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Chapter 10 & 22 BUS116
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Chapter 10 & 22 BUS116

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Transcript

  • 1. Chapter 10
    Nervous System
  • 2. Levels of Nervous System
    Central Nervous System (CNS): Brain and spinal cord
    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves and the autonomic nervous system
    Nerves within PNS are:
    Afferent (sensory) – transmit impulses to CNS
    Efferent (motor) – transmit impulses away from CNS
    Autonomic Nervous System
    Sympathetic – causes reactions
    Parasympathetic – causes sympathetic reaction to calm down/counteracts the sympathetic reaction
  • 3. Neurons
    Picks up an impulse and transmits it via the spinal cord to the action device
    CNS (afferent nerve) or muscle (efferent nerve)
  • 4. What Happens in a Neuron?
    Acetylcholine – chemical present at synapse to help make the connection
    Cholinesterase – counteracting chemical to stop connection
  • 5. Other Cells in the Nervous System
    Astrocytes – “star cells”
    Microglia – “small glue”
    Oligodendroglia – “few/scanty dendrite glue”
    Ependymal cells – “upper garment”
  • 6. The Brain
    Cerebrum: Largest part of brain; Right and left hemisphere with each hemisphere having four major lobes: frontal, occipital, temporal and parietal
    Ventricles: Spaces and canals that contain cerebrospinal fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord
    Thalamus: Coordinates sensory impulses to brain
    Hypothalamus: Controls body temp, sleep, appetite, sexual desire, emotions; regulates hormone release from pituitary gland
    Brain Stem:
    Cerebellum – voluntary movement, maintain balance, posture, muscle tone
    Pons – nerve fiber tracts that connect cerebellum and cerebrum to rest of brain
    Medulla Oblongata – nerve tracts cross so right side of body is controlled by left side of brain and vice versa
    Respiratory, cardiac and vasomotor center
  • 7. Spinal Cord
    Gray Matter – neuron cells bodies
    White matter – axon coated with myelin sheath
  • 8. Meninges
    Three layers of connective tissue
    Dura mater: thick protective membrane just below skull
    Subdural space located under dura mater and contains many blood vessels
    Arachnoid membrane: resembles a spider web
    Arachnoid space: open web below arachnoid membrane
    Pia mater: layer closet to brain
    KNOW YOUR CRANIAL NERVES AND FUNCTIONS!
  • 9. Pathologic Conditions to Know
    Hydrocephalus
    Normally congenital
    Head swells – increased pressure inside brain
    Objective is to get increased fluid off of brain with a shunt
  • 10. Spina Bifida
    Imperfect union of the vertebra
    Spina bifida occulta – malunion or absence of a vertebra is only detected on x-ray
    Spina bifida cystica – very serious; meninges of spinal cord protrude through vertebral opening and form a cyst to outside of body
  • 11. More Conditions to Know
    Alzheimer’s Disease
    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
    Epilepsy
    Huntington Disease
    Multiple Sclerosis
    Myasthenia Gravis
    Palsy
    Parkinson’s Disease
    Tourette Syndrome
    Herpes Zoster (shingles)
    Meningitis
    HIV encephalopathy
    Brain Tumors
    Cerebral Concussion & Cerebral Contusion
  • 12. Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA/Stroke)
    Brain tissue dies because of lack of blood flow to a portion of brain
    Transient ischemic attack (TIA) – lose a period of time in short term memory
    3 Major causes of CVA
    Thrombus (clot)
    Embolus (floating clot)
    Hemorrhage (ruptured vessel)
  • 13. Results of Stroke
    Seen on opposite side of the body from which the stroke took place
    Affects depend on the portion of the brain that has been destroyed
    Hemiparesis (slight paralysis)
    Hemiplegia (paralysis on right or left side of body)
    Flaccid – no muscle contractions
    Spastic – remain contracted/stiff
  • 14. Know These!
    The Laboratory Tests/Clinical Procedures at End of Chapter
  • 15. Chapter 22
    Psychiatry
  • 16. What To Know
    What is the DSM-IV-TR?
    What is the difference between a psychiatrist and a psychologist?
    Know the Psychiatric clinical symptoms
    Know the vocabulary (general terms, symptoms, and disorders)
    Know the phobias
    Abbreviations
    AD
    ADHD
    DSM-IV-TR
    ECT
    MMPI
    OCD
    SAD
    TAT
    WAIS
    WISC

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