of enhancing job content by building motivating factors such as Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 195 building motivating factors such as responsibility, achievement, recognition, and personal growth into the job. – Adds planning and evaluating duties to the job content. – Uses vertical loading to increase job depth.
  • 196. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Ways to increase job depth. – Allow workers to plan. – Allow workers to control. – Maximize job freedom. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 196 – Maximize job freedom. – Increase task difficulty. – Help workers become task experts. – Provide performance feedback. – Increase performance accountability. – Provide complete units of work.
  • 197. Study question 2: What are job- design approaches? Concerns about job enrichment. – Job enrichment can be very costly. – Controversy concerning whether pay Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 197 – Controversy concerning whether pay must be increased when jobs are enriched. • Herzberg’s argument regarding the impact of competitive pay and enriched jobs.
  • 198. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 198
  • 199. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics. – Skill variety. • Degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities and involves the use of a number of different skills and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 199 and involves the use of a number of different skills and talents of the individual. – Task identity. • Degree to which the job requires the completion of a “whole” and identifiable piece of work; one that involves doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome.
  • 200. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Task significance. • Degree to which the job is important and involves a meaningful contribution to the organization or society in Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 200 meaningful contribution to the organization or society in general. – Autonomy. • Degree to which the job gives the employee substantial freedom, independence, and discretion in scheduling the work and in determining the procedures used in carrying it out.
  • 201. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Core job characteristics (cont.). – Job feedback. • Degree to which carrying out the work activities provides Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 201 direct and clear information to the employee regarding how well the job has been done. .
  • 202. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Motivating potential score. – Combined together, the core job characteristics create a motivating potential Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 202 characteristics create a motivating potential score (MPS). – MPS indicates the degree to which the job is capable of motivating people. – A job’s MPS can be raised by enriching the core characteristics.
  • 203. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Critical psychological states. – When the core characteristics are highly enriched, three critical psychological states are positively influenced. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 203 are positively influenced. • Experienced meaningfulness of work. • Experienced responsibility for work outcomes. • Knowledge of actual results of work activities. – Positive psychological states create positive work outcomes.
  • 204. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Enriched core job characteristics will create positive psychological states, which in turn will create positive work outcomes Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 204 in turn will create positive work outcomes only when: – Employee growth-need strength is high. – The employee has the requisite knowledge and skill. – Employee context satisfaction exists.
  • 205. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Social information processing theory. – Social information in organizations influences the way people perceive their jobs and respond Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 205 the way people perceive their jobs and respond to them. – Research evidence shows that both social information and the core characteristics are important determinants of how people perceive their jobs.
  • 206. Study question 3: What are the keys to designing motivating jobs? Managerial and global implications of enriching jobs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 206 – Not everyone’s job should be enriched. – Job enrichment can apply to groups. – Culture has a substantial impact on job enrichment.
  • 207. Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Sociotechnical systems. – Reflects the importance of integrating people and technology to create high-performance Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 207 and technology to create high-performance work systems. – Essential for new developments in job design, given the impact of computers and information technology in the modern workplace.
  • 208. Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Flexible manufacturing systems. – Adaptive computer-based technologies and integrated job designs that are used to shift work easily and quickly among alternative Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 208 work easily and quickly among alternative products. – Workers develop expertise across a wide range of functions. – Jobs offer a wealth of potential for enriched core job characteristics.
  • 209. Study Question 4: How are technology and job design related? Workflow and process reengineering. – Process reengineering is the analysis, streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 209 streamlining, and reconfiguration of actions and tasks required to reach a work goal. – This approach for improving workflows and job designs is driven by one question: • What is necessary and what else can be eliminated?
  • 210. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks. – Any scheduling of work that allows a full-time job to be completed in fewer than the standard Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 210 job to be completed in fewer than the standard five days. – “4/40” is most common form.
  • 211. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Compressed work weeks (cont.). – Advantages. • For workers: added time off. • For organizations: lower absenteeism and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 211 • For organizations: lower absenteeism and improved recruiting of new employees. – Disadvantages. • For workers: increased fatigue and family adjustment problems. • For organizations: work scheduling problems, customer complaints, and possible union opposition.
  • 212. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Flexible working hours. – Gives individuals a daily choice in the timing of their work commitments. – Advantages: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 212 – Advantages: • For workers: shorter commuting time, more leisure time, more job satisfaction, and greater sense of responsibility. • For organizations: less absenteeism, tardiness, and turnover; more commitment; and higher performance.
  • 213. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Job sharing. – One full-time job is assigned to two or more persons who divide the work according to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 213 persons who divide the work according to agreed-upon hours. – Advantages. • For workers: less burnout and higher energy level. • For organizations; attracting talented people who who would otherwise be unable to work.
  • 214. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Work at home and the virtual office. – Telecommuting. • Work done at home or in a remote location via use of computers and advanced communication Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 214 of computers and advanced communication linkages with a central office or other employment locations. – Variants of telecommuting. • Flexiplace. • Hoteling. • Virtual office.
  • 215. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Advantages of telecommuting. – For workers: flexibility, comforts of home, and choice of work locations consistent with one’s lifestyle. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 215 – For organizations: costs savings, efficiency, and improved employee satisfaction. Disadvantages of telecommuting. – For workers: isolation from co-workers, decreased identification with work team, and technical difficulties with computer linkages.
  • 216. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Part-time work. – Temporary part-time work. • An employee is classified as temporary and works Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 216 • An employee is classified as temporary and works less than the standard 40-hour work week. – Permanent part-time work. • An employee is classified as a permanent member of the workforce and works less than the standard 40-hour work week.
  • 217. Study Question 5: What alternative work arrangements are used today? Advantages of part-time work. – For workers: appeals to people who want to supplement other jobs or do not want full-time work. – For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better Organizational Behavior: Chapter 7 217 – For organizations: lower labor costs, ability to better accommodate peaks and valleys of business cycle, and better management of retention quality. Disadvantages of part-time work. – For workers: added stress and potentially diminished performance if holding two jobs, failure to qualify for benefits, and lower pay rates than full-time counterparts.
  • 218. Chapter 8 Study Questions What is goal setting? What is performance appraisal? What are compensation and rewards? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 218 What are compensation and rewards? What are human resource development and person-job fit?
  • 219. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 219
  • 220. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines. – Difficult goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are less difficult ones. – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 220 – Specific goals are more likely to lead to higher performance than are no goals or vague or general ones. – Task feedback, or knowledge of results, is likely to motivate people toward higher performance by encouraging the setting of higher performance goals.
  • 221. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting guidelines (cont.). – Goals are most likely to lead to higher performance when the people have the abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 221 abilities and the feeling of self-efficacy required to accomplish them. – Goals are most likely to motivate people toward higher performance when they are accepted and there is commitment to them.
  • 222. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Goal setting and MBO. – Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of joint goal setting between a supervisor and a subordinate. – MBO is consistent with the goal setting Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 222 – MBO is consistent with the goal setting guidelines derived from the Locke and Latham model. – MBO establishes performance goals consistent with higher level work unit and organizational objectives.
  • 223. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 223
  • 224. Study Question 1: What is goal setting? Potential problems with MBO. – Too much paperwork. in documenting goals and accomplishments. – Too much emphasis on: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 224 – Too much emphasis on: • Goal-oriented rewards and punishments. • Top-down goals. • Goals that are easily stated in objective terms. • Individual goals instead of group goals. – MBO may need to be implemented organization-wide.
  • 225. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Performance appraisal. – Helps both the manager and subordinate maintain the organization-job-employee Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 225 maintain the organization-job-employee characteristics match – The process of systematically evaluating performance and providing feedback upon which performance adjustments can be made.
  • 226. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Functions of performance appraisal. – Define the specific job criteria against which performance will be measured. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 226 performance will be measured. – Measure past job performance accurately. – Justify rewards, thereby differentiating between high and low performance. – Define ratee’s needed development experiences.
  • 227. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Two general purposes of good performance appraisal. – Evaluation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 227 – Evaluation. • Concerned with such issues as promotions, transfers, terminations, and salary increases. – Feedback and development. • Let workers know their status relative to firm’s expectations and performance objectives.
  • 228. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Who does the performance appraisal? – Traditionally done by ratee’s immediate superior. People other than immediate superior may Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 228 – People other than immediate superior may have better information on certain aspects of ratee’s performance. – 360-degree evaluation provides appraisal information from multiple perspectives.
  • 229. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Performance appraisal dimensions and standards. – Output measures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 229 – Output measures. • Quantity of work output. • Quality of work output. – Activity measures. • Behavioral measures that are typically obtained from the evaluator’s observation and rating.
  • 230. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Comparative methods of performance appraisal. – Ranking. • Raters rank order people from best to worst. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 230 • Raters rank order people from best to worst. – Paired comparisons. • Raters compare each person with every other person. – Forced distribution. • Raters place a specific proportion of employees into each performance category.
  • 231. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal. – Graphic rating scales. • Raters assign scores on a list of dimensions related to high performance outcomes in a given job. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 231 to high performance outcomes in a given job. – Critical incident diary records. • Rater records incidents of unusual success or failure in a given performance aspect. – Behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS). • Rater identifies observable job behaviors.
  • 232. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Absolute methods of performance appraisal (cont.). – Behavioral observation scale (BOS). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 232 • Rater rates each observable job behavior on a five- point frequency scale. – Management by objectives. • Jointly established goals used as standards against which the subordinate’s performance is evaluated.
  • 233. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? To be meaningful, an appraisal system must be: – Reliable — provide consistent results across time. – Valid — actually measure people on relevant job Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 233 – Valid — actually measure people on relevant job content. Measurement errors can threaten the reliability or validity of performance appraisals.
  • 234. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal. – Halo errors. • Raters evaluate on several different dimensions and give a similar rating for each dimension. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 234 give a similar rating for each dimension. – Leniency errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively high ratings. – Strictness errors. • Raters tend to give everyone relatively low ratings.
  • 235. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Central tendency errors. • Raters lump everyone together around the average Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 235 • Raters lump everyone together around the average or middle. – Low differentiation errors. • Raters restrict themselves to a small part of the rating scale. • Examples include leniency, strictness, and central tendency errors.
  • 236. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Measurement errors in performance appraisal (cont.). – Recency errors. • Raters allow recent events to exercise undue influence on ratings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 236 influence on ratings. – Personal bias errors. • Raters let personal biases, such as stereotypes, unduly influence the ratings. – Cultural bias errors. • Raters allow cultural differences of employees to influence the performance appraisal.
