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Citation

  1. 1. Plagiarism and Citation Methods<br />
  2. 2. What is Plagiarism?<br />Occurs when someone deliberately uses someone else’s language, ideas, or other original (not common-knowledge) material without acknowledging its source<br />
  3. 3. The Importance of Intent<br />There’s a difference between intentionally presenting someone’s work as your own and misusing your sources<br />
  4. 4. Some Examples of Deliberate Use<br />Using papers from a paper mill<br />Presenting someone else’s paper as your own<br />Copying large sections of text from a source without attribution<br />These are considered serious academic offenses <br />
  5. 5. Misuse of Sources<br />Academic conventions dictate certain methods for citing sources<br />These conventions must be learned and mistakes will happen<br />Careless or mistaken use of citation conventions is not plagiarism<br />As long as some effort is made to indentify source material, it will be treated as a stylistic issue<br />
  6. 6. What is Common Knowledge?<br />Anything your reader could commonly know or that is available in general sources<br />This sort of knowledge will vary from discipline to discipline<br />Generally, any sort of knowledge you see commonly repeated in the research you are reading is considered common knowledge<br />
  7. 7. What Isn’t Common Knowledge?<br />Highly specific statistics<br />Not all specifics are highly specific. Some are common knowledge e.g. the population of the US<br />Controversial information or ideas that contradict prevailing opinions<br />Ideas that appear in only a few of your sources or that are specific to one source <br />
  8. 8. Examples of Common Knowledge<br />Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President<br />On Sep. 11th, Al-Qaeda attacked the United States<br />On average, Mars is 78 million km from the Earth<br />
  9. 9. Not Common Knowledge<br />Some scholars believe Abraham Lincoln suffered from manic-depression<br />Currently, Al-Qaeda’s operational capacity has been reduced to the point where it is more a brand name than a centralized organization <br />Steven Hawking believes that colonizing Mars and other planets is the only way to preserve the human race<br />
  10. 10. Other Points Where Problems Could Arise<br />Failing to enclose borrowed language in quotation marks<br />Also, if you quote someone, you must cite them and provide a reference<br />
  11. 11. Summary vs. Paraphrase<br />A paraphrase reports information from a source in the same number of words<br />A summary reports information from you source in a condensed form<br />
  12. 12. Possible Issues<br />When summarizing or paraphrasing, you must restate the author’s ideas in your own language<br />If you half-copy the author’s sentences, you have misused your source<br />This could happen if you mix the author’s phrases with your own or if you plug synonyms into the author’s sentence structure<br />
  13. 13. Example from Hacker<br />Original text<br />In an effort to seek the causes of this disturbing trend, experts have pointed to the rise in childhood obesity that are unrelated to media.<br />-Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, “The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity.” 2004. Print.<br />
  14. 14. Problem: Borrows Too Many Phrases<br />The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have indicated a range of significant potential contributors to the rise in childhood obesity that are not linked to media (1).<br />
  15. 15. Problem: Same Structure<br />The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation believes, experts have identified (pointed to)a variety (range) of significant (important) factors causing (potential contributors to) a rise in childhood obesity that are not linked (unrelated) to media (1).<br />
  16. 16. Solution to This Problem<br />Since it is easier to copy the source when it is in front of you, set the source aside and write a paraphrase or summary from memory<br />When you have finished your paraphrase or summary, check your source for accuracy and to make sure it isn’t too close to the original<br />Finally, if you are having a hard time, feel free to quote the source directly<br />
  17. 17. Acceptable Paraphrase<br />A report by the Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation claims sources other than the media were responsible for the childhood obesity crisis.<br />
  18. 18. If You Are In Doubt<br />Consult your Hacker Style Manual<br />Send me an email or ask me in class<br />
  19. 19. Purpose<br />To aid your close reading of the text<br />Provide concrete examples to back up your analysis<br />To keep your analysis focused and on task<br />
  20. 20. Citation methods<br />For this paper you will most likely use two types of in-text citations:<br />Short quotes<br />Long quotes<br />
  21. 21. Some General Guidelines<br />MLArequires that all signal phrases introducing a citation be in the present tense<br />Ken Byron contends…<br />The unnamed narrator in “Adams” believes…<br />
  22. 22. Follow the author/date format<br />The author’s name and the page number of the quotation should appear in any in-text citation.<br />Two main ways of doing this<br />George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?<br />
  23. 23. Author Name and Page #<br />The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?<br />
  24. 24. Basic Formatting<br />The titles of longer works (movies, books, edited collections, albums, etc.) should be italicized, e.g. Huckleberry Finn, Inception, Kind of Blue.<br />The titles of shorter works (short stories, essays, song titles, poems, etc.) should be in quotation marks, e.g. “Barn Burning”, “Shootings”, “I Sing The Body Electric”, “Stairway to Heaven”.<br />
  25. 25. Short Quotations<br />Things you need to include:<br />Author<br />Page number<br />Signal phrase<br />
  26. 26. Examples<br />George Saunders emphasizes America’s subservience to advertising in “In Persuasion Nation” when a grandfather chops his grandson into pieces at the behest of a bag of Doritos and screams at the mutilated body “do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips with a ton of salt and about nine coloring agents” (161)?<br />The grandfather turns to his grandson’s mutilated body and yells “Do you still believe that Doritos is merely a bag of corn chips, with a ton of salt and nine coloring agents” (Saunders 161)?<br />
  27. 27. Long Quotes<br />Use when your quote is longer than 40 words<br />Omit quotation marks<br />Start on a new line indented five spaces from the left margin <br />Type the entire quotation from the new margin and indent the first line of any subsequent paragraph<br />Maintain double-spacing throughout<br />
  28. 28. Example<br />Ken Byron develops an extensive scale for judging the gender of every person in America:<br /> Here’s how it works: Say we determine that a man is an 8 on the manly scale, with 10 being most manly of all and 0 basically a neuter. And say we determine that his fiancee is a -6 on the manly scale, with -10 being most Fem of all. Calculating the difference between the man’s rating and the woman’s rating– the Gender Differential– we see that this proposed union is not, in fact, a Samish-Sex Marriage (Saunders 67-68).<br />
  29. 29. Reference page<br />Some resources:<br />Son Of Citation Machine<br />Easy Bib<br />Amacite<br />These will automatically generate a references page for<br />you. Just make sure to plug in your sources correctly.<br />

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