8. lexicology (word & word classes)


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8. lexicology (word & word classes)

  2. 2. Definition: “The branch of linguistics that studies the stock of words (lexicon) in a language”.
  3. 3. Dealing with lexicology, there are some technical termswe have to comprehend, such as:
  4. 4. Lexicon:The collection of words (the internalized dictionary), thatevery speaker of the language has.Lexeme:The fundamental unit of the lexicon of a language.Lexicography:The process of writing, editing, and/or compiling a dictionary.Lexicographer:The author or editor of a dictionary.
  5. 5. Lexicographer Words Lexemes Lexicon Lexicography Lexicology
  6. 6.  According to the definition of lexicology, thus we know that as long as we discuss about lexicology, automatically we talk about word. To make it clear about the correlation between lexicology and word, we will see the descriptions about the roles and the existence of these terms through the following illustrations.
  7. 7.  Suppose you hear someone say “morpheme” and you do not have any idea about that word. Since you do not know what “the smallest unit of linguistic meaning” is called, then you do not know the word “morpheme”. Dealing with this matter, we can conclude that a particular string of sounds (m-o-r-p-h-e-m-e), for example, must be united with a meaning, and meaning must be united with specific sounds in order for the sounds or the meaning to be a word in our mental dictionaries (mental lexicons).
  8. 8.  Once we learn both the sounds and their related meaning, we know the word. It becomes an entry in our mental lexicon. In order to be understandable, when the words in our lexicons come into an utterance, they need spaces or pauses between words.
  9. 9.  Someone who does not know English, would not know where the one word begins or ends in an utterance like: “thecatssatonthemat”This fact proves that without knowledge of thelanguage, one cannot tell how many words are inan utterance.
  10. 10.  A speaker of English or one who has already known English, has no difficulty in segmenting the string of sounds: “thecatssatonthemat” into six individual words: the, cats, sat, on , the , mat.
  11. 11.  The lack of pauses between words in speech has provided some people with much material. This is one of the examples: “Mairzy doats and dozy doats And liddle lamzy divey, A kiddley divey too, Wouldn’t you?”**(Source: Novelty song composed by Milton Drake, A Hoffman, and Jerry Livingstone)
  12. 12. Did you know that the real text of: “Mairzy doats and dozy doats And liddle lamzy divey, A kiddley divey too, Wouldn’t you?”is: “Mares eat oats and does eat oats, And little lambs eat ivy, A kid’ll eat ivy too, Wouldn’t you?” 
  13. 13.  We have known thatthe fundamental unit of the lexicon (the collection of words/the mental dictionary) of a language is called lexeme. Lexeme, automatically has a correlation with words. WHAT ISThe question is: A “WORD”?
  14. 14. Word can be defined as a speechsound or a combination of sounds,or its representation in writing, that symbolizes and communicates a meaning and may consist of asingle morpheme or a combination of morphemes.
  15. 15. The following chart shows how the process of a lexeme changed into a word: Morphological LEXEME Process Word Learn LEARN + Learning (-ing)
  16. 16. These are Some Examples of How Lexemes Deal with Words: The words eat, eats, eating, ate, and eaten are forms of the lexeme EAT. The words drink, drinks, drinking, drank, and drunk are forms of the lexeme DRINK. The words sleep, sleeps, sleeping, and slept are forms of the lexeme SLEEP.**(Note: In linguistics, a lexeme is always written in CAPITAL LETTERS).
  17. 17.  The lexemes EAT, DRINK, and SLEEP in the previous examples are contained in the lexicon. The various forms which are derived from the lexemes EAT, DRINK, and SLEEP are called words.
  18. 18. Commonly, there are four ways ofrepresenting the existence of word, that is by:  Orthographic Method;  Morphological Method;  Lexical Method; and  Semantic Method.
  19. 19. 1. OrthographicMethod Orthographic method is a method of representing a language or the sounds of language by written symbols; consists of spelling, letters, and how they are used to express sounds and form words. In orthography, we learn about the principles of a writing system. The definition of orthography merely applies to the written medium, because in oral speech we rarely pause between words. The words included in this method are recognized as “orthographic words”.
  20. 20. 2. Morphological Method Morphological method is a method of representing words based on the morphological aspect, that is considering word form only, not meaning. We can distinguish: a. “learn” as a single morpheme (free morpheme) {learn}; b. “learns” as two different morphemes (free morpheme {learn} and bound morpheme {s}). The words “learn” (a) and “learns” (b) in the examples are two “morphological words” because they are not identical in form.
  21. 21. 3. Lexical Method Lexical method is a method of representing words based on the lexical aspect, that is by comprehending the various forms of items which are closely related by meaning, such as: “learn”, “learns”, “learned”, “learning” belong to one lexical word LEARN. Those words which produced by this method are called “lexical words”.
