9. lexicology (word formation)


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9. lexicology (word formation)

  2. 2. DEFINITION: Generally, word formation (derived words) is the process or result of forming new words, which derived from words or group of words with the same root. In other words, word formation is defined as the ways in which new words are made on the basis of other words or morphemes.
  3. 3.  Previously, we have known that new words may be added to the vocabulary of a language by derivational processes, such as:  Dis + grace + ful + ly > disgracefully.  Agree + ment > agreement. DerivationsNew words may also enter a language in a variety of other ways,such as: compounding, coining (invention), backformation,blending, acronymy, and clipping.Actually, there are some other processes of word formation,but in this subject, we will merely focus on those that have beenmentioned above.
  4. 4. Word Formations CoiningCompounding Backformation Blending Acronymy Clipping (invention)
  5. 5. A. COMPOUNDING:Compounding is the process ofjoining two or more words into anintegrated single word.The result of this process is known as“compound”.
  6. 6. Compounds Can Show the Expression of DifferentGrammatical Relations, for Examples: Boathouse is a house for boat; BUT : Cathouse is not a house for cat. (It is a slang for a house of prostitution or whorehouse). A falling star is a star that falls; BUT: A looking glass is not a glass that looks. (it is a piece of glass that can produce an image of whatever is in front of it).
  7. 7. SPELLING OF COMPOUND WORDS Spelling does not tell us what sequence of words constitutes a compound; whether a compound is spelled with a space between the two words, with a hyphen (-), or with no separation at all. Generally, when the compound is new, we use a hyphen (-) between the parts, but as the compound becomes more familiar, the hyphen is dropped. The main exception to this rule is that the hyphen is often retained when two vowels come together, such as:  Co-operation  Multi-ethnic
  8. 8. PRONUNCIATION OF COMPOUND WORD  The pronunciation of compounds differs from the way we pronounce the sequence of two words forming a noun phrase.  In compound, the first word is usually stressed (pronounced somewhat louder and higher in pitch); while in noun phrase, the second word is stressed.
  9. 9. Example: British ArmyThis lady is wearing a red coat This man is a redcoat [red kəʊt] [red kəʊt] Noun Compound Phrase
  10. 10. The Examples of How Parts in Compound Wordsare Connected:COMPOUNDS: MEANINGS: Raincoat A coat which protect the wearer against rain. Milkman Someone who bring milk to your home (usually in the early morning). A game played between two teams of eleven people, where each team tries to Football win by kicking a ball into the other team’s goal. Lambswool The soft wool from a young sheep, used especially to make clothes. A building with a roof and sides of glass, used for growing plants that need Greenhouse warmth and protection.
  11. 11. B. COINING(INVENTION) Coining is the process of word formation where the new words are coined or invented from existing material to represent a new invention or development, such as: wireless, hypermarket, etc. Some other words are used as the generic name for different brands (trademarks) of products, such as: Kleenex, Xerox, etc. The result of these processes known as "coinages".
  12. 12. EXAMPLES:COINAGES: ORIGINAL ITEMS: Wireless an electronic device with no wire/cableHypermarket a very large shop a trademark of facial tissue (which may be invented from the Kleenex word “clean”) Xerox a trademark of digital printing equipment
  13. 13. *Other Examples: A trademark of toothpaste A trademark of mineral water *the examples of coinages that commonly popular in Indonesia.
  14. 14. C.BACKFORMATION Backformation involves the use of analogy to create forms that are similar to ones already in existence in the language. Backformation can be also defined as the process of creating new forms by removing affixes from the existing words. In other words, backformation is the opposite of derivation.
  15. 15. Examples: derivation Edit is a backformation of Editor Typewrite is a backformation of Typewriter Act is a backformation of Action Revise is a backformation of Revision Televise is a backformation of Television Sing is a backformation of Singer Housekeep is a backformation of Housekeeper backformation
  16. 16.  If someone should ask you, “what does a football player do?”, for example, you would probably answer, “a football player plays football ”. You would answer thus because there exist in your mental lexicon such word-pairs as: tell-teller, write-writer, sing-singer, etc.
  17. 17. D. BLENDING Process of blending involves joining two words together by taking parts of both words and combining the parts into a new whole. The result of this process, known as “blend”. Examples:  Breakfast + lunch → brunch  Motor + hotel → motel  Smoke + fog → smog Blends  Urine + analysis → urinalysis  Gasoline + alcohol → gasohol
  18. 18. E. ACRONYMY Acronymy is the process whereby a word is formed from the initial segments of words, or by combining initial letters or parts of series of words, that are pronounced as the spelling indicates. The result of this process is known as “acronym”.
  19. 19. Examples: NASA National Aeronautics and Space Agency United Nations Educational, Scientific, and CulturalUNESCO OrganizationUNICEF United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund Laser Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation Radar Radio Detecting and Ranging AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeWYSIWYG What You See is What You Get
  20. 20.  When the string of letters is not easily pronounced as a word, the acronym is produced by sounding out each letter. This process is usually called “initialism”. Examples:  NFL (National Football League).  NLP (Neuro-linguistic Programming)  IQ (Intelligence Quotient)  WWW (World Wide Web)  BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation)
  21. 21. F. CLIPPING Clipping is the process of the cutting off the beginning or the end of a word, or both, leaving a apart to stand for the whole. The result of this process is called “clipped words”. Examples:  Prof (Professor)  Gym (gymnasium)  Ad (advertisement)  Bike (bicycle)  Math (Mathematics)  Fax (facsimile)  Phone (telephone)  Exam (examination)  Flu (influenza)  Lab (laboratory)  Memo (memorandum)  Photo (photograph)  Café (cafeteria)