Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment
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Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment

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Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?...

Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?

Presented by: Dr. Angela M. Gibson, American Public University System, and Dr. Lori Kupczynski, Texas A&M University - Kingsville at the 15th Annual Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning October 2009

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  • 1. Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?
    Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.American Public University System
    Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.Texas A&M University-Kingsville
    15th Annual Sloan-C InternationalConference on Online Learning
    Friday, October 30, 2009
  • 2. Introductions
    Andragogy and Applications for Higher Education
    Illustrate Value of Andragogy
    Exemplification of Learning Type Within Online Classrooms
    Discussion with Audience on Personal Experiences & Best Practices for Adult Learners in Online Learning
    Small Group Breakout
    Whole Audience
    Questions & Answers
    Adult Learners in the Online Environment - Agenda
  • 3. Adult Learners - Introductions
    Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.
    Angela serves as the Instructional Design Project Leader for American Public University System’s Instructional Design and Development Team. With a background in educational leadership, adult education, community colleges, and student affairs, her research interests include student engagement and success, the role of technology in course design and instruction, and Hispanic student success.
    Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.
    Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D. serves as an educational consultant across the United States at multiple institutions of higher learning. She is an adjunct instructor of Adult Education at Texas A&M University-Kingsville.  Her research interests center upon Internet-based instruction and the role of the adult learner, with emphasis in instructional design.
  • 4. There is one way to teach
    There is one way to learn
    All students can be taught the same
    All students learn the same
    All learning can be delivered in the same way
    All students use one delivery system to learn
    Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
  • 5.
  • 6. Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
    Andragogy is DIFFERENT from pedagogy
    But first – some things to consider
    We want our students to understand how their learning can impact their entire lives, not just their grades
    We want our students to excel beyond the minimum standards
    We want our students to be socially conscious
    We expect education to come first in their schedules
    We want them to be motivated
  • 7. How do we do the things we want our students to do when there are obstacles?
    Students & faculty/staff are busy
    Often the least amount of efforts are put into work
    The “why should I” is always present
    We want it and we want it now
    Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
  • 8. Know your student
    Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
  • 9. Andragogy: Definition
    Andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults and the proper place to begin formulating theory for higher education.
    Adult learners tend to have different learning experiences than younger students and educators have difficulty in distinguishing between andragogy and pedagogy.(Galbriath, 2004; Knowles, 1970).
  • 10. Andragogy: Characteristics
    Career or multiple careers
    Family—children and aging members reliant on them
    Unstable social structures
    Transportation issues
    Childcare issues
    Need for money
    Issues with domestic violence
    Non-formal learning experiences
    Voluntary learners
    Baby Boomers
    Generation X
    Early born Millennials(Strauss and Howe, 1991)
  • 11. Andragogy: By the Numbers
    For many of us, the word “college” is synonymous with young students, ivy covered buildings, dormitory life, and “the final four.”
    “Traditional” 18-22 year-old full-time undergraduate student residing on campus = 16 percent of the higher education population in the United States
    Fewer than 3 million of the 17+ million students enrolled (2006).
    (Stokes, 2006)
  • 12. Andragogy: By the Numbers
    The “traditional” student is anything but traditional rather “conventional”.
    40 percent of today’s students study part-time.
    40 percent attend two-year institutions.
    40 percent are aged 25 or older.
    58 percent are aged 22 or older.
    (Stokes, 2006)
  • 13. Concepts in Andragogy to Consider for Application to Online Learning
    Experiential learning
    Knowledge of concepts, facts, information, and experience;
    Prior knowledge applied to current, ongoing events; and
    Reflection with a thoughtful analysis and assessment of learners’ activity that contributes to personal growth.
    (Cercone, 2008)
  • 14. Concepts: Application – cont.
    Self-directed learning
    Locus of control in learning lies with the adult learner, who may initiate learning with or without assistance from others.(Lowry, 1989)
    Transformative learning
    A constructivist theory of adult learning
    Individual transformation includes a change in one’s frame of reference or way of seeing the world. (Mezirow, 1997; Palloff& Pratt, 1999)
  • 15. Theory to Practice
    Consider limitations when designing a course.
    Consider learning styles—individualize the learning experience.
    Engage the learners in the learning process.
    Provide scaffolding.
  • 16. Theory to Practice – cont.
    Support the shift to a learner-centered paradigm.
    Facilitate.
    Consider the learner’s prior experience.
    Ensure there is a link to the learning and the students’ lives.
    Focus on issues that directly concern them. Tell them what, how, and why they are learning.
  • 17. Theory to Practice – cont.
    Allow learners to test learning as the move forward.
    Provide a collaborative, respectful and informal learning climate.
    Allow for self-reflection.
    Provide dialogue and social interaction.
  • 18. Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions
  • 19. Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions – cont.
  • 20. Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions – cont.
    Source: Encyclopedia of Educational Technology
  • 21. Community of Inquiry Framework
    Garrison, 2000
  • 22. Small Group Break Outs
  • 23. Conclusion
    Adult learners are important, yet neglected
    Strategies for online learning include course development to community engagement to class settings
    Pedagogy and Andragogy can mix
    Know your students
  • 24. Questions & Answers
    Thank You!!!!
  • 25. Contact Information
    Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.
    American Public University System
    111 W. Congress St.
    Charles Town, WV 25414
    o) 304-724-2804 agibson@apus.edu
    Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.
    Texas A&M University - Kingsville
    12206 Stable Pond Dr.
    San Antonio, TX 78249
    c) 956-648-7617 capitola16@yahoo.com
  • 26. References
    Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design, AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159.
    Frey, B. A., & Alman, S. W. (2003). Applying adult learning theory to the online classroom. New Horizons in Adult Education, 17(1), 4-12.
    Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61- 72.
    Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
    Green, J. (1999). Andragogy: Teaching adults. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/andragogy/index.htm.
    Knowles, M. (1986). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing.
    Lowry, C. M. (1989). Supporting and facilitating self-directed learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED312 457). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/89dig.htm
  • 27. References – cont.
    Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5-12.
    Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education a systems view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schapiro, S.A. (2003). From andragogy to collaborative, critical pedagogy: Learning for academic, personal, and social empowerment in a distance-learning, Ph.D. program. Journal of Transformative Education,1(2), 150-166.
    Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc.
    Stokes, P. (2006). Hidden in Plain Sight: Adult Learners Forge a New Tradition in Higher Education. A National Dialogue: The Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education [Issue Paper]. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/reports/stokes.pdf
  • 28. Additional Resources
    Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the early twenties. American Psychologist, 5(55), 469-480.
    Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence through midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8(2), 134-143.
    Arnett, J. J. (2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 100, 63-75.
    Arnett, J. J. (2006). Emerging adulthood in Europe: A response to Bynner. Journal of
    Youth Studies, 9(1), 111-123.
    Boehle, S. (2008). How to design e-learning for multiple generations. Retrieved September 14, 2009, from http://www.managesmarter.com/msg/content_display/training/e3ifd9d309a05210550b50be9a8c2ab5001
  • 29. Additional Resources – cont.
    Huang, H-M., (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 27-37.
    Kazis, R., Callahan, A., Davidson, C., McLeod, A., Bosworth, B., Choitz, V., & Hoops, J. (2007). Adult Learners in Higher Education: Barriers to Success and Strategies to Improve Results. Employment and Training Administration Occasional Paper 2007-03. From the U.S. Department of Labor. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED497801). http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED497801&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED497801
    Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. L. (ed). Educating the Net Generation. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf