Totalitarianism and how it is portrayed in George Orwell’s Animal Farm and 1984 . Angel McNair Professor Owens English 1102 1 May 2011
Totalitarianism is absolute control by the state or a governing branch of a highly centralized institution.
GEORGE ORWELL <ul><li>Born Eric Arthur Blair. </li></ul><ul><li>Born in Motihari, India on June 25, 1903. </li></ul><ul><li>Died in London on January 21, 1950. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieved prominence with the two satires attacking totalitarianism. </li></ul><ul><li>Those novels are Animal Farm and 1984 . </li></ul><ul><li>They were written to reflect his eternal distrust of imperious government. </li></ul><ul><li>Joined the Indian Imperial Police in Burma in 1922. </li></ul><ul><li>His first book, Down and Out in Paris and London , was written in 1933. </li></ul>
In Animal Farm and 1984 , George Orwell expresses his discern for totalitarianism and the ruling of one absolute power in society. <ul><li>Animal Farm is an allegorical satire. </li></ul><ul><li>It was written in 1945. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a modern beast-fable attacking Stalinism. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon also represents the one ruling absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>1984 was written specifically to represent the dangers of a totalitarian government. </li></ul><ul><li>Was written in 1948, published in ’49. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a dystopian novel bringing out his fears of an intrusive bureaucratic state of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Big Brother is the absolute power. </li></ul><ul><li>He is not a character, but a metaphor for totalitarianism. </li></ul><ul><li>He is also the symbol of party dominance. </li></ul>
“ The pair of novels brought him his first fame and almost his only remuneration as a writer. His wartime work for the BBC (published in the collections George Orwell: The Lost Writings, and The War Commentaries) gave him a solid taste of bureaucratic hypocrisy and may have provided the inspiration for his invention of "newspeak," the truth-denying language of Big Brother's rule in Nineteen Eighty-Four” (Johnson para. 4).
<ul><li>Northrop Frye summarized it as a “fable of the animals that revolted and set up a republic on the farm, how the pigs seized control and how, led by a dictatorial boar named Napoleon, they finally became human beings walking on two legs and carrying whips, just as the old Farmer Jones had done.” </li></ul><ul><li>Old Major has a dream that consists of animals one day living free from the tyranny of their human owners. This started the rebellion against humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon leads the farm animals in a tirade of overthrowing Manor Farm. </li></ul><ul><li>They have seven principles, known as the seven commandments. </li></ul><ul><li>The seven commandments change throughout the stages of the revolution. </li></ul><ul><li>The final commandment is eventually changed to “Every animal is created equal, but some are more equal than others” (Animal Farm). </li></ul><ul><li>Animals eventually chase Farmer and Mrs. Jones off the farm and take up residence in the farm house. </li></ul><ul><li>The name is changed to Animal Farm. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon exiles Snowball for trying to take on some sort of authority. </li></ul><ul><li>When Snowball is exiled, there is a great slaughter of animals </li></ul><ul><li>who supposedly sympathized with him. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Old Major- has the dream that persuades the animals to start a revolution. He told the animals that man should be overthrown because he is blame for the ill fallings of the animals. He dies shortly after the meeting he put together to tell the animals of his dream. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon- established himself as dictator. Always has to get his way. Steals cows milk for the pigs. Raises nine puppies to become killer guard dogs for himself. Has a complete and total transformation into Jones himself. He sleeps in the farmer’s bed, eats from his plate, drinks alcohol and walks on two legs. </li></ul><ul><li>Squealer- Napoleons right hand man. Makes the ideas of all the propaganda that Napoleon creates seem as if it is brilliant. </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ Orwell was very clear about his intentions in writing the book. During the Spanish Civil War, he had seen the effects of the repressions and deceptions of Stalinism at first hand. He wished to open people's eyes to the reality of the Soviet regime 'in a story that could be easily understood by almost anyone', even when that regime had become an ally to Britain and the USA in the fight against German fascism. Such an exposure was essential, Orwell believed, if a true and democratic form of socialism was to be created” (Bloom, Peters 141). </li></ul>
“ You are a slow learner, Winston,” said O’Brien gently. “How can I help it” he blubbered. “How can I help seeing what is in front of my eyes? Two and two are four.” “Sometimes, Winston. Sometimes they are five...”(Orwell, 1984). <ul><li>Big Brother represents the ominous spirit of Oceania. </li></ul><ul><li>The Party is run by Big Brother. </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Smith is the main character. </li></ul><ul><li>He works in the Records Department of the Ministry of Truth. </li></ul><ul><li>He is anti-Party. </li></ul><ul><li>There are telescreens everywhere. In every place. In every room. Even bathrooms. </li></ul><ul><li>There are huge pictures of Big Brother every where in Oceania. On posters, in elevators, cigarette packages, even food product packages. </li></ul><ul><li>Newspeak, doublethink, Thought Police and thoughtcrime are major issues in the novel. </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological manipulation is used to change the way people think. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Language of Oceania. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the totalitarian abuse of language. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the addition and subtracting of words from the English dictionary and using the outcome in the Newspeak dictionary. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 3 vocabularies, a, b and c. </li></ul><ul><li>A is for everyday vocabulary. </li></ul><ul><li>B is for political use only. </li></ul><ul><li>C is technical and scientific </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of Newspeak is to make any alternative thinking, also known as “thoughtcrime” or “crimethink,” impossible. </li></ul><ul><li>They do this to make sure that no one has the vocabulary to think of freedom or rebellion. </li></ul>
Doublethink <ul><li>A manipulation of the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes people accept contradictions. </li></ul><ul><li>Makes them also believe that the party is the only institution that distinguishes between right and wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>An example is Big Brother telling Oceania the lie that two plus two equals five and they believe him while knowing that two plus two really equals four. </li></ul>
Crimethink/Thoughtcrime <ul><li>Anyone (especially the proles) who has a thought that does not agree with Newspeak and the thoughts that Big Brother and The Party want them to have. </li></ul><ul><li>Punishable by death. </li></ul><ul><li>Thought Police watch you through omnipresent telescreens. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Any sound that Winston made, above the level of a very low whisper, would be picked up by it; moreover, so long as he remained within the field of vision which the metal plaque commanded, he could be seen as well as heard” (1984). </li></ul>
Character descriptions <ul><li>Big Brother- not necessarily a character. He is a metaphor. He represents the totalitarian government. </li></ul><ul><li>Winston- is the protagonist that allows the readers to see the horrible and nightmarish results of a totalitarianistic government through his eyes. He has a secret lover named Julia. He is betrayed by a member of the inner Party, whom he thought he could trust. </li></ul><ul><li>Julia- Winston’s lover. Also anti-Party. Likes sex and concocting plans to try not to get caught by the Party. </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien-character who manipulates Winston into thinking he has become a member of the Brotherhood. admits to that he was falsely connected to the Brotherhood. He tortures Winston not only psychologically, but physically as well. The reason for Winston’s downfall and eventual loyalty to Big Brother. </li></ul>
<ul><li>They are controversial. They stand out amongst the rest. They brought attention to the possibilities of how easily a single person can take control over an entire population. He told the truth of how a government can manipulate its people into believing whatever they want the people to believe. "During times of universal deceit, telling the truth becomes a revolutionary act” (George Orwell). </li></ul>
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.