ENERGY Lucía Aranda Mendoza Ángela Suárez Cordero 2ºB
IN D E X Whats energy? Types of energy. Energy sources. Types of power stations.
1. W h a t s e n e r g y ?Energy is the capacity of an object or an element to do awork.The energy of a body cant be created or destroyed.How to measure the energy:The energy is measured in joules (J) or Kilojoules (kJ) forlarger quantities of energy.The heat of energy is measured in calories (cal), orKilocalories (kcal). 1 cal = 4.18 J
2. T y p e s o f e n e r g y.Types of energy Characteristics ● Kinetic energy is the energy that all objets haveMechanical energy when theyre moving. ● Potential energy is the energy that objets have when theyre moved from their stable position of equilibrium.Electrical energy The energy thats taken from an electrical current and make the object work. The energy thats transported by electromagneticElectromacnetic energy waves. ● Luminous energy is generated by the sun or artificial light.Sound energy The energy that is transmited by vibrations and sound waves.Chemical energy The energy that is stored in substances and can be released or absorbed during its process.Nuclear energy The energy that contains the nuclei of atoms and released during nuclear reactions.Thermal or calorific energy The energy that comes from vibrations of particles in matter.
3. E n e r g y s o u r c e s. Energy sources are natural reserves that provide different forms of en.ergy, which is transformed for particular uses.We use many different energy sourcesto do work for us. Energy sources areclassified into two groups: non-renewable and renewable.
3.1. N o n – r e n e w a b l e e n e r g ys o u r c e s. Non-renewable energy is the energy that are limited and has a recreation very slow, so they need million of years to form. - Nuclear energy: It is stored in nuclei of atoms. - Nuclear fusion: when two light nuclei join to Production form a bigger nucleus. - Nuclear fission: when a big nucleus is dividing into two lighter nuclei. Nuclear power stations use fission energy. The thermal energy liberated from the reaction Transformation heats water and the water is convert into vaporized water. It produces electrical energy.
- Coal: Open-cast mines: when the coal is near the surface, soil is extracted to expose it.Extraction Underground mines: when the coal is deposited in the earth deep below the surface, it must be mined underground. By sea: in big ships.Transport By land: usually by train. By road: normally by local transport. For energy: - Now adays: to generate electricity in regular power stations or for centralUses heating systems. - Other uses: -Coke - Pitch and star.
- Petroleum: The platform built in thr sea is drilled on land or under the sea. The petroleum is extracted usingExtraction pumpsor natural pressure. The extracted petroleum contains salt water,rock,mud and gas. Oil tankers are ships designedStorege and transport divided oli into separate safety reasons. Oil pipelines are enormous pipes that lie above ground on the surface in protected trenches. Transformation caused of crude oilTransformation and uses are used in industry and heat engines. Use: fuel, heat engines, fuel oil...
- Natural gas:Extraction Natural gas extraction is expensive. It is extracted by drilling. 1. Natural gas is transported from gas fields by gas pipelines.Storage and transport 2. The gas is transformed into liquid from LNG. 3. It is transported by special ships. 4. When the LNG reaches its destination, it is returned into a gaseous state.Uses To produce thermal energy in houses and to obtain electrical energy.
3.2. R e n e w a b l e e n e r g y s o u r c e s. Renewable energy come from infinity naturall resources. Somo of these sources are: - Hydraulic energy: 1. Water is transformed into knetic energy. Production 2. This energy moves the turbines. 3. The alternator transforms the knetic energy into electricity. Transformation Rivers with a lot of water Rivers in valleys with high grade. Advantages Its cheap. Its clean. Its non-polluting. Building power stations is very expensive. The destroy of villages. Disadvantages Affects the animal and plants life in the area. Catastrophe.
- Solar energy: To produce hot water by using flat solar thermal greenhouses and swimming pools. To generate electrical energy using solar Production and transformation energy. To create electrical energy in heliostat fields. It´s clean Big power stations are not needed. Advantages It´s infinite. Sunlight depends on the season, climate ans Disadvantages latitude. Solar panels are expensive for general use.
- Wind energy : Wind energy is created by the impression ofProduction and radiation on the atmosphere.When the windtransformation energy causes the edge of wind turbine to move the wind´s kinetic energy is transformed into electricity. It´s unlimited and non-polluting. The coast of construntion and maintaining aAdvantages wind farm is low. There are many regions that haven´t gotDisadvantages much wind. It´s are danger for bird. Wind turbine produce noise pollution.
- Marine energy : There some means for producting energy from the sea : Tidial energy can be extracted from the tides. Wave energy is taking from the movement of the sea wave. Ocean thermal energy is produced from the difference in temperature between the exterior of the sea and the low sea.
- Geothermal energy : This energy comes from rhe heat accumulate in the earth´s crust.If the temperature is under 150º C heat can be produced and if the temperature is over 150º C electricity can be created.
- Biomass : This is produced from plant remains, forest and agricultural waste, high energy plant and organic waste in waste matter.
4. T y p e s o f p o w e r s t a t i o n s. - Hydraulic power station: A hydraulic power station is a system of interconnected pipelines that carriespressurized liquid that is used to transmit mechanical power from an energy source, ike a pump.
- Wind power station: Wind energy is transformed into a useful form of energy, such as using: - Wind turbines to make electricity. - Windmills for mechanical power. - Windpumps for water pumping. - Sails to propel ships. A large wind farm may consist of several hundred individual of wind turbines which are connected to the electric power transmission.
- Solar power station: The solar energy is converted into electricity, if its directly is used photovoltaics (PV), or if its indirectly is used concentrated solar power (CSP).
-Nuclear power station:A nuclear power plant is a thermal power stationin which the heatsource is one or more nuclear reactors.The heat is used togenerate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to agenerator which produces electricity.
-Thermal power station: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the mover issteam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and circuit asteam turbine which drives an electrical generator .After it passesthrough the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser andrecycled to where it was heated.
ExtraDo you think wind turbine can produce freshwater? It is possible to produce water by wind turbine using the humid air. One turbine can produce 1000 litres of water per day, of course, depending of the level of humidity. The mechanism extract humidity from the air, making rainwater which is condensed and collected.