  • 237. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Ways to reduce rating errors in performance appraisals. – Training raters to understand the evaluation process and recognize errors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 237 and recognize errors. – Ensuring that raters observe ratees on an ongoing basis. – Not having the rater evaluate too many ratees. – Ensuring the clarity and adequacy of performance dimensions and standards. – Avoiding terms that have different meanings for different raters.
  • 238. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems. – Base appraisal on job requirements as reflected in performance standards. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 238 reflected in performance standards. – Ensure that employees clearly understand the performance standards. – Use clearly defined dimensions. – Use behaviorally-based dimensions supported by observable evidence.
  • 239. Study Question 2: What is performance appraisal? Guidelines for ensuring the legality of performance appraisal systems (cont.). – Avoid abstract trait names. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 239 – Ensure that scale anchors are brief and logically consistent. – Ensure that the system is valid and psychometrically sound. – Provide an appeal mechanism to handle appraisal disagreements.
  • 240. Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards? Pay as an extrinsic reward. – Pay can help organizations attract and retain highly capable workers, and help satisfy and motivate these workers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 240 motivate these workers. – High levels of job performance must be viewed as the path through which high pay can be achieved. – Merit pay bases an individual’s salary or wage increase on the person’s performance.
  • 241. Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards? Pay as an extrinsic reward (cont.). – Merit pay should be based on realistic and accurate measures of individual work Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 241 accurate measures of individual work performance. – Some people argue that merit pay plans ignore the high degree of task interdependence among employees.
  • 242. Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards? Creative pay practices. – Skill-based pay. • Rewards people for acquiring and developing job- relevant skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 242 relevant skills. – Gain-sharing plans. • Give workers an opportunity to share in productivity gains through increased earnings. – Profit-sharing plans. • Reward employees based on the entire organization’s performance
  • 243. Study Question 3: What are compensation and rewards? Creative pay practices (cont.). – Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). • Give company stock to employees or allow them to purchase it at a price below market value Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 243 purchase it at a price below market value – Lump-sum pay increases. • Provide wage or salary increase in one or more lump-sum payments. – Flexible benefit plans. • Allow workers to select benefits according to their individual needs.
  • 244. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Human resource development (HRD) and the person-job fit. – HRD and the person-job fit are key contributing activities in performance Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 244 contributing activities in performance management and rewards. – Human resource strategic planning provides the foundation for HRD and the person-job fit. – Staffing, training, and career planning and development are important functions in HRD and achieving a person-job fit.
  • 245. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Job analysis. – The process and procedures used to collect and classify information about tasks the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 245 and classify information about tasks the organization needs to complete. – Identifies the worker characteristics needed to perform the job. – Forms the basis for a job description and job specifications.
  • 246. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Recruitment. – The process of attracting the best qualified individuals to apply for a given job. – Typical recruitment steps. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 246 – Typical recruitment steps. • Advertisement of a position vacancy. • Preliminary contact with potential job candidates. • Preliminary screening to obtain a pool of candidates. – Recruitment approaches are external or internal. – Realistic job previews.
  • 247. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Selection. – A series of steps from initial applicant screening to final hiring of the new employee. – Selection process. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 247 – Selection process. • Completing application materials. • Conducting an interview. • Completing any necessary tests. • Doing a background investigation. • Deciding to hire or not to hire.
  • 248. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Socialization. – Process that adapts employees to the organization’s culture. – Occurs during and after completion of the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 248 – Occurs during and after completion of the staffing process. – Phases of socialization. • Anticipatory socialization. • Encounter. • Change and acquisition.
  • 249. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Training. – A set of activities that provides the opportunity to acquire and improve job-related skills. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 249 skills. – Types of training. • On-the-job training involves job instruction while performing the job in the actual workplace. • Off-the-job training commonly involves lectures, videos, and simulations, and increasingly is done through e-training.
  • 250. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 250
  • 251. Study Question 4: What are human resource development and person-job fit? Adult life cycle and career stages. – The different problems and prospects of the adult life cycle affect people’s work and careers. – Career stages reflect the different responsibilities and achievements associated with people’s working lives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 8 251 achievements associated with people’s working lives. – Life cycle and career stages. • Entry and establishment or the provisional adulthood stage. • Advancement or the first adulthood stage. • Maintenance, withdrawal, and retirement or the second adulthood stage. .
  • 252. Chapter 9 Study Questions What is the nature of groups in organizations? What are the stages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 252 What are the stages of group development? What are the foundations of group performance? How do groups make decisions?
  • 253. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? A group is a collection of two or more people who work with one another regularly to achieve common goals. In a true group, members are mutually Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 253 In a true group, members are mutually dependent on one another and interact with one another. Hot groups thrive in conditions of crisis and competition.
  • 254. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Effective groups achieve high levels of: – Task performance. • Members attain performance goals regarding quantity, quality, and timeliness of work results. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 254 quality, and timeliness of work results. – Members satisfaction. • Members believe that their participation and experiences are positive and meet important personal needs. – Team viability. • Members are sufficiently satisfied to continue working together on an ongoing basis.
  • 255. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? How groups help organizations – Groups are good for people. – Groups can improve creativity. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 255 – Groups can improve creativity. – Groups can make better decisions. – Groups can increase commitments to action. – Groups help control their members. – Groups help offset large organization size.
  • 256. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Situations in which groups are superior to individuals. – When there is no clear expert in a particular Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 256 – When there is no clear expert in a particular problem or task. – When problem solving can be handled by a division of labor and the sharing of information. – When creativity and innovation are needed.
  • 257. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Potential benefits for group members. – People learn from each other and share job skills and knowledge. – Groups are important sources of need satisfaction for Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 257 – Groups are important sources of need satisfaction for their members. – Members can provide emotional support for each other in times of crisis or pressure. – Members’ contributions can help them experience self-esteem and personal involvement.
  • 258. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Social loafing. – The tendency of people to work less hard in a group than they would individually. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 258 group than they would individually. – Reasons for social loafing. • Individual contributions are less noticeable in the group context. • Some individuals prefer to see others carry the workload.
  • 259. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Ways of preventing social loafing. – Define member roles and tasks to maximize individual interests. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 259 – Raise accountability by identifying individuals’ performance contributions to the group. – Link individual rewards to performance contributions to the group.
  • 260. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Social facilitation. – The tendency for a person’s behavior to be influenced by the presence of others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 260 influenced by the presence of others. – Positively affects performance when a person is proficient on the task. – Negatively affects task performance when the task is not well-learned.
  • 261. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Formal groups. – Officially designated to serve a specific organizational purpose. – The head of a formal group is responsible for Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 261 – The head of a formal group is responsible for the group’s performance and serves a “linking- pin” role. – May be permanent or temporary. • Permanent work groups are command groups. • Temporary work groups are task groups.
  • 262. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Types of formal groups. – Cross-functional teams or task forces. • Engage in special problem-solving efforts drawing on input of the functional areas. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 262 drawing on input of the functional areas. – Project teams. • Formed to complete a specific task with a well-defined end point. – Virtual group. • Members work together via computers.
  • 263. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Informal groups. – Emerge without being officially designated by the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 263 the organization. – Types of informal groups. • Friendship groups. • Interest groups.
  • 264. Study Question 1: What is the nature of groups in organizations? Effects of informal groups. – Can help people get their jobs done. – Can speed up workflow by supplementing Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 264 – Can speed up workflow by supplementing formal lines of authority. – Can satisfy needs that are thwarted or unmet by the formal group. – Can provide members with social satisfaction, security, and a sense of belonging.
  • 265. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 265
  • 266. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Forming stage. – Initial entry of members to a group. – Member challenges. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 266 – Member challenges. • Getting to know each other. • Discovering what is considered acceptable behavior. • Determining the group’s real task. • Defining group rules.
  • 267. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Storming stage. – A period of high emotionality and tension among group members. – Member challenges. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 267 – Member challenges. • Hostility and infighting. • Formation of coalitions and cliques. • Clarification of members’ expectations. • Giving attention to obstacles to group goals. • Understanding one another’s interpersonal styles. • Finding ways to accomplish group goals while satisfying individual needs.
  • 268. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Norming stage. – The point at which the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 268 come together as a coordinated unit. – Member challenges. • Holding group together by maintaining a positive balance. • Letting the desire for group harmony obscure group problems. • Being mistaken about reaching ultimate maturity .
  • 269. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Performing stage. – Marks the emergence of a mature, organized, and well-functioning group. – Member challenges. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 269 – Member challenges. • Meeting complex tasks and conflicts in creative ways. • Being motivated by group goals and achieving satisfaction. • Continuing to improve relationships and performance. • Adapting to changing opportunities and demands.
  • 270. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 270
  • 271. Study Question 2: What are the stages of group development? Adjourning stage. – A well-integrated group is: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 271 • Able to disband when its work is finished. • Willing to work together in the future. – Particularly important for temporary groups.
  • 272. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 272
  • 273. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Tasks. – Technical demands of a task. • Routineness, difficulty, and information Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 273 • Routineness, difficulty, and information requirements. – Tasks that are complex in technical demands require unique solutions and more information processing.
  • 274. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Tasks (cont.). – Social demands of a task. • Relations, ego involvement, and controversies over Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 274 • Relations, ego involvement, and controversies over ends and means. – Tasks that are complex in social demands involve difficulties in reaching agreement on goals or methods for accomplishing them.
  • 275. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Goals, rewards, and resources. – Long-term performance relies on: • Appropriate goals. • Well-designed reward systems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 275 • Well-designed reward systems. • Adequate resources. – A group’s performance can suffer when: • Goals are unclear, unchallenging, or arbitrarily imposed. • Goals are focused too much on individuals. • Adequate budgets, facilities, good work methods and procedures, and the best technologies are not available.
  • 276. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Technology. – Provides the means to get work accomplished. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 276 – The right technology must be available for the task at hand. – Workflow technology can affect the way group members interact.
  • 277. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics. – A group must have the right skills and competencies available for task performance and problem solving. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 277 and problem solving. • Homogeneous groups may not perform well if they lack the requisite experiences, skills, and competencies. • Heterogeneous groups may perform well if they effectively utilize a variety of experiences, skills, and competencies.
  • 278. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – Diversity-consensus dilemma. • Increasing diversity among group members makes Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 278 • Increasing diversity among group members makes it harder for group members to work together, even though the diversity itself expands the skills and perspectives available for problem solving.
  • 279. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – FIRO-B theory. • Identifies individual differences in how people relate to one another in groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 279 relate to one another in groups. • Based on needs to express and receive feelings of inclusion, control, and affection. • Groups whose members have compatible characteristics are likely to be more effective. • Groups whose members have incompatible characteristics are likely to be less effective.
  • 280. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Membership characteristics (cont.). – Status. • A person’s relative rank, prestige, or standing in a group. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 280 group. – Status congruence. • Occurs when a person’s position within the group is equivalent in status to positions held outside the group. • When status incongruence is present, problems will likely occur.
  • 281. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Group size. – Can make a difference in a group’s effectiveness. – As group size increases, performance and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 281 – As group size increases, performance and member satisfaction increase up to a point. – As a group size continues to grow, communication and coordination problems often set in, and performance and satisfaction may decline. – Problem-solving groups should have 5 to 7 members.
  • 282. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Group dynamics concern the forces operating within groups that affect the way members relate to and work with one Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 282 members relate to and work with one another. From a systems perspective, the throughputs for a group or team are group dynamics.
  • 283. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on within groups. – Work group behaviors. Required behaviors — those that are formally Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 283 • Required behaviors — those that are formally defined and expected by the organization. • Emergent behaviors — those that group members display in addition to what the organization asks of them.
  • 284. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on within groups. – Member relationships. • Activities — the things people do or the actions Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 284 • Activities — the things people do or the actions they take. • Interactions — interpersonal communications and contacts. • Sentiments — the feelings, attitudes, beliefs, or values held by group members.
  • 285. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? What goes on between groups. – Intergroup dynamics. • The dynamics that take place between two or more groups. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 285 groups. – Ways to achieve positive intergroup dynamics. • Refocusing members on a common enemy or goal. • Negotiating directly. • Training members to work more cooperatively. • Refocusing rewards on contributions to the total organization and how much groups help each other.
  • 286. Study Question 3: What are the foundations of group performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 286
  • 287. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How groups make decisions. – Decision by lack of response. • One idea after another is suggested without any discussion- taking place; when the group finally accepts the idea, all others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 287 others have been bypassed and discarded by simple lack of response rather than by critical evaluation. – Decision by authority rule. • The chairperson, manager, or leader makes a decision for the group. – Decision by minority rule. • Two or three people are able to dominate or “railroad” the group into making a decision to which they agree.
  • 288. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How groups make decisions (cont.). – Decision by majority rule. • Formal voting may take place, or members may be polled to find the majority viewpoint. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 288 find the majority viewpoint. – Decision by consensus. • Discussion leads to one alternative being favored by most members and the other members agree to support it. – Decision by unanimity. • All group members agree totally on the course of action to be taken.
  • 289. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Potential advantages of group decision making. – More knowledge and expertise is applied to solve the problem. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 289 solve the problem. – A greater number of alternatives are examined. – The final decision is better understood and accepted by all group members. – More commitment among all group members to make the final decision work.
  • 290. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Potential disadvantages of group decision making. – Individuals may feel compelled to conform to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 290 – Individuals may feel compelled to conform to the apparent wishes of the group. – The group’s decision may be dominated by one individual or a small coalition. – Group decisions usually take longer to make.
  • 291. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink. – Assign the role of critical evaluator to each group member. – Have the leader avoid seeming partial to one Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 291 – Have the leader avoid seeming partial to one course of action. – Create subgroups that each work on the same problem. – Have group members discuss issues with outsiders and report back.
  • 292. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? Ways to avoid groupthink (cont.). – Invite outside experts to observe and react to group processes. – Assign someone to be a “devil’s advocate” at Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 292 – Assign someone to be a “devil’s advocate” at each meeting. – Write alternative scenarios for the intentions of competing groups. – Hold “second-chance” meetings after consensus is apparently achieved.
  • 293. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How to improve group decisions. – Brainstorming. • Group members actively generate as many ideas and alternatives as possible, and they do so Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 293 and alternatives as possible, and they do so relatively quickly and without inhibitions. – Nominal group technique. • Puts people in small groups of six to seven members and asks everyone to respond individually and in writing to a “nominal” question.
  • 294. Study Question 4: How do groups make decisions? How to improve group decisions (cont.). – Delphi technique. • Involves generating decision-making alternatives Organizational Behavior: Chapter 9 294 • Involves generating decision-making alternatives through a series of survey questionnaires. – Computer-mediated decision making. • Group decision making takes place across great distances with the aid of group decision support systems.
  • 295. Chapter 10 Study Questions What is a the nature of teams and teamwork? What is team building? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 295 What is team building? How does team building improve performance? How do teams contribute to the high- performance workplace?
  • 296. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? A team is a small group of people with complementary skills, who work actively together to achieve a common purpose for Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 296 together to achieve a common purpose for which they hold themselves collectively accountable. Teams are one of the major forces behind revolutionary changes in contemporary organizations.
  • 297. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Types of teams. – Teams that recommend things. • Established to study specific problems and recommend solutions to them. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 297 recommend solutions to them. – Teams that run things. • Have formal responsibility for leading other groups. – Teams that make or do things. • Functional groups that perform ongoing tasks.
  • 298. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Teamwork occurs when group members actively work together in such a way that Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 298 actively work together in such a way that all their respective skills are well utilized to achieve a common purpose.
  • 299. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of high performance teams. – They have strong core values. – They turn a general sense of purpose into Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 299 – They turn a general sense of purpose into specific performance objectives. – They have the right mix of skills. – They possess creativity.
  • 300. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with homogeneous membership. – Members are similar with respect to such variables as Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 300 – Members are similar with respect to such variables as age, gender, race, experience, ethnicity, and culture. – Members can quickly build social relations and engage in the interactions needed for teamwork. – Homogeneity may limit the team in terms of ideas, viewpoints, and creativity.
  • 301. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership. – Members are diverse in demography, experiences, life Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 301 styles, and cultures, among other variables. – Diversity can help improve team problem solving and increase creativity. – Diversity among team members may create performance difficulties early in the team’s life or stage of development.
  • 302. Study Question 1: What is the nature of team and teamwork? Characteristics of teams with heterogeneous membership (cont.). – Enhanced performance potential is possible once Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 302 short-run struggles are resolved. – Diversity can provide great advantages for high- performance organizations.
  • 303. Study Question 2: What is team building? Work groups and teams must master challenges as they pass through the various stages of group development. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 303 Team building is a sequence of planned activities designed to gather and analyze data on the functioning of a group and to initiate changes designed to improve teamwork and increase group effectiveness.
  • 304. Study Question 2: What is team building? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 304
  • 305. Study Question 2: What is team building? Approaches to team building. – Formal retreat approach. • Team building occurs during an offsite retreat. Continuous improvement approach. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 305 – Continuous improvement approach. • The manager, team leader, or members take responsibility for ongoing team building. – Outdoor experience approach. • Members engage in physically challenging situations that require teamwork.
  • 306. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? New members are concerned about issues of: – Participation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 306 – Participation. – Goals. – Control. – Relationships.
  • 307. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Behavior profiles of coping with individual entry problems. – Tough battler. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 307 – Tough battler. – Friendly helper. – Objective thinker.
  • 308. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Task and maintenance leadership. – Sustained high performance requires meeting both task needs and maintenance needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 308 task needs and maintenance needs. – High-performance teams require distributed leadership. – Distributive leadership is the sharing among team members of the responsibilities for task and maintenance contributions.
  • 309. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 309
  • 310. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Groups members should avoid the following disruptive behaviors: – Being overly aggressive toward other members. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 310 – Withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with others. – Horsing around when there is work to be done. – Using the group as a forum for self-confession. – Talking too much about irrelevant matters. – Trying to compete for attention and recognition.
  • 311. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Roles and role dynamics. – A role is a set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team. – Role ambiguity — occurs when a person is Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 311 – Role ambiguity — occurs when a person is uncertain about his/her role. – Role overload — occurs when too much is expected and the person feels overwhelmed with work. – Role underload — occurs when too little is expected and the person feels underutilized.
  • 312. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Roles and role dynamics (cont.). – Role conflict — occurs when a person is unable to meet conflicting expectations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 312 unable to meet conflicting expectations. – Forms of role conflict. • Intrasender role conflict. • Intersender role conflict. • Person-role conflict. • Interrole conflict.
  • 313. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 313
  • 314. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Norms represent beliefs about how group or team members are expected to behave. Norms are rules or standards of conduct. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 314 Norms are rules or standards of conduct. Managers and leaders should help their groups adopt positive norms that support organizational goals.
  • 315. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Key norms that can have positive or negative implications. – Performance norms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 315 – Ethics norms. – Organizational and personal pride norms. – High-achievement norms. – Support and helpfulness norms. – Improvement and change norms.
  • 316. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Cohesiveness is the degree to which members are attached to and motivated to remain a part of the team High team cohesiveness occurs when: Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 316 High team cohesiveness occurs when: – Members are similar in age, attitudes, needs, and backgrounds. – Group size is small. – Members respect each others’ competencies. – Members agree on common goals. – Members work on interdependent tasks. – Groups are physically isolated from others. – Groups experience performance success or crisis.
  • 317. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 317
  • 318. Study Question 3: How does team building improve performance? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 318
  • 319. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Problem-solving teams. – Employee involvements teams include a wide variety of teams whose members meet regularly to collectively examine important Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 319 regularly to collectively examine important workplace issues. – Quality circle. • A special type of employee involvement team. • Team meets periodically to address problems relating to quality, productivity, or cost.
  • 320. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Cross-functional teams. – Consist of members representing different functional departments or work units. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 320 functional departments or work units. – Used to overcome functional silos problem. – Used to solve problems with a positive combination of functional expertise and integrative systems thinking.
  • 321. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Advantages of virtual teams. – Cost-effectiveness and speed where members are unable to meet easily face-to-face. – Computer power fulfills typical team needs for Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 321 – Computer power fulfills typical team needs for information processing and decision making. – Communication is possible among people separated by great distances. – Interaction and decision making are focused on facts and objective information rather than emotional considerations. – .
  • 322. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of virtual teams. – The lack of personal contact between team Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 322 – The lack of personal contact between team members. – Group decisions are made in a limited social context.
  • 323. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 323
  • 324. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Advantages of self-managing teams. – Productivity and quality improvements. – Production flexibility and faster response to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 324 – Production flexibility and faster response to technological change. – Reduced absenteeism and turnover. – Improved work attitudes and quality of work life.
  • 325. Study Question 4: How do teams contribute to the high-performance workplace? Disadvantages of self-managing teams. – Structural changes in job classifications and management levels eliminate the need for first-line Organizational Behavior: Chapter 10 325 supervisors. – Managers must learn to deal with teams rather than individuals. – Supervisors who are displaced by self-managing teams may feel threatened.
  • 326. Chapter 11 Study Questions What is leadership and how does it differ from management? What are situational contingency approaches to leadership ? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 326 approaches to leadership ? What are attributional approaches to leadership? What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations?
  • 327. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Management promotes stability or enables the organization to run smoothly. Leadership promotes adaptive or useful changes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 327 Leadership promotes adaptive or useful changes. Persons in managerial positions may be involved with both management and leadership. Both management and leadership are needed for organizational success.
  • 328. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership is a special case of interpersonal influence that gets an individual or group to do what the leader or Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 328 individual or group to do what the leader or manager wants done. Forms of leadership. – Formal leadership. – Informal leadership.
  • 329. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Approaches to leadership. – Trait and behavioral perspectives. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 329 – Situational contingency perspectives. – Attributional perspectives. – New leadership perspectives.
  • 330. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Trait theories. – Assume that traits play a key role in: • Differentiating between leaders and nonleaders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 330 • Differentiating between leaders and nonleaders. • Predicting leader or organizational outcomes. – Great person-trait approach. • Earliest approach in studying leadership. • Tried to determine the traits that characterized great leaders.
  • 331. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Pick up Figure 11.1 from the textbook. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 331
  • 332. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Behavioral theories. – Assume that leader behaviors are crucial for explaining performance and other organizational outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 332 organizational outcomes. – Focus on leader behaviors rather than traits. – Major behavioral theories. • Michigan leadership studies. • Ohio State leadership studies. • Leadership Grid. • Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory.
  • 333. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Michigan leadership studies. – Employee-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 333 • Place strong emphasis on subordinate’s welfare. – Production-centered supervisors. • Place strong emphasis on getting the work done. – Employee-centered supervisors have more productive work groups than production- centered supervisors.
  • 334. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Ohio State leadership studies. – Consideration. • Concerned with people’s feelings and making things pleasant for the followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 334 things pleasant for the followers. – Initiating structure. • Concerned with defining task requirements and other aspects of the work agenda. – Effective leaders should be high on both consideration and initiating structure.
  • 335. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid. – Developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton. – Built on dual emphasis of consideration and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 335 – Built on dual emphasis of consideration and initiating structure. – A 9 x 9 Grid (matrix) reflecting levels of concern for people and concern for task. • 1 reflects minimum concern. • 9 reflects maximum concern.
  • 336. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leadership Grid (cont.). – Five key Grid combinations. • 1/1 — low concern for production, low concern for people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 336 people. • 1/9 — low concern for production, high concern for people. • 9/1 — high concern for production, low concern for people. • 5/5 — moderate concern for production, moderate concern for people. • 9/9 — high concern for production, high concern for people.
  • 337. Study Question 1: What is leadership and how does it differ from management? Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) theory. – Focuses on the quality of the working relationship between leaders and followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 337 relationship between leaders and followers. – LMX dimensions determine followers’ membership in leader’s “in group” or “out group.” – Different relationships with “in group” and “out group.”
  • 338. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Leader traits and behaviors can act in conjunction with situational contingencies. The effects of leader traits are enhanced by their relevance to situational contingencies. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 338 relevance to situational contingencies. Major situational contingency theories. – Fiedler’s leadership contingency theory. – Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership model.
  • 339. Study Question 2: What are the situational contingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model. – Situational control. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 339 • The extent to which a leader can determine what his or her group is going to do as well as the outcomes of the group’s actions and decisions. • Is a function of: – Leader-member relations. – Task structure. – Position power.
  • 340. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Key variables in Fiedler’s contingency model (cont.). – Least preferred co-worker (LPC) score reflects Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 340 – Least preferred co-worker (LPC) score reflects a person’s leadership style. • High-LPC leaders have a relationship-motivated style. • Low-LPC leaders have a task-motivated style.
  • 341. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 341
  • 342. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Fiedler’s cognitive resource theory. – A leader’s use of directive or nondirective behavior depends on: • The leader’s or subordinate group members’ ability or competency. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 342 or competency. • Stress. • Experience. • Group support of the leader. – Leader directiveness is most helpful for performance when the leader is competent, relaxed, and supported.
  • 343. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? House’s path-goal theory of leadership. – Rooted in the expectancy model of motivation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 343 – Emphasizes how a leader influences subordinates’ perceptions of both work goals and personal goals and the links, or paths, found between these two sets of goals.
  • 344. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 344
  • 345. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions. – Directive leadership will have a positive impact on subordinates when tasks are ambiguous and the opposite effect when tasks Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 345 ambiguous and the opposite effect when tasks are clear. – Supportive leadership will increase the satisfaction of subordinates who work on tasks that are highly repetitive, unpleasant, stressful, or frustrating.
  • 346. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Path-goal theory predictions (cont.). – Achievement-oriented leadership will encourage subordinates to strive for higher performance standards and to have more Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 346 performance standards and to have more confidence in their ability to meet challenging goals when subordinates are working at ambiguous, nonrepetitive tasks. – Participative leadership will promote satisfaction on nonrepetitive tasks that allow for the ego involvement of subordinates.
  • 347. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 347
  • 348. Study Question 2: What are situational contingency approaches to leadership? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 348
  • 349. Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Attribution theory provides a competing perspective to the traditional leadership theory assumption that leadership and its substantive Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 349 effects can be identified and measured objectively. Attribution theory suggests that leadership is influenced by attempts to understand causes of and assess responsibilities for behavior.
  • 350. Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Leadership prototypes. – People’s mental image of what a model leader should look like. – Mix of specific and general characteristics. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 350 – Mix of specific and general characteristics. – Prototypes may differ by country and national culture. – The closer that a leader’s behavior matches the prototype held by the followers, the more favorable the leader’s relations and key outcomes.
  • 351. Study Question 3: What are attributional approaches to leadership? Exaggeration of the leadership difference. – Top leaders of organizations have little impact on profits and effectiveness compared to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 351 on profits and effectiveness compared to environmental and industry forces. – Much of the impact of top leaders is symbolic. – The romance of leadership refers to people attributing romantic, almost magical, qualities to leadership.
  • 352. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Charismatic approaches to leadership. – Charismatic leaders, by force of their personal abilities, can have a profound and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 352 abilities, can have a profound and extraordinary effect on followers. – Characteristics of charismatic leaders include: • High need for power. • High feelings of self-efficacy. • Conviction in the moral rightness of their beliefs.
  • 353. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Dark side versus bright side of charismatic leadership. – Dark side. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 353 – Dark side. • Emphasizes personalized power. • Leaders focus on themselves. – Bright side. • Emphasizes socialized power. • Leaders empower followers.
  • 354. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Conger and Kanungo’s three-stage charismatic leadership model. Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 354 – Stage 1: the leader critically evaluates the status quo. – Stage 2: the leader formulates and articulates future goals and a idealized future vision. – Stage 3: the leader shows how the goals and vision can be achieved.
  • 355. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 355
  • 356. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Transactional leadership. – Involves leader-follower exchanges necessary for achieving routine performance that is agreed upon by leaders and followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 356 agreed upon by leaders and followers. – Leader-follower exchanges involve: • Use of contingent rewards. • Active management by exception. • Passive management by exception. • Abdicating responsibilities and avoiding decisions.
  • 357. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Transformational leadership. – Leaders broaden and elevate followers’ interests, generate awareness and acceptance of the group’s mission, and stir followers to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 357 of the group’s mission, and stir followers to look beyond self-interests. – Dimensions of transformational leadership. • Charisma. • Inspiration. • Intellectual stimulation. • Individualized consideration.
  • 358. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Leadership in self-managing work teams. – Leaders provide resources or act as liaisons with other units but without the trappings of authority associated with traditional first-line supervisors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 358 with traditional first-line supervisors. – Conditions for creating and maintaining team performance. • Efficient, goal-directed effort. • Adequate resources. • Competent, motivated performance. • A productive, supportive climate. • Commitment to continuous improvement and adaptation.
  • 359. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Can people be trained in the new leadership? – People can be trained to adopt new leadership Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 359 – People can be trained to adopt new leadership approaches. – Leaders can devise improvement programs to address their weaknesses and work with trainers to develop their leadership skills. – Leaders can be trained in charismatic skills.
  • 360. Study Question 4: What are some emerging leadership perspectives and why are they especially important in today’s organizations? Is new leadership always good? – Not always good. – Dark-side charismatics can have negative effects on followers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 11 360 effects on followers. – Not always needed. – Needs to be used in conjunction with traditional leadership. – Applies at all levels of organizational leadership.
  • 361. Chapter 12 Study Questions What are power and influence in an organization? How are power, obedience, and formal Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 361 How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? What is empowerment? What is organizational politics?
  • 362. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Power. – The ability to get someone to do something you want done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 362 you want done. – The ability to make things happen in the way you want. Influence. – Expressed by others’ behavioral response to your exercise of power.
  • 363. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Position power derives from a person’s position in the organizational hierarchy. Types of position power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 363 – Reward power. – Coercive power. – Legitimate power. – Process power. – Information power. – Representative power.
  • 364. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Reward power. – The extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 364 intrinsic rewards to control other people. Coercive power. – The extent to which a manager can deny desired rewards and administer punishment to control other people.
  • 365. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Legitimate power. – The extent to which a manager can use subordinates’ internalized values or beliefs that the boss has the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 365 “right of command” to control other people. Process power. – The control over methods of production and analysis that a manager has due to being in a position to influence how inputs are transformed into outputs.
  • 366. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Information power. – The access to and/or control of information. . Representative power. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 366 Representative power. – The formal right conferred by the firm to speak for a potentially important group composed of individuals across departments or outside the firm.
  • 367. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Personal power derives from individual sources. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 367 Types of personal power. – Expert power. – Rational persuasion. – Referent power.
  • 368. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Expert power. – The ability to control another person’s behavior through the possession of knowledge, experience, or judgment that the other person does not have but Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 368 judgment that the other person does not have but needs. Rational persuasion. – The ability to control another person’s behavior by convincing the other person of the desirability of a goal and a reasonable way of achieving it.
