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Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment

Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment



Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?...

Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?

Presented by: Dr. Angela M. Gibson, American Public University System, and Dr. Lori Kupczynski, Texas A&M University - Kingsville at the 15th Annual Sloan-C International Conference on Online Learning October 2009



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    Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment Learning Theories and Instructional Pathways for Adult Learners in the Online Environment Presentation Transcript

    • Adult Learners in the Online Environment: What Creates SUCCESS?
      Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.American Public University System
      Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.Texas A&M University-Kingsville
      15th Annual Sloan-C InternationalConference on Online Learning
      Friday, October 30, 2009
    • Introductions
      Andragogy and Applications for Higher Education
      Illustrate Value of Andragogy
      Exemplification of Learning Type Within Online Classrooms
      Discussion with Audience on Personal Experiences & Best Practices for Adult Learners in Online Learning
      Small Group Breakout
      Whole Audience
      Questions & Answers
      Adult Learners in the Online Environment - Agenda
    • Adult Learners - Introductions
      Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.
      Angela serves as the Instructional Design Project Leader for American Public University System’s Instructional Design and Development Team. With a background in educational leadership, adult education, community colleges, and student affairs, her research interests include student engagement and success, the role of technology in course design and instruction, and Hispanic student success.
      Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.
      Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D. serves as an educational consultant across the United States at multiple institutions of higher learning. She is an adjunct instructor of Adult Education at Texas A&M University-Kingsville.  Her research interests center upon Internet-based instruction and the role of the adult learner, with emphasis in instructional design.
    • There is one way to teach
      There is one way to learn
      All students can be taught the same
      All students learn the same
      All learning can be delivered in the same way
      All students use one delivery system to learn
      Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
    • Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
      Andragogy is DIFFERENT from pedagogy
      But first – some things to consider
      We want our students to understand how their learning can impact their entire lives, not just their grades
      We want our students to excel beyond the minimum standards
      We want our students to be socially conscious
      We expect education to come first in their schedules
      We want them to be motivated
    • How do we do the things we want our students to do when there are obstacles?
      Students & faculty/staff are busy
      Often the least amount of efforts are put into work
      The “why should I” is always present
      We want it and we want it now
      Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
    • Know your student
      Andragogy & Applications in Higher Education
    • Andragogy: Definition
      Andragogy is the art and science of teaching adults and the proper place to begin formulating theory for higher education.
      Adult learners tend to have different learning experiences than younger students and educators have difficulty in distinguishing between andragogy and pedagogy.(Galbriath, 2004; Knowles, 1970).
    • Andragogy: Characteristics
      Career or multiple careers
      Family—children and aging members reliant on them
      Unstable social structures
      Transportation issues
      Childcare issues
      Need for money
      Issues with domestic violence
      Non-formal learning experiences
      Voluntary learners
      Baby Boomers
      Generation X
      Early born Millennials(Strauss and Howe, 1991)
    • Andragogy: By the Numbers
      For many of us, the word “college” is synonymous with young students, ivy covered buildings, dormitory life, and “the final four.”
      “Traditional” 18-22 year-old full-time undergraduate student residing on campus = 16 percent of the higher education population in the United States
      Fewer than 3 million of the 17+ million students enrolled (2006).
      (Stokes, 2006)
    • Andragogy: By the Numbers
      The “traditional” student is anything but traditional rather “conventional”.
      40 percent of today’s students study part-time.
      40 percent attend two-year institutions.
      40 percent are aged 25 or older.
      58 percent are aged 22 or older.
      (Stokes, 2006)
    • Concepts in Andragogy to Consider for Application to Online Learning
      Experiential learning
      Knowledge of concepts, facts, information, and experience;
      Prior knowledge applied to current, ongoing events; and
      Reflection with a thoughtful analysis and assessment of learners’ activity that contributes to personal growth.
      (Cercone, 2008)
    • Concepts: Application – cont.
      Self-directed learning
      Locus of control in learning lies with the adult learner, who may initiate learning with or without assistance from others.(Lowry, 1989)
      Transformative learning
      A constructivist theory of adult learning
