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    Citation Citation Presentation Transcript

    • Plagiarism and Citation Methods
    • What is Plagiarism?
      Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source
    • The Importance of Intent
      There’s a difference between intentionally presenting someone’s work as your own and misusing your sources
    • Some Examples of Deliberate Use
      Using papers from a paper mill
      Presenting someone else’s paper as your own
      Copying large sections of text from a source without attribution
      These are considered serious academic offenses
    • Misuse of Sources
      Academic conventions dictate certain methods for citing sources
      These conventions must be learned and mistakes will happen
      Careless or mistaken use of citation conventions is not plagiarism
      As long as some effort is made to indentify source material, it will be treated as a stylistic issue
    • What is Common Knowledge?
      Anything your reader could commonly know or that is available in general sources
      This sort of knowledge will vary from discipline to discipline
      Generally, any sort of knowledge you see commonly repeated in the research you are reading is considered common knowledge
    • What Isn’t Common Knowledge?
      Highly specific statistics
      Not all specifics are highly specific. Some are common knowledge e.g. the population of the US
      Controversial information or ideas that contradict prevailing opinions
      Ideas that appear in only a few of your sources or that are specific to one source
    • Examples of Common Knowledge
      Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President
      On Sep. 11th, Al-Qaeda attacked the United States
      On average, Mars is 78 million km from the Earth
    • Not Common Knowledge
      Some scholars believe Abraham Lincoln suffered from manic-depression
      Currently, Al-Qaeda’s operational capacity has been reduced to the point where it is more a brand name than a centralized organization
      Steven Hawking believes that colonizing Mars and other planets is the only way to preserve the human race
    • Other Points Where Problems Could Arise
      Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks
      Also, if you quote someone, you must cite them and provide a reference
    • Summary vs. Paraphrase
      A paraphrase reports information from a source in the same number of words
      A summary reports information from you source in a condensed form
    • Possible Issues
      When summarizing or paraphrasing, you must restate the author’s ideas in your own language
      If you half-copy the author’s sentences, you have misused your source
      This could happen if you mix the author’s phrases with your own or if you plug synonyms into the author’s sentence structure
    • Example from Hacker
      Original text
      In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media.
      -Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity.” 2004. Print.
    • Problem: Borrows Too Many Phrases
      The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media (1).
    • Problem: Same Structure
      The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have identified (pointed to)a variety (range) of significant (important) factors causing (potential contributors to) a rise in childhood obesity that are not linked (unrelated) to media (1).
    • Solution to This Problem
      Since it is easier to copy the source when it is in front of you, set the source aside and write a paraphrase or summary from memory
      When you have finished your paraphrase or summary, check your source for accuracy and to make sure it isn’t too close to the original
      Finally, if you are having a hard time, feel free to quote the source directly
    • Acceptable Paraphrase
      A report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation claims sources other than the media were responsible for the childhood obesity crisis.
    • If You Are In Doubt
      Consult your Hacker Style Manual
      Send me an email or ask me in class
    • Purpose
      To aid your close reading of the text
      Provide concrete examples to back up your analysis
      To keep your analysis focused and on task
    • Citation methods
      For this paper you will most likely use two types of in-text citations:
      Short quotes
      Long quotes
    • Some General Guidelines
      MLArequires that all signal phrases introducing a citation be in the present tense
      Ken Byron contends…
      The unnamed narrator in “Adams” believes…
    • Follow the author/date format
      The author’s name and the page number of the quotation should appear in any in-text citation.
      Two main ways of doing this
      George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?
    • Author Name and Page #
      The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?
    • Basic Formatting
      The titles of longer works (movies, books, edited collections, albums, etc.) should be italicized, e.g. Huckleberry Finn, Inception, Kind of Blue.
      The titles of shorter works (short stories, essays, song titles, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks, e.g. “Barn Burning”, “Shootings”, “I Sing The Body Electric”, “Stairway to Heaven”.
    • Short Quotations
      Things you need to include:
      Author
      Page number
      Signal phrase
    • Examples
      George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?
      The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?
    • Long Quotes
      Use when your quote is longer than 40 words
      Omit quotation marks
      Start on a new line indented five spaces from the left margin
      Type the entire quotation from the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph
      Maintain double-spacing throughout
    • Example
      Ken Byron develops an extensive scale for judging the gender of every person in America:
      Here’s how it works: Say we determine that a man is an 8 on the manly scale, with 10 being most manly of all and 0 basically a neuter. And say we determine that his fiancee is a -6 on the manly scale, with -10 being most Fem of all. Calculating the difference between the man’s rating and the woman’s rating– the Gender Differential– we see that this proposed union is not, in fact, a Samish-Sex Marriage (Saunders 67-68).
    • Reference page
      Some resources:
      Son Of Citation Machine
      Easy Bib
      Amacite
      These will automatically generate a references page for
      you. Just make sure to plug in your sources correctly.