  • 369. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Referent power. – The ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 369 person wants to identify with the power source.
  • 370. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 370
  • 371. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways to build position power. – Demonstrating work unit relevance to organizational goals and needs. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 371 organizational goals and needs. – Increasing task relevance of one’s own activities and work unit’s activities. – Attempting to define tasks so they are difficult to evaluate.
  • 372. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways to build personal power. – Building expertise. • Advanced training and education, participation in professional associations, and project involvement. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 372 professional associations, and project involvement. – Learning political savvy. • Learning ways to negotiate, persuade, and understand goals and means that others accept. – Enhancing likeability. • Pleasant personality characteristics, agreeable behavior patterns, and attractive personal appearance.
  • 373. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Ways that managers increase the visibility of their job performance. – Expanding contacts with senior people. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 373 – Expanding contacts with senior people. – Making oral presentations of written work. – Participating in problem-solving task forces. – Sending out notices of accomplishment. – Seeking opportunities to increase name recognition.
  • 374. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Controlling decision premises. – Executives attempt to control, or at least influence, decision premises. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 374 influence, decision premises. – A decision premise is a basis for defining the problem and for selecting among alternatives. – Executives who want to increase their power will make their goals and needs clear and bargain effectively.
  • 375. Study Question 1: What are power and influence in an organization? Common techniques for exercising relational influence. – Reason. – Friendliness. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 375 – Friendliness. – Coalition. – Bargaining. – Assertiveness. – Higher authority. – Sanctions.
  • 376. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? Important practical issues in the exercise of power and formal authority. – Why should subordinates respond to a Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 376 – Why should subordinates respond to a manager’s authority (or “right to command”)? – Given that subordinates are willing to obey, what determines the limits of obedience?
  • 377. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? The Milgram experiments. – Designed to determine the extent to which people obey the commands of an authority figure, even if they believe they are endangering the life of another Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 377 they believe they are endangering the life of another person. – The results indicated that the majority of the experimental subjects would obey the commands of the authority figure. – Basic conclusion was that people tend to comply with and be obedient to authority.
  • 378. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? For a directive from a superior to be accepted as authoritative, the subordinate: – Can and must understand it. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 378 – Must feel mentally and physically capable of carrying it out. – Must believe that it is consistent with the organization’s purpose. – Must believe that it is consistent with his or her personal interests.
  • 379. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? Zone of indifference. – In exchange for certain inducements, subordinates recognize the authority of the organization and its managers to direct their Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 379 organization and its managers to direct their behavior in certain ways. – A zone of indifference is the range of authoritative requests to which a subordinate is willing to respond without subjecting the directives to critical evaluation or judgment.
  • 380. Study Question 2: How are power, obedience, and formal authority intertwined in an organization? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 380
  • 381. Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Empowerment. – The process by which managers help others to acquire and use the power needed to make decisions affecting themselves and their work. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 381 decisions affecting themselves and their work. – Provides the foundation for self-managing work teams and other employee involvement groups. – Empowerment emphasizes the ability to make things happen.
  • 382. Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Changing position power. – Moving power down the hierarchy alters the existing pattern of position power. – Changing this pattern raises the following Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 382 – Changing this pattern raises the following important questions: • Can “empowered” individuals give rewards and sanctions based on task accomplishment? • Has their new right to act been legitimized with formal authority?
  • 383. Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Expanding the zone of indifference. – Management needs to recognize the current zone of indifference and systematically move Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 383 zone of indifference and systematically move to expand it. – Management should show how empowerment will benefit people and provide the needed inducement. – .
  • 384. Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Employees need to be trained to expand their power and their new influence potential. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 384 power and their new influence potential. – The key is to change from a view stressing power over others to one emphasizing the use of power to get things done.
  • 385. Study Question 3: What is empowerment? Power as an expanding pie. – Clearer definition of roles and responsibilities helps managers empower others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 385 – All mangers need to emphasize different ways of exercising influence. – Special support may be needed for individuals to become comfortable.
  • 386. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Machiavellian tradition of organizational politics. – Emphasizes self-interest and the use of nonsanctioned means. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 386 nonsanctioned means. – Organizational politics is defined as the management of influence to obtain ends not sanctioned by the organization or to obtain sanctioned ends through nonsanctioned influence means.
  • 387. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Alternate tradition of organizational politics. – Politics is a necessary function resulting from differences in the self-interests of individuals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 387 differences in the self-interests of individuals. – Politics is the art of creative compromise among competing interests. – Politics is the use of power to develop socially acceptable ends and means that balance individual and collective interests.
  • 388. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 388
  • 389. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Subunit power. – Line units are typically more powerful than are staff groups. – Units toward the top of the organizational Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 389 – Units toward the top of the organizational hierarchy are often more powerful than those toward the bottom. – Power differentials are not as pronounced among units at or near the same level in an organization.
  • 390. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Political actions for influencing lateral, intergroup relationships. – Workflow linkages. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 390 – Workflow linkages. – Service linkages. – Advisory linkages. – Auditing linkages. – Approval linkages.
  • 391. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Important aspects of corporate political strategy. – Absence of a political strategy can be damaging. – Corporate political strategy should be targeted toward Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 391 – Corporate political strategy should be targeted toward turning the government from a regulator against industry to a protector of it. – Need to make decisions about when and how to get involved in the public policy processes.
  • 392. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Avoidance is quite common where the employee must risk being wrong or where actions may yield a sanction. Common techniques for avoiding action and risk Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 392 Common techniques for avoiding action and risk taking. – Working to the rules. – Playing dumb. – Depersonalization. – Stalling.
  • 393. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Common techniques for redirecting accountability and responsibility. – Passing the buck. – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 393 – Buffing (or rigorous documentation). – Preparing a blind memo. – Rewriting history. – Redirecting. • Scapegoating. • Blaming the problem on uncontrollable events. • Escalating commitment.
  • 394. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Defending turf. – Defending turf is a time-honored tradition in most large organizations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 394 large organizations. – Defending turf results when: • Managers seek to increase their power by expanding the jobs their groups perform. • Competing interests exist among various departments and groups.
  • 395. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Agency theory. – An important power problem arises from the separation of owners and managers. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 395 separation of owners and managers. – Managers are “agents” of the owners. – Public corporations can function effectively even though its managers are self-interested.
  • 396. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Key arguments of agency theory. – By protecting stockholder interests, all the interests of society are served. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 396 interests of society are served. – Stockholders have a clear interest in greater returns. – Managers are self-interested and must be controlled.
  • 397. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Types of controls instituted for agents. – Pay plan incentives that align the interests of management and stockholders. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 397 management and stockholders. – The establishment of a strong, independent board of directors. – Stockholders with a large stake in the firm taking an active role on the board.
  • 398. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Resource dependencies. – The firm’s need for resources that are controlled by others. The resource dependence of an organization Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 398 The resource dependence of an organization increases as: – Needed resources become more scarce. – Outsiders have more control over needed resources. – There are fewer substitutes for a particular type of resource controlled by a limited number of outsiders.
  • 399. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Organizational governance. – The pattern of authority, influence, and acceptable managerial behavior established at the top of the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 399 – Organizational governance establishes the following: • What is important. • How issues will be defined. • Who should and should not be involved in key choices • Boundaries for acceptable implementation.
  • 400. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Negative views of organizational governance. – Unbalanced organizational governance by some United States corporations may limit Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 400 some United States corporations may limit their ability to manage global operations effectively. – Organizational governance is too closely tied to the short-term interests of stockholders and the pay of the CEO.
  • 401. Study Question 4: What is organizational politics? Positive views of organizational governance. – The governance of U.S. firms extends well beyond the limited interests of the owners. – Organization governance should be based on three Organizational Behavior: Chapter 12 401 – Organization governance should be based on three ethical criteria. – When the three ethical criteria cannot be fulfilled, the criterion of overwhelming factors should be invoked. – Choosing to be ethical often involves considerable personal sacrifice.
  • 402. Chapter 13 Study Questions What is the nature of communication in organizations? What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 402 communication? What are the barriers to effective communication? What are current issues in organizational communication?
  • 403. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 403
  • 404. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Feedback and communication. – Feedback is the process through which the receiver communicates with the sender by Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 404 receiver communicates with the sender by returning another message. – Giving feedback often is associated with one or more persons communicating an evaluation of what another person has said or done. – 360-degree feedback.
  • 405. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Guidelines for effective constructive feedback. – Give feedback directly and in a spirit of mutual trust. – Be specific, not general; use clear examples. Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 405 – Give feedback when the receiver is most ready to accept it. – Be accurate; check validity with others. – Focus on things that the receiver can control. – Limit how much feedback the receiver gets at one time.
  • 406. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Communication channels. – Formal channels. • Follow the chain of command established by an organization’s hierarchy of authority. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 406 organization’s hierarchy of authority. – Informal channels. • Do not follow an organization’s hierarchy of authority. • The grapevine is an informal channel through which rumors and unofficial information pass.
  • 407. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Channel richness. – The capacity of a communication channel to convey information effectively. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 407 information effectively. – Richest channels — face-to-face communication. – Moderately rich channels — telephone, electronic chat rooms, E-mail, written memos, and letters. – Leanest channels — posted notices and bulletins.
  • 408. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Organizational communication is the specific process through which information moves and is exchanged throughout an Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 408 moves and is exchanged throughout an organization. Information flows: – Through formal and informal structures. – Downward, upward, and laterally.
  • 409. Study Question 1: What is the nature of communication in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 409
  • 410. Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Effective and efficient communication. – Effective communication. • The accuracy of communication. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 410 • The accuracy of communication. – Efficient communication. • The cost of communication. – Effectiveness does not guarantee efficiency or vice versa.
  • 411. Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Nonverbal communication. – Occurs through facial expressions, body position, eye contact, and other physical gestures. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 411 gestures. – Gives clues to what a person is really thinking. – Two important aspects of nonverbal communication. • Kinesics  the study of gestures and body postures. • Proxemics  the study of how space is utilized.
  • 412. Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Active listening. – Ability to listen well is a distinct asset. – Everyone needs to develop good skills in Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 412 – Everyone needs to develop good skills in active listening. – Active listening is the ability to help the source of a message say what he or she really means.
  • 413. Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Guidelines for active listening. – Listen for content. – Listen for feelings. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 413 – Listen for feelings. – Respond to feelings. – Note all cues. – Reflect back.