  22. 22. 4. Semantic Method Semantic method is a method of representing words based on the semantic aspect, that is by involving the distinction between items which may be morphological identical but different in meaning. For instance, a “table” refers to a piece of furniture, flat surface, usually supported by four legs, use for putting things on; On the other hand, “table” also refers to an arrangement of facts and numbers in rows and columns, especially in printed material.These two words are not closely related in meaning. Thus, theyare recognized as two “semantic words”.
  23. 23. Thus, we can identify the orthographic, morphological, lexical, andsemantic words in the following example: can (noun), cans, can (modal auxiliary) Orthographic words : Can (noun), cans, can (modal auxiliary). Morphological words : (1) can (noun) can (modal auxiliary) (2) cans (noun) Lexical words : (1) can (noun), cans (noun) → CAN (2) can (modal auxiliary) → CAN Semantic words : (1) can (noun) : „small metal container‟ cans (noun): „small metal containers‟ (2) can (modal auxiliary) : „be able to‟
  24. 24.  Each word listed in our mental lexicons include other information as well, such as whether it is a noun, a pronoun, a verb, an adjective, an adverb, a preposition, or a conjunction. That is, it must specify its grammatical category, or syntactic class. You may not consciously know that a form like “love”, for instance, is listed as both a verb and a noun, but a speaker has such knowledge, as shown by the phrases “I love you” and “You are the love of my life”. If such information is not in the mental lexicon, we would not know how to form grammatical sentences. Thus, the classes of words (the syntactic categories) such as nouns, verbs, adjectives, and so on, are supposed as crucial factors which play important roles in forming the grammatical utterances.
  25. 25. Word Classes According to the way they function, words, which are also called syntactic categories or part of speech in a language are normally classified into two classes: OPEN-CLASS WORDS & CLOSE-CLASS WORDS
  26. 26. OPEN-CLASS WORDS (Lexical Words) Open-class words usually include the content words (nouns, verbs, adjectives, and most adverbs), are words that carry the content or the meaning of a sentence. Generally, open-class words can accept the addition of new morphemes or words through such process as derivation, compounding, inflection, etc.
  27. 27. CLOSE-CLASS WORDS (Grammatical Words) Close-class words usually include the function words (pronouns, determiners, prepositions, conjunctions, etc.), are uninflected and serve grammatical function. The close-class words are sometimes supposed as unimportant words; they are just simple words that make the sentence correct grammatically. Its members are fixed and do not usually change.
  28. 28.  One term that can explain the distinction between open-class words and close-class words, is known as telegraphic speech. The term telegraphic derives from the kind of language used in telegrams. Generally speaking, in telegraphic forms of language; the open-class words are retained, and the closed-class words are omitted wherever possible.
  29. 29. • Imagine that you receive a telegram message: Will you SELL my CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCEThis sentence is not complete. It is not a"grammatically correct" sentence. But youprobably understand it. These 4 wordscommunicate very well.
  30. 30. • Will you SELL my CAR because Ive GONE to FRANCE• may has a meaning that: “Somebody wants you to sell his/her car for him/her, because he/she has gone to France”.
  31. 31. We can add a few words to the sentence: Will you SELL MY CAR because I’VE GONE TO FRANCEThe new words do not really add any moreinformation, but they make the message morecorrect grammatically. We can add even morewords to make one complete, grammaticallycorrect sentence, but the information is basicallythe same.
  32. 32. WILL YOU SELL MY CAR BECAUSE I’VE GONE TO FRANCE?In the sentence above: The words (sell, car, gone, and France) are “open-class words”; The words (will, you, my, because, I, have, and to) are “close-class words”.
  33. 33. Open-Class Words Close-Class Words Nouns Pronouns Verbs Determiners Adjectives Prepositions Adverbs Conjunctions Qualifiers (Modifiers) Interjections etc.
  34. 34. 1. NOUNS Noun is the part of speech that is used to name or identify a person, place, thing, quality, or action. Nouns are identified as nouns by two aspects of form, their inflectional morphemes and their derivational morphemes.Examples: Inflectional : Book, pen, pencil, desk, chair, etc. Derivational : Television, computer, rice-cooker, etc.
  35. 35. 2. VERBS Verb is the word class that describes an action or occurrence or indicates a state of being.Examples: • I go to school everyday. • He ate two apples yesterday. • he gives me the money. • My mother allowed me to go to the party.
  36. 36.  Verbs have a maximum of five different forms, such as:  Rise (stem)  Rises (Present 3rd person singular)  Rising (Present Participle)  Rose (Past Tense)  Risen (Past Participle)
  37. 37. 3. ADJECTIVES Adjective is the part of speech (or word class) that modifies a noun or a pronoun.Examples:  The book is very expensive.  This a very good magazine.  You are so beautiful.  This ice-cream is delicious.
