What is Plagiarism? Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source
The Importance of Intent There’s a difference between intentionally presenting someone’s work as your own and misusing your sources
Some Examples of Deliberate Use Using papers from a paper mill Presenting someone else’s paper as your own Copying large sections of text from a source without attribution These are considered serious academic offenses
Misuse of Sources Academic conventions dictate certain methods for citing sources These conventions must be learned and mistakes will happen Careless or mistaken use of citation conventions is not plagiarism As long as some effort is made to indentify source material, it will be treated as a stylistic issue
What is Common Knowledge? Anything your reader could commonly know or that is available in general sources This sort of knowledge will vary from discipline to discipline Generally, any sort of knowledge you see commonly repeated in the research you are reading is considered common knowledge
What Isn’t Common Knowledge? Highly specific statistics Not all specifics are highly specific. Some are common knowledge e.g. the population of the US Controversial information or ideas that contradict prevailing opinions Ideas that appear in only a few of your sources or that are specific to one source
Examples of Common Knowledge Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President On Sep. 11th, Al-Qaeda attacked the United States On average, Mars is 78 million km from the Earth
Not Common Knowledge Some scholars believe Abraham Lincoln suffered from manic-depression Currently, Al-Qaeda’s operational capacity has been reduced to the point where it is more a brand name than a centralized organization Steven Hawking believes that colonizing Mars and other planets is the only way to preserve the human race
Other Points Where Problems Could Arise Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks Also, if you quote someone, you must cite them and provide a reference
Summary vs. Paraphrase A paraphrase reports information from a source in the same number of words A summary reports information from you source in a condensed form
Possible Issues When summarizing or paraphrasing, you must restate the author’s ideas in your own language If you half-copy the author’s sentences, you have misused your source This could happen if you mix the author’s phrases with your own or if you plug synonyms into the author’s sentence structure
Example from Hacker Original text In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media. -Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity.” 2004. Print.
Problem: Borrows Too Many Phrases The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media (1).
Problem: Same Structure The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have identified (pointed to)a variety (range) of significant (important) factors causing (potential contributors to) a rise in childhood obesity that are not linked (unrelated) to media (1).
Solution to This Problem Since it is easier to copy the source when it is in front of you, set the source aside and write a paraphrase or summary from memory When you have finished your paraphrase or summary, check your source for accuracy and to make sure it isn’t too close to the original Finally, if you are having a hard time, feel free to quote the source directly
Acceptable Paraphrase A report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation claims sources other than the media were responsible for the childhood obesity crisis.
If You Are In Doubt Consult your Hacker Style Manual Send me an email or ask me in class
Purpose To aid your close reading of the text Provide concrete examples to back up your analysis To keep your analysis focused and on task
Citation methods For this paper you will most likely use two types of in-text citations: Short quotes Long quotes
Some General Guidelines MLArequires that all signal phrases introducing a citation be in the present tense Ken Byron contends… The unnamed narrator in “Adams” believes…
Follow the author/date format The author’s name and the page number of the quotation should appear in any in-text citation. Two main ways of doing this George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?
Author Name and Page # The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?
Basic Formatting The titles of longer works (movies, books, edited collections, albums, etc.) should be italicized, e.g. Huckleberry Finn, Inception, Kind of Blue. The titles of shorter works (short stories, essays, song titles, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks, e.g. “Barn Burning”, “Shootings”, “I Sing The Body Electric”, “Stairway to Heaven”.
Short Quotations Things you need to include: Author Page number Signal phrase
Examples George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)? The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?
Long Quotes Use when your quote is longer than 40 words Omit quotation marks Start on a new line indented five spaces from the left margin Type the entire quotation from the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph Maintain double-spacing throughout
Example Ken Byron develops an extensive scale for judging the gender of every person in America: Here’s how it works: Say we determine that a man is an 8 on the manly scale, with 10 being most manly of all and 0 basically a neuter. And say we determine that his fiancee is a -6 on the manly scale, with -10 being most Fem of all. Calculating the difference between the man’s rating and the woman’s rating– the Gender Differential– we see that this proposed union is not, in fact, a Samish-Sex Marriage (Saunders 67-68).
Reference page Some resources: Son Of Citation Machine Easy Bib Amacite These will automatically generate a references page for you. Just make sure to plug in your sources correctly.