      Individual transformation includes a change in one’s frame of reference or way of seeing the world. (Mezirow, 1997; Palloff& Pratt, 1999)
    • Theory to Practice
      Consider limitations when designing a course.
      Consider learning styles—individualize the learning experience.
      Engage the learners in the learning process.
      Provide scaffolding.
    • Theory to Practice – cont.
      Support the shift to a learner-centered paradigm.
      Consider the learner’s prior experience.
      Ensure there is a link to the learning and the students’ lives.
      Focus on issues that directly concern them. Tell them what, how, and why they are learning.
    • Theory to Practice – cont.
      Allow learners to test learning as the move forward.
      Provide a collaborative, respectful and informal learning climate.
      Allow for self-reflection.
      Provide dialogue and social interaction.
    • Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions
    • Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions – cont.
    • Andragogy: Educational Challenges & Online Solutions – cont.
      Source: Encyclopedia of Educational Technology
    • Community of Inquiry Framework
      Garrison, 2000
    • Small Group Break Outs
    • Conclusion
      Adult learners are important, yet neglected
      Strategies for online learning include course development to community engagement to class settings
      Pedagogy and Andragogy can mix
      Know your students
    • Questions & Answers
      Thank You!!!!
    • Contact Information
      Angela M. Gibson, Ed.D.
      American Public University System
      111 W. Congress St.
      Charles Town, WV 25414
      o) 304-724-2804 agibson@apus.edu
      Lori Kupczynski, Ed.D.
      Texas A&M University - Kingsville
      12206 Stable Pond Dr.
      San Antonio, TX 78249
      c) 956-648-7617 capitola16@yahoo.com
    • References
      Cercone, K. (2008). Characteristics of adult learners with implications for online learning design, AACE Journal, 16(2), 137-159.
      Frey, B. A., & Alman, S. W. (2003). Applying adult learning theory to the online classroom. New Horizons in Adult Education, 17(1), 4-12.
      Garrison, D. R. (2007). Online community of inquiry review: Social, cognitive, and teaching presence issues. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 11(1), 61- 72.
      Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2-3), 87-105.
      Green, J. (1999). Andragogy: Teaching adults. Retrieved September 17, 2009, from http://coe.sdsu.edu/eet/Articles/andragogy/index.htm.
      Knowles, M. (1986). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing.
      Lowry, C. M. (1989). Supporting and facilitating self-directed learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED312 457). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from http://www.ntlf.com/html/lib/bib/89dig.htm
    • References – cont.
      Mezirow, J. (1997). Transformative learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 74, 5-12.
      Merriam, S. B., & Caffarella, R. S. (1999). Learning in adulthood (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Moore, M. G., & Kearsley, G. (1996). Distance education a systems view. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
      Palloff, R. M., & Pratt, K. (1999). Building learning communities in cyberspace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
      Schapiro, S.A. (2003). From andragogy to collaborative, critical pedagogy: Learning for academic, personal, and social empowerment in a distance-learning, Ph.D. program. Journal of Transformative Education,1(2), 150-166.
      Strauss, W., & Howe, N. (1991). Generations: The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069. New York: William Morrow & Company, Inc.
      Stokes, P. (2006). Hidden in Plain Sight: Adult Learners Forge a New Tradition in Higher Education. A National Dialogue: The Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education [Issue Paper]. Retrieved July 7, 2009, from http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/reports/stokes.pdf
    • Additional Resources
      Arnett, J. J. (2000). Emerging adulthood: A theory of development from the late teens through the early twenties. American Psychologist, 5(55), 469-480.
      Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: Perspectives from adolescence through midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8(2), 134-143.
      Arnett, J. J. (2003). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood among emerging adults in American ethnic groups. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 100, 63-75.
      Arnett, J. J. (2006). Emerging adulthood in Europe: A response to Bynner. Journal of
      Youth Studies, 9(1), 111-123.
      Boehle, S. (2008). How to design e-learning for multiple generations. Retrieved September 14, 2009, from http://www.managesmarter.com/msg/content_display/training/e3ifd9d309a05210550b50be9a8c2ab5001
    • Additional Resources – cont.
      Huang, H-M., (2002). Toward constructivism for adult learners in online learning environments. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 27-37.
      Kazis, R., Callahan, A., Davidson, C., McLeod, A., Bosworth, B., Choitz, V., & Hoops, J. (2007). Adult Learners in Higher Education: Barriers to Success and Strategies to Improve Results. Employment and Training Administration Occasional Paper 2007-03. From the U.S. Department of Labor. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED497801). http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED497801&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED497801
      Oblinger, D., & Oblinger, J. L. (ed). Educating the Net Generation. Retrieved October 1, 2009, from http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7101.pdf