  • 414. Study Question 2: What are the essentials of interpersonal communication? Cross-cultural communication. – Ethnocentrism. • The tendency to believe that one’s culture and its values are superior to those of others. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 414 values are superior to those of others. – Cross-cultural communication challenges. • Language differences. • Use of gestures. – One of the best ways to understand cultural differences is to learn some of the language.
  • 415. Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication? Physical distractions. – Any aspect of the physical setting in which Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 415 communication takes place. – Can interfere with communication effectiveness.
  • 416. Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication? Semantic problems. – Involves a poor choice or use of words. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 416 – Involves a poor choice or use of words. – Use the KISS principle of communication. • “Keep it short and simple.”
  • 417. Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication? Mixed messages. – Occur when a person’s words communicate one thing while actions or body language Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 417 one thing while actions or body language communicates another. – Nonverbals add important insights in face-to- face meetings.
  • 418. Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication? Absence of feedback. – One-way communication flows from sender to receiver only, with no direct and immediate feedback. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 418 feedback. – Two-way communication goes from sender to receiver and back again. – Two-way communication is more effective than one-way communication.
  • 419. Study Question 3: What are the barriers to effective communication? Status effects. – Status differences create potential communication barriers between persons of higher and lower ranks . – Mum effect. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 419 – Mum effect. • Occurs when people are reluctant to transmit bad news. – Management by wandering around (MBWA). • Getting out of the office to directly communicate with others as they do their jobs.
  • 420. Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication? Advances in information technologies enable organizations to: – Distribute information much faster. – Make more information available. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 420 – Make more information available. – Allow broader and more immediate access to information. – Encourage participation in the sharing and use of information. – Integrate systems and functions, and use information to link with the environment.
  • 421. Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication? Potential disadvantages of electronic communications. – Technologies are impersonal. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 421 – Technologies are impersonal. – Nonverbal communication is removed from situation. – Can unduly influence the emotional aspects of communication. – Information overload.
  • 422. Study Question 4: What are current issues in organizational communication? Communication and social context. – Mean and women are socialized into different communication styles. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 13 422 communication styles. • Women are socialized to be more sensitive to interpersonal relationships in communication. • Men are socialized to be competitive, aggressive, and individualistic, which may cause communication problems.
  • 423. Chapter 14 Study Questions What is the decision-making process in organizations? What are the useful decision-making models? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 423 models? How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making?
  • 424. Chapter 14 Study Questions (cont.) How do you manage the decision-making process? What are some of the current issues in Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 424 decision making? How do you infuse ethics into the decision- making process?
  • 425. Study Question 1: What is the decision- making process in organizations? Decision making is the process of choosing a course of action for dealing with a problem or opportunity. Steps in systematic decision making. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 425 Steps in systematic decision making. – Recognize and define the problem or opportunity. – Identify and analyze alternative courses of action, and estimate their effects on the problem or opportunity. – Choose a preferred course of action. – Implement the preferred course of action. – Evaluate the results and follow up as necessary.
  • 426. Study Question 1: What is the decision- making process in organizations? Certain decision environments. – Exist when information is sufficient to predict the results of each alternative in advance of implementation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 426 implementation. Risk decision environments. – Exist when decision makers lack complete certainty regarding the outcomes of various courses of action, but they are aware of the probabilities associated with their occurrence.
  • 427. Study Question 1: What is the decision- making process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments. – Exist when managers have so little information on hand that they cannot even assign probabilities to various alternatives and their possible outcomes. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 427 various alternatives and their possible outcomes. – Described as a rapidly changing setting in terms of: • External conditions. • The information technology requirements needed for analyzing and making decisions. • The people who influence problem and choice definitions.
  • 428. Study Question 1: What is the decision- making process in organizations? Uncertain decision environments (cont.). – Can be described in terms of types of risks encountered by the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 428 • Strategic risks are threats to overall business success. • Operational risks are threats inherent in the technologies used to reach business success. • Reputation risks are threats to a brand or to the firm’s reputation
  • 429. Study Question 1: What is the decision- making process in organizations? Types of decisions. – Programmed decisions. • Involve routine problems that arise regularly and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 429 • Involve routine problems that arise regularly and can be addressed through standard responses. – Nonprogrammed decisions. • Involve nonroutine problems that require solutions specifically tailored to the situation at hand.
  • 430. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 430
  • 431. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Classical decision theory assumes the manager faces a clearly defined problem, knows all possible action alternatives and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 431 knows all possible action alternatives and their consequences, and then chooses the optimum solution. Widespread application of classical decision theory is restricted by bounded rationality.
  • 432. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Classical decision theory does not appear to fit well in the modern business world, though it can be used toward the bottom of many firms. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 432 many firms. Behavioral decision theory accepts the notion of bounded rationality. It assumes the manager acts only in terms of what is perceived about a given situation, and then chooses a satisficing solution.
  • 433. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? The garbage can model. – A model of decision making that views problems, solutions, participants, and choice situations as mixed together in the “garbage Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 433 situations as mixed together in the “garbage can” of the organization. – The garbage can model highlights two important organizational facts of life. • Different individuals may do choice making and implementation. • Many problems go unsolved.
  • 434. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Decision making realities. – Decision making information may not be available. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 434 available. – Bounded rationality and cognitive limitations affect the way people define problems, identify alternatives, and choose preferred solutions.
  • 435. Study Question 2:What are the useful decision-making models? Decision making realities (cont.). – Most decision making in organizations goes beyond step-by-step rational choice. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 435 beyond step-by-step rational choice. – Decisions must be made under risk and uncertainty. – Decisions should be ethical.
  • 436. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Intuition. – The ability to know or recognize quickly and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 436 readily the possibilities of a given situation. – A key element of decision making under risk and uncertainty.
  • 437. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Judgmental heuristics. – Simplifying strategies or “rules of thumb” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 437 used to make decisions. – Make it easier to to deal with uncertainty and limited information.
  • 438. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Types of heuristics. – Availability heuristic. • Bases a decision on similarity to past occurrences that are easily remembered. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 438 – Representativeness heuristic. • Bases a decision on similarities between an event and stereotypes of similar occurrences. – Anchoring and adjustment heuristic. • Bases a decision on incremental adjustments to an initial value determined by historical precedent or some reference point.
  • 439. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? General judgmental biases in decision making. – Confirmation trap. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 439 • The tendency to seek confirmation for what is already thought to be true and to not search for disconfirming information. – Hindsight trap. • The tendency to overestimate the degree to which an event that has already taken place could have been predicted.
  • 440. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Stages in the creative thinking process. – Preparation. – Concentration. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 440 – Concentration. – Incubation. – Illumination – Verification.
  • 441. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Ways of fostering creativity. – Diversifying teams to include members with different backgrounds, training, and perspectives. – Encouraging analogical reasoning. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 441 – Encouraging analogical reasoning. – Stressing periods of silent reflection. – Recording all ideas so that the same ones are not rediscovered. – Establishing high expectations for creativity. – Developing a physical space that encourages fun, divergent ideas.
  • 442. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when: – Linguistic ability, willingness to engage in divergent thinking, and intelligence are present. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 442 present. – Individuals are motivated by and derive satisfaction from task accomplishment. – There are opportunities for creativity, as many constraints as possible are eliminated, and rewards are provided for creative efforts.
  • 443. Study Question 3: How do intuition, judgment, and creativity affect decision making? Creativity is higher when (cont.): – The decision maker emphasizes engagement in the creative process and counsels individuals Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 443 to share their ideas with others. – The decision maker encourages subordinates to recognize ambiguity, contact others with different views, and be prepared to make considerable changes.
  • 444. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? In choosing problems to address, ask and answer the following questions: – Is the problem easy to deal with? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 444 – Is the problem easy to deal with? – Might the problem resolve itself? – Is this my decision to make? – Is this a solvable problem within the context of the organization?
  • 445. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Reasons for decision making failure. – Managers too often copy others’ choices and try to sell them to subordinates. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 445 – Subordinates may believe the manager is imposing his or her will rather than working for everyone’s interests. – Managers may focus on the problems they see rather than the outcomes they want. – Managers use participation too infrequently.
  • 446. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 446
  • 447. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Key problem attributes in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – The required quality of the decision. – The commitment needed from subordinates. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 447 – The commitment needed from subordinates. – The amount of information the leader has. – Commitment probability. – Goal congruence. – Subordinate conflict. – Subordinate information.
  • 448. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Authority decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – Manager or team leader uses information that he or she possesses and decides what to do without Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 448 she possesses and decides what to do without involving others. – Variant 1  manager solves the problem or makes the decision alone. – Variant 2  manager obtains the necessary information from others and then decides.
  • 449. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Consultative decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. – Manager or team leader solicits input from other people and then, based on this information and its Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 449 people and then, based on this information and its interpretation, makes a final choice. – Variant 1  manager seeks input from others individually and then makes a decision. – Variant 2  manager seeks input from others collectively and then makes a decision.
  • 450. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Group decisions in the Vroom, Yetton, and Jago decision making framework. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 450 – Manager or team leader consults with others and allows them to help make the final choice.
  • 451. Study Question 4: How do you manage the decision-making process? Knowing when to quit. – The natural desire to continue on a selected course of action reinforces escalating commitment. – Escalating commitment is the tendency to continue Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 451 – Escalating commitment is the tendency to continue and renew effort on a previously chosen course of action, even though it is not working. – Tendency to escalate commitments often outweighs the willingness to disengage from them. – Good decision makers are willing to reverse previous decisions.
  • 452. Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Workplace trends affecting organizational decision makers. – Business units are becoming smaller in size. – New, more flexible, and adaptable Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 452 – New, more flexible, and adaptable organizational forms. – Multifunctional understanding is increasingly important. – Workers with both technical knowledge and team skills are increasingly desirable. – The nature of “work” is in a state of flux.
  • 453. Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making. – Artificial intelligence is the study of how Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 453 – Artificial intelligence is the study of how computers can be programmed to think like human beings. – Expert systems support decision making by following “either-or” rules to make deductions.
  • 454. Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Information technology and decision making (cont.). – Fuzzy logic and neural networks reason Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 454 – Fuzzy logic and neural networks reason inductively. – Computer support for decision making. – Information technology does not deal with issues raised by the garbage can model.
  • 455. Study Question 5: What are some of the current issues in decision making? Cultural factors and decision making. – Culture is “the way in which a group of people solves problems.” – North American culture stresses decisiveness, speed, Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 455 – North American culture stresses decisiveness, speed, and the individual selection of alternatives. – Other cultures place less emphasis on individual choice than on developing implementations that work. – The most important impact of culture on decision making concerns which issues are elevated to the status of problems solvable within the firm.
  • 456. Study Question 6: How do you infuse ethics into the decision-making process? Ways to infuse ethics into decision making. – Develop a code of ethics and follow it. – Establish procedures for reporting violations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 456 – Establish procedures for reporting violations. – Involve employees in identifying ethical issues. – Monitor ethical performance. – Reward ethical behavior. – Publicize ethical efforts.
  • 457. Study Question 6: How do you infuse ethics into the decision-making process? Morality is involved in: – Choosing problems. – Deciding who should be involved in making decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 14 457 decisions. – Estimating the impacts of decision alternatives. – Selecting an alternative for implementation. An effective decision needs to solve a problem as well as match moral values and help others.
  • 458. Chapter 15 Study Questions What is conflict? How can conflict be managed successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 458 successfully? What is negotiation? What are the different strategies involved in negotiation?
  • 459. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Conflict occurs whenever: – Disagreements exist in a social situation over Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 459 issues of substance. – Emotional antagonisms cause frictions between individuals or groups.
  • 460. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Types of conflict. – Substantive conflict. • A fundamental disagreement over ends or goals to be pursued and the means for their Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 460 be pursued and the means for their accomplishment. – Emotional conflict. • Interpersonal difficulties that arise over feelings of anger, mistrust, dislike, fear, resentment, etc.
  • 461. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict. – Intrapersonal conflicts. • Actual or perceived pressures from incompatible Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 461 goals or expectations. • Approach-approach conflict. • Avoidance-avoidance conflict. • Approach-avoidance conflict.
  • 462. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interpersonal conflict. • Occurs between two or more individuals who are Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 462 • Occurs between two or more individuals who are in opposition to one another. – Intergroup conflict. • Occurs among members of different teams or groups.
  • 463. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Levels of conflict (cont.). – Interorganizational conflict. • Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 463 • Commonly refers to the competition and rivalry that characterize firms operating in the same markets. • Encompasses disagreements that exist between any two or more organizations.
  • 464. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 464
  • 465. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential benefits of functional conflict. – Surfaces important problems so they can be addressed. Causes careful consideration of decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 465 – Causes careful consideration of decisions. – Causes reconsideration of decisions. – Increases information available for decision making. – Provides opportunities for creativity.
  • 466. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Potential disadvantages of dysfunctional conflict. – Diverts energies. – Harms group cohesion. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 466 – Harms group cohesion. – Promotes interpersonal hostilities. – Creates overall negative environment. – Can decrease work productivity and job satisfaction. – Can contribute to absenteeism and job turnover.
  • 467. Study Question 1: What is conflict? Culture and conflict. – Culture and cultural differences must be considered for their conflict potential. – Individuals who are not able to recognize and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 467 – Individuals who are not able to recognize and respect the impact of culture may contribute to emergence of dysfunctional situations – Cross-cultural sensitivity helps defuse dysfunctional conflict and capture advantages that constructive conflict may offer.
  • 468. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 468
  • 469. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict. – Vertical conflict. • Occurs between hierarchical levels. Horizontal conflict. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 469 – Horizontal conflict. • Occurs between persons or groups at the same hierarchical level. – Line-staff conflict. • Involves disagreements over who has authority and control over specific matters.
  • 470. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Role conflicts. • Occur when the communication of task expectations proves inadequate or upsetting. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 470 expectations proves inadequate or upsetting. – Workflow interdependencies. • Occur when people or units are required to cooperate to meet challenging goals. – Domain ambiguities. • Occur as misunderstandings over such things as customer jurisdiction or scope of authority .
  • 471. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Causes of conflict (cont.). – Resource scarcity. • When resources are scarce, working relationships Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 471 • When resources are scarce, working relationships are likely to suffer. – Power or value asymmetries. • Occur when interdependent people or groups differ substantially from one another in status and influence or in values.
  • 472. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches. – Reduced interdependence. • Adjusting the level of interdependency among Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 472 units or individuals when workflow conflicts exist. • Decoupling, buffering, and linking pin roles. – Appeal to common goals. • Focusing the attention of potentially conflicting parties on one mutually desirable conclusion.
  • 473. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Indirect conflict management approaches (cont.). – Hierarchical referral. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 473 • Problems are referred up the hierarchy for more senior managers to reconcile. – Altering scripts and myths. • Superficial management of conflict by using behavioral routines that become part of the organization’s culture.
  • 474. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 474
  • 475. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Lose-lose conflict. – Avoidance. • Everyone simply pretends that the conflict does not really exist and hopes that it will go away. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 475 really exist and hopes that it will go away. – Accommodation or smoothing. • Involves playing down differences among the conflicting parties and highlighting similarities and areas of agreement. – Compromise. • Each party gives up something of value, but neither party’s desires are fully satisfied
  • 476. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-lose conflict. – Competition. • One party achieves a victory through the use of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 476 • One party achieves a victory through the use of force, superior skills, or domination. – Authoritative command. • Use of formal authority to dictate a solution and specify who gains what and who loses what.
  • 477. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-win conflict. – Collaboration or problem solving. • Recognition by all conflicting parties that Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 477 something is wrong and needs attention, and it stresses gathering and evaluating information in solving disputes and making choices. • Collaboration and problem solving are preferred to gain true conflict resolution when time and cost permit.
  • 478. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Win-win solutions should: – Achieve each other’s goals. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 478 – Be acceptable to both parties. – Establish a process whereby both parties see a responsibility to be open and honest about facts and feelings.
  • 479. Study Question 2: How can conflict be managed successfully? Potential disadvantages of collaboration. – Collaboration requires time and energy. – Both parties to the conflict need to be assertive Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 479 – Both parties to the conflict need to be assertive and cooperative. – Collaboration may not be feasible if the organization’s culture does not value cooperation.
  • 480. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Negotiation goals and outcomes. – Substance goals. • Outcomes that relate to content issues. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 480 • Outcomes that relate to content issues. – Relationship goals. • Outcomes that relate to how well people involved in the negotiations and any constituencies they represent are able to work with one another once the process is concluded.
  • 481. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Effective negotiation. – Occurs when substance issues are resolved and working relationships are maintained or improved. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 481 improved. – Criteria for an effective negotiation. • Quality. • Harmony. • Efficiency.
  • 482. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Ethical aspects of negotiation. – To maintain good working relationships, negotiators should strive for high ethical standards. – Negotiators’ rationalizations for questionable ethical Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 482 – Negotiators’ rationalizations for questionable ethical behavior are offset by long-run negative consequences. – The unethical negotiator may be targeted for revenge. – Unethical negotiating actions may become habitual.
  • 483. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation. – Two-party negotiation. • Manager negotiates directly with one other person. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 483 • Manager negotiates directly with one other person. – Group negotiation. • Manager is part of a group whose members are negotiating.
  • 484. Study Question 3: What is negotiation? Organizational settings for negotiation (cont.). – Intergroup negotiation. • Manager is part of a group that is negotiating with Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 484 another group. – Constituency negotiation. • Manager is involved in negotiation with other persons, with each party representing a broader constituency.
  • 485. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – Focuses on positions staked out or declared by the conflicting parties. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 485 – Parties try to claim certain portions of the existing pie. Integrative negotiation. – Sometimes called principled negotiation. – Focuses on the merits of the issues. – Parties try to enlarge the available pie.
  • 486. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Distributive negotiation. – The key question is: “Who is going to get this resource?” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 486 resource?” – “Hard” distributive negotiation. • Each party holds out to get its own way. – “Soft” distributive negotiation. • One party is willing to make concessions to the other party to get things over.
  • 487. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Integrative negotiation. – The key question is: “How can the resource best be utilized?” Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 487 best be utilized?” – Is less confrontational than distributive negotiation, and permits a broader range of alternative solutions to be considered. – Opportunity for a true win-win solution.
  • 488. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Attitudinal foundations of integrative agreements. – Willingness to trust the other party. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 488 – Willingness to trust the other party. – Willingness to share information with the other party. – Willingness to ask concrete questions of the other party.
  • 489. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Behavioral foundations of integrative agreements. – Ability to separate the people from the problem. – Ability to focus on interests rather than positions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 489 – Ability to focus on interests rather than positions. – Ability to avoid making premature judgments. – Ability to keep alternative creation separate from evaluation. – Ability to judge possible agreements on an objective set of criteria or standards.
  • 490. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Information foundations of integrative agreements. – Each party must know what he or she will do Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 490 if an agreement can’t be reached. – Each party must determine what is personally important in the situation. – Each party must achieve an understanding of what the other party values.
  • 491. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Common negotiation pitfalls. – Myth of the fixed pie. – Possibility of escalating commitment. Negotiators often develop overconfidence in Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 491 – Negotiators often develop overconfidence in their positions. – Communication problems can cause difficulties during a negotiation. • Telling problem. • Hearing problem.
  • 492. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation. – Alternative dispute resolution. • A neutral third party works with persons involved in a negotiation to help them Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 492 involved in a negotiation to help them resolve impasses and settle disputes. – Arbitration. • A third party acts as a “judge” and has the power to issue a decision that is binding on all disputing parties.
  • 493. Study Question 4: What are the different strategies involved in negotiation? Third-party roles in negotiation (cont.). – Mediation. • A neutral third party tries to engage Organizational Behavior: Chapter 15 493 • A neutral third party tries to engage disputing parties in a negotiated solution through persuasion and rational argument.
  • 494. Chapter 16 Study Questions What is organizational change? What change strategies are used in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 494 How is resistance to change best managed? How do organizations innovate? How does stress affect people in change environments?
  • 495. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Transformational change. – Results in a major overhaul of the organization or its component systems. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 495 or its component systems. – Described as radical change or frame-breaking change. – Organizations experiencing transformational change undergo a significant shift in basic characteristic features.
  • 496. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Incremental change or frame-bending change. – Part of the organization’s natural evolution in building on the existing ways of operating to Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 496 building on the existing ways of operating to enhance or extend them in new directions. – Introduction of new products, new technologies, and new systems and processes. – Continuous improvement through incremental change is an important asset.
  • 497. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Change agents. – Individuals and groups who take responsibility for changing the existing behavior patterns of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 497 for changing the existing behavior patterns of another person or social system. – Success of change efforts depends in part on change agents. – Being an effective change agent means being a great change leader.
  • 498. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Unplanned change. – Occurs spontaneously and without a change agent’s direction, and such change may be Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 498 agent’s direction, and such change may be disruptive. – Appropriate goal is to act quickly to minimize the negative consequences and maximize any possible benefits.
  • 499. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Planned change. – The result of specific efforts by a change agent. – Direct response to someone’s perception of a Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 499 – Direct response to someone’s perception of a performance gap. • A performance gap is the discrepancy between the desired and actual state of affairs. • Performance gaps represent problems to be resolved or opportunities to be explored.
  • 500. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Organizational forces for change. – Organization-environment relationships. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 500 – Organization-environment relationships. – Organizational life cycle. – Political nature of organizations.
  • 501. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 501
  • 502. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Reasons for failure of transformational change. – No sense of urgency. – No powerful guiding coalition. No compelling vision. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 502 – No compelling vision. – Failure to communicate the vision. – Failure to empower others to act. – Failure to celebrate short-term wins. – Failure to build on accomplishments. – Failure to institutionalize results.
  • 503. Study Question 1: What is organizational change? Phases of planned change. – Unfreezing. • Preparing a situation for change by disconfirming existing attitudes and behaviors. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 503 existing attitudes and behaviors. – Changing. • Taking action to modify a situation by altering the targets of change. – Refreezing. • Maintaining momentum and eventually institutionalizing the change.
  • 504. Study Question 2: What change strategies are used in organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 504
  • 505. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to change. – Any attitude or behavior that indicates unwillingness to make or support a desired Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 505 unwillingness to make or support a desired change. – Alternative views of resistance. • Something that must be overcome for change to be successful. • Feedback that can be used to facilitate achieving change objectives.
  • 506. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Why people resist change. – Fear of the unknown. – Lack of good information. Fear for loss of security. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 506 – Fear for loss of security. – No reasons to change. – Fear for loss of power. – Lack of resources. – Bad timing. – Habit.
  • 507. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change itself. – People may reject a change because they believe it is not worth their time, effort, or attention. – To deal with resistance to the change itself, all those Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 507 – To deal with resistance to the change itself, all those affected should know how it satisfies the following criteria: • Benefit. • Compatibility. • Complexity. • Triability.
  • 508. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change strategy. – Force-coercion strategy. • Likely resistance among individuals who resent management by “command” or the use of threatened punishment. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 508 by “command” or the use of threatened punishment. – Rational persuasion strategy. • Likely resistance when the data are suspect or the expertise of advocates is unclear. – Shared-power strategy. • Likely resistance if it appears manipulative and insincere.
  • 509. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Resistance to the change agent. – Resistance to the change agent is directed at Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 509 – Resistance to the change agent is directed at the person implementing the change and often involves personality and other differences.
  • 510. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? How to deal with resistance. – Education and communication. – Participation and support. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 510 – Participation and support. – Facilitation and support. – Negotiation and agreement. – Manipulation and cooptation. – Explicit and implicit coercion.
  • 511. Study Question 3: How is resistance to change best managed? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 511
  • 512. Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Innovation. – The process of creating new ideas and putting them into practice. Product innovations. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 512 Product innovations. – The introduction of new or improved goods or services to better meet customer needs. Process innovations. – The introduction of new and better work methods and operations.
  • 513. Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 513
  • 514. Study Question 4: How do organizations innovate? Features of innovative organizations. – Strategies and cultures that are built around a commitment to innovation. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 514 commitment to innovation. – Structures that support innovation. – Staffing with a clear commitment to innovation. – Top-management support for innovation.
  • 515. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress. – A state of tension experienced by individuals Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 515 – A state of tension experienced by individuals facing extraordinary demands, constraints, or opportunities.
  • 516. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Source of stress. – Stressors. • The wide variety of things that cause stress for Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 516 • The wide variety of things that cause stress for individuals. – Types of stressors. • Work-related stressors. • Life stressors.
  • 517. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Work-related stressors. – Task demands. – Role ambiguities. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 517 – Role conflicts. – Ethical dilemmas. – Interpersonal problems. – Career developments. – Physical setting.
  • 518. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Life stressors. – Family events. – Economic difficulties. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 518 – Economic difficulties. – Personal affairs. – Individual’s needs. – Individual’s capabilities. – Individual’s personality.
  • 519. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress and performance. – Constructive stress (or eustress). • Moderate levels of stress act in a positive way for both individuals and organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 519 both individuals and organization. – Destructive stress (or distress). • Low and especially high levels of stress act in a negative way for both individuals and organization. – Job burnout. • A loss of interest in and satisfaction with a job due to stressful working conditions.
  • 520. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress and health. – Stress can harm people’s physical and psychological health. – Health problems associated with stress. • Heart attack. • Stroke. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 520 • Stroke. • Hypertension. • Migraine headache. • Ulcers. • Substance abuse. • Overeating. • Depression. • Muscle aches. – Managers and team leaders should be alert to signs of excessive stress.
  • 521. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress management. – Stress prevention. • Taking action to keep stress from reaching destructive levels in the first place. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 521 – Once stress has reached a destructive point, special techniques of stress management can be implemented. – Stress management. • Begins with the recognition of stress symptoms and continues with actions to maintain a positive performance edge.
  • 522. Study Question 5: How does stress affect people in change environments? Stress management (cont.). – Personal wellness. • Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the Organizational Behavior: Chapter 16 522 • Pursuit of one’s job and career goals with the support of a personal health promotion program. – Employee assistance programs. • Provide help for employees who are experiencing personal problems and related stress.
  • 523. Chapter 17 Study Questions What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? What are the basic attributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 523 organizations? How is work organized and coordinated? What are bureaucracies and what are the common structures?
  • 524. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Strategy. – The process of positioning the organization in the competitive environment and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 524 the competitive environment and implementing actions to compete successfully. – A pattern in a stream of decisions. • Choices regarding goals and the way the firm organizes to accomplish them.
  • 525. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Elements of conventional strategy decisions. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 525 – Choosing the types of contributions the firm intends to make to society. – Precisely whom the firm will serve. – Exactly what the firm will provide to others.
  • 526. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Societal goals. – Reflect an organization’s intended contributions to the broader society. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 526 – Enable organizations to gain legitimacy, a social right to operate, and more discretion for their non-societal goals and operating practices. – Enable organizations to make legitimate claims over resources, individuals, markets, and products.
  • 527. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Societal contributions and mission statements. – A firm’s societal contribution is often part of Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 527 – A firm’s societal contribution is often part of its mission statement. • A written statement of organizational purpose. – A good mission statement identifies whom the firm will serve and how it will go about accomplishing its societal purpose.
  • 528. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Output goals. – Define the type of business the organization is pursuing. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 528 pursuing. – Provide some substance to the more general aspects of mission statements.
  • 529. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Systems goals. – Concerned with the conditions within the organization that are expected to increase the organization’s survival potential. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 529 survival potential. – Typical systems goals include growth, productivity, stability, harmony, flexibility, prestige, and human resource maintenance. – Systems goals must often be balanced against one another.
  • 530. Study Question 1: What is strategy and how is it linked to different types of organizational goals? Well-defined systems goals can: – Focus managers’ attention on what needs to be done. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 530 done. – Provide flexibility in devising ways to meet important targets. – Be used to balance the demands, constraints, and opportunities facing the firm. – Form a basis for dividing the work of the firm.
  • 531. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Successful organizations develop a structure consistent with the pattern of goals established by senior management. The formal structure shows the planned Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 531 The formal structure shows the planned configuration of positions, job duties, and the lines of authority among different parts of the organization. The formal structure of the firm is also known as the division of labor.
  • 532. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Vertical specialization. – A hierarchical division of labor that distributes formal authority and establishes where and how critical decisions are to be made. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 532 decisions are to be made. – Creates a hierarchy of authority. • An arrangement of work positions in order of increasing authority. – Organization charts are diagrams that depict the formal structures of organizations.
  • 533. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 533
  • 534. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Chain of command. – A listing of who reports to whom up and down the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 534 Unity of command. – Each person has only one boss and each unit one leader. Span of control. – The number individuals reporting to a supervisor.
  • 535. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Line units. – Work groups that conduct the major business of the organization. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 535 of the organization. Staff units. – Work groups that assist the line units by providing specialized expertise and services to the organization.
  • 536. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Internal versus external units. – Internal line units. • Transform raw materials and information into products and services. External line units. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 536 – External line units. • Maintain outside linkages. – Internal staff units. • Assist the line units in performing their functions. – External staff units. • Assist the line units with outside linkages and act to buffer internal operations.
  • 537. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 537
  • 538. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Some firms are outsourcing many of their staff functions. Use of information technology to streamline Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 538 operations and reduce staff. Most organizations use a variety of means to specialize the vertical division of labor. Best pattern of vertical specialization depends on environment, size, technology, and goals.
  • 539. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Control. – The set of mechanisms used to keep actions or outputs within predetermined limits. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 539 outputs within predetermined limits. – Deals with: • Setting standards. • Measuring results against standards. • Instituting corrective action.
  • 540. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Output controls. – Focus on desired targets and allow managers to use their own methods to reach defined Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 540 to use their own methods to reach defined targets. – Part of overall method of managing by exception. – Promote flexibility and creativity.
  • 541. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Process controls. – Specify the manner in which tasks are accomplished. Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 541 accomplished. – Types of process controls. • Policies, procedures, and rules. • Formalization and standardization. • Total quality management controls.
  • 542. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Policies, procedures, and rules. – Policies. • Guidelines for action that outline important Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 542 • Guidelines for action that outline important objectives and broadly indicate how activities are to be carried out. – Procedures. • Identify the best method for performing a task, show which aspects of a task are most important, or outline how an individual is to be rewarded.
  • 543. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Policies, procedures, and rules (cont.). – Rules. • Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 543 • Describe in detail how a task or a series of tasks is to be performed, or indicate what cannot be done. – Policies, procedures, and rules are often used as substitutes for direct managerial supervision.
  • 544. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Formalization. – The written documentation of policies, procedures, and rules to guide behavior and Organizational Behavior: Chapter 17 544 decision making. Standardization. – The degree to which the range of allowable actions in a job or series of jobs is limited so that uniform actions occur.
  • 545. Study Question 2: What are the basic attributes of organizations? Deming’s 14 points for achieving total quality management. – Create a consistency of purpose in the company to innovate; put resources into research