Chapter 10<br />Nervous System<br />
Levels of Nervous System<br />Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord<br />Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): 12...
Neurons<br />Picks up an impulse and transmits it via the spinal cord to the action device<br />CNS (afferent nerve) or mu...
What Happens in a Neuron?<br />Acetylcholine – chemical present at synapse to help make the connection<br />Cholinesterase...
Other Cells in the Nervous System<br />Astrocytes – “star cells”<br />Microglia – “small glue”<br />Oligodendroglia – “few...
The Brain<br />Cerebrum: Largest part of brain; Right and left hemisphere with each hemisphere having four major lobes: fr...
Spinal Cord<br />Gray Matter – neuron cells bodies<br />White matter – axon coated with myelin sheath<br />
Meninges<br />Three layers of connective tissue<br />Dura mater: thick protective membrane just below skull<br />Subdural ...
Pathologic Conditions to Know<br />Hydrocephalus<br />Normally congenital<br />Head swells – increased pressure inside bra...
Spina Bifida<br />Imperfect union of the vertebra<br />Spina bifida occulta – malunion or absence of a vertebra is only de...
More Conditions to Know<br />Alzheimer’s Disease<br />Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis<br />Epilepsy<br />Huntington Disease<...
Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA/Stroke)<br />Brain tissue dies because of lack of blood flow to a portion of brain<br />Tran...
Results of Stroke<br />Seen on opposite side of the body from which the stroke took place<br />Affects depend on the porti...
Know These!<br />The Laboratory Tests/Clinical Procedures at End of Chapter<br />
Chapter 22<br />Psychiatry<br />
What To Know<br />What is the DSM-IV-TR?<br />What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?<br />Know ...
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Chapter 10 & 22 BUS116

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Chapter 10 & 22 BUS116

  1. 1. Chapter 10<br />Nervous System<br />
  2. 2. Levels of Nervous System<br />Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord<br />Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system<br />Nerves within PNS are:<br />Afferent (sensory) – transmit impulses to CNS<br />Efferent (motor) – transmit impulses away from CNS<br />Autonomic Nervous System<br />Sympathetic – causes reactions<br />Parasympathetic – causes sympathetic reaction to calm down/counteracts the sympathetic reaction<br />
  3. 3. Neurons<br />Picks up an impulse and transmits it via the spinal cord to the action device<br />CNS (afferent nerve) or muscle (efferent nerve)<br />
  4. 4. What Happens in a Neuron?<br />Acetylcholine – chemical present at synapse to help make the connection<br />Cholinesterase – counteracting chemical to stop connection<br />
  5. 5. Other Cells in the Nervous System<br />Astrocytes – “star cells”<br />Microglia – “small glue”<br />Oligodendroglia – “few/scanty dendrite glue”<br />Ependymal cells – “upper garment”<br />
  6. 6. The Brain<br />Cerebrum: Largest part of brain; Right and left hemisphere with each hemisphere having four major lobes: frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal<br />Ventricles: Spaces and canals that contain cerebrospinal fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord<br />Thalamus: Coordinates sensory impulses to brain<br />Hypothalamus: Controls body temp, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, emotions; regulates hormone release from pituitary gland<br />Brain Stem:<br />Cerebellum – voluntary movement, maintain balance, posture, muscle tone<br />Pons – nerve fiber tracts that connect cerebellum and cerebrum to rest of brain<br />Medulla Oblongata – nerve tracts cross so right side of body is controlled by left side of brain and vice versa<br />Respiratory, cardiac and vasomotor center<br />
  7. 7. Spinal Cord<br />Gray Matter – neuron cells bodies<br />White matter – axon coated with myelin sheath<br />
  8. 8. Meninges<br />Three layers of connective tissue<br />Dura mater: thick protective membrane just below skull<br />Subdural space located under dura mater and contains many blood vessels<br />Arachnoid membrane: resembles a spider web<br />Arachnoid space: open web below arachnoid membrane<br />Pia mater: layer closet to brain<br />KNOW YOUR CRANIAL NERVES AND FUNCTIONS!<br />
  9. 9. Pathologic Conditions to Know<br />Hydrocephalus<br />Normally congenital<br />Head swells – increased pressure inside brain<br />Objective is to get increased fluid off of brain with a shunt<br />
  10. 10. Spina Bifida<br />Imperfect union of the vertebra<br />Spina bifida occulta – malunion or absence of a vertebra is only detected on x-ray<br />Spina bifida cystica – very serious; meninges of spinal cord protrude through vertebral opening and form a cyst to outside of body<br />
  11. 11. More Conditions to Know<br />Alzheimer’s Disease<br />Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis<br />Epilepsy<br />Huntington Disease<br />Multiple Sclerosis<br />Myasthenia Gravis<br />Palsy<br />Parkinson’s Disease<br />Tourette Syndrome<br />Herpes Zoster (shingles)<br />Meningitis <br />HIV encephalopathy<br />Brain Tumors<br />Cerebral Concussion & Cerebral Contusion<br />
  12. 12. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA/Stroke)<br />Brain tissue dies because of lack of blood flow to a portion of brain<br />Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – lose a period of time in short term memory<br />3 Major causes of CVA<br />Thrombus (clot)<br />Embolus (floating clot)<br />Hemorrhage (ruptured vessel)<br />
  13. 13. Results of Stroke<br />Seen on opposite side of the body from which the stroke took place<br />Affects depend on the portion of the brain that has been destroyed<br />Hemiparesis (slight paralysis)<br />Hemiplegia (paralysis on right or left side of body)<br />Flaccid – no muscle contractions<br />Spastic – remain contracted/stiff<br />
  14. 14. Know These!<br />The Laboratory Tests/Clinical Procedures at End of Chapter<br />
  15. 15. Chapter 22<br />Psychiatry<br />
  16. 16. What To Know<br />What is the DSM-IV-TR?<br />What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?<br />Know the Psychiatric clinical symptoms<br />Know the vocabulary (general terms, symptoms, and disorders)<br />Know the phobias<br />Abbreviations<br />AD<br />ADHD<br />DSM-IV-TR<br />ECT<br />MMPI<br />OCD<br />SAD<br />TAT<br />WAIS<br />WISC<br />

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