  38. 38. In addition, we can also identify adjectives by derivationalsuffixes which are added to the nouns, verbs, or evenadjectives, such as: Source Noun: Derived Adjective: age aged child childish cloud cloudy friend friendly wood wooden power powerful sense sensible culture cultural science scientific
  39. 39. Source Verb: Derived Adjective: collect collective continue continual read readable expect expectant prohibit prohibitory restore restorativeSource Adjective: Derived Adjective: dead deadly red reddish
  40. 40. 4. ADVERBS Adverb is the part of speech (or word class) that is primarily used to modify a verb, adjective, or other adverb.Examples:  Fortunately, I didn‟t go.  She sings beautifully.  He can read well.  I‟ve never watched that movie.
  41. 41. The adverb has four suffixes to set it apart from otherform classes—the derivational suffixes –ly, -wise, -ward,and the free form like. Source: Derivation:1. Fortunate (adjective) Fortunately (adverb)2. Clock (noun) Clockwise (adverb)3. North (noun) Northward (adverb)5. Casual (adjective) Casual-like (adverb)
  42. 42. 5. PRONOUNS Pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or a noun phrase. There are several different classes of pronouns: 1. Demonstrative Pronouns 2. Indefinite Pronouns 3. Interrogative Pronouns 4. Personal Pronouns 5. Possessive Pronouns 6. Reciprocal Pronouns 7. Reflexive Pronouns 8. Relative Pronouns 9. Existential Pronoun
  43. 43. Possessive Personal (my, your, his, her, its, our, their, mine, Reciprocal (I, you, we , they, he, she, yours, his, hers, its, (each other it, me, us, ours, theirs) & one them, him, another) her) Reflexive Interrogative (myself, yourself, (who, whom, ourselves, whose, which, themselves, what) himself, herself, itself) Indefinite Relative (some, any, enough, (that, which, several, many, who, whom, much, all, every, each, anyone, whose) either, someone)Demonstrative Existential(this, these, Pronouns (there)that, those)
  44. 44. Examples: This is my book. (demonstrative) There are several books on the table. (indefinite) Whose book is this?. (interrogative) They are going to school. (personal) Those are our books. (possessive) They kept looking at each other and smiling. (reciprocal) Just do it by yourself. (reflexive) The woman whom I admired bought the flowers. (relative) There is a book on the table. (existential).
  45. 45. 6. DETERMINERS Determiner is a word or a group of words that introduces a noun. Determiners may include: Articles (a, an , the) Numbers (one, two, first, second, etc).Examples: • The book is not mine. • There are two books on the table.
  46. 46. 7. PREPOSITIONS Preposition is a word that shows the relationship between a noun or pronoun and other words in a sentence. English has a small group of prepositions, of which some frequently used ones are: at, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, and with. Others include such two-syllable words as about, above, after, against, among, before, behind, below, between, beyond, inside, into, onto, outside, over, under, and upon.
  47. 47. 8. CONJUNCTIONS Conjunction is the part of speech that serves to connect words, phrases, clauses, or sentences. The common conjunctions (coordinating conjunctions): and, but, for, or, nor, yet, and so; join the elements of a coordinate structure. The subordinating conjunctions (why and that); join subordinate clauses to a main clause.
  48. 48. Examples:• Black and white.• Big or small.• I know that you love your little sister.• I wonder why you look at me.• I don‟t know whether they like the cake.• I like singing but I don‟t like dancing.
  49. 49. 9. QUALIFIERS Qualifier (also called modifier) occurs in the position just before an adjectival or an adverbial. Qualifier commonly includes very, too, quite, somewhat, rather, and pretty. The function of a qualifier is to modify, and the word following the qualifier (that is, the word modified), is called the “head”. Example: very good (qualifier) (head)
  50. 50. Examples: That is very kind of you. It‟s too hot in this classroom. I‟m quite fine. He was somewhat unhappy. A rather shy boy was trying to dance. She ran pretty fast.
  51. 51. 10. INTERJECTIONS An interjection is a word used to express an emotion or sentiment. An interjection is sometimes expressed as a single word on non-sentence phrase, followed by a punctuation mark. Examples:  Oh!  Wow!  Ouch!  Damn!  Yay! The filled pauses such as Uh, Um, Er are also considered as interjections.
  52. 52. Not every language of the world has the same number of parts of speech, both open and close class parts of speech. In other words, different languages have different parts of speech. Somelanguages have conjunctions, but some others do not have conjunctions. Some have adjectives, some others do not have adjectives, etc.