Based on morphological typology, languages of the world can be grouped into four main types: Language Types Isolative Language Agglutinative Language Polysynthetic Language Fusional Language
(1) ISOLATIVE LANGUAGE Isolative language do not have morphology aspect. There is only one – to one – relationship between words and morphemes. To be simple, the language do not have morphemes such as bound morphemes like affixes (prefixes or suffixes) and free morphemes. There is no distinction between morphemes and words. All they have are words.
An example of these languages is Vietnamese, as exemplified below: Khi toi den nha ban toi chung toi bat dau lam bai When I come house friend I PLURAL I begin do lesson „When I came to my friend‟s house, we began to do lessons‟. „Ketika saya mendatangi rumah teman saya, kami memulai pelajaran‟ Khi (when), toi (I), den (came), nha (home), ban (friend), toi (I), chung toi (plural form of “I”), bat dau (begin), lam (do), bai (plural form of “lesson”).
(2) AGGLUTINATIVE LANGUAGE Agglutinative languages have morphological aspect. There are morphemes (bound and free) and there is a clear cut between two morphemes in an utterance (words or sentences). In other words, morphemes in agglutinative languages can be segmented. Bahasa Indonesia is an example of agglutinative language, as exemplified below: per- jalan -an men- jalan -kan di- jalan -i Prefix walk suffix Prefix walk suffix Prefix walk suffix
(3) POLYSYNTHETIC LANGUAGE Polysynthetic or incorporation languages are slightly different but both are normally discussed under the term “polysynthetic”. Both in corporation and polysynthetic languages have morphology (morphemes) like agglutinative languages.
In an corporation language, there is a possibility to take some lexical morphemes and combine them into a single word. English have a very limited examples of this process of word formation. One of them is swimsuit which is composed of swim and suit. Unlike in corporation languages, in a polysynthetic language, it is possible to combine a large number of morphemes into a single word corresponding to (can be translate into) a whole sentence in other languages. An example is with Eximo (Siberian Yupik)‟s word such as: Angya – ghlla – ng – yug – tuq [ʌŋgjɑ: glɑ: ŋ jɑ:ŋ tu:nk] „He want to acquire a big boat‟.Thus, the word in Eximo is a sentence in English.
(4). FUSIONAL LANGUAGE Like agglutinative and polysynthetic languages, fusional languages also have morphological aspect, that is they also have morphemes (bound and free morphemes). However, unlike agglutinative and polysynthetic, there is no clear cut between morphemes in fusional languages. Morphemes cannot be segmented, but are fused (semantically) into one, and therefore cannot be identified.
English have a very limited example words where morphemes are fused (semantically). Example: go (present) – went (past). In this example, observe that what morpheme makes or marks go as present and went as past is not known; only the whole word meaning go (present) changes form into went (past).
THEMATIC ROLES A thematic role (also known as semantic case/theta role/case grammar) is the underlying relationship that a participant has with the predicate (verb) in a clause or sentence. In other words, a thematic role is a system of linguistic analysis, focusing on the link between the participants and the grammatical context. There is a possibility for a participant to have more than one thematic role.
Example: If, in some real or imagined situation, someone named Mary purposely hits someone named John. In this case, Mary is the agent and John is the patient of the hitting event. Therefore, the thematic role of John is the same (as „patient’) in both of the following sentences: Mary hit John. Agent Patient John was hit by Mary. Agent Patient Patient AgentIn both of the above sentences, Mary has the thematic role of „agent‟.
Thematic RolesThematic Description Example Role The semantic role which identifies: 1. Mary called Bill. one or thing affected by the action, 2. I‟d like to send this package to France. Theme one or thing that is moved (the 3. The boy put the brick on the wall. changing of position), or the topic of 4. The book is blue. discussion. The semantic role that refers to the 1.The boy ran down the street. Agent person or thing that is the doer of an 2. He was chased by the dog. action. 3. The dress was made by Mary. The semantic role that identifies person or thing that is affected by the 1. The dog ate the meat. action which is caused by the agent.Patient (usually involves the verbs such as 2. Philip kicked the ball. 3. John was hit by Mary. eat, kill, smash, hit, bite, and kick). The semantic role that refers to the 1. He flew from Jakarta to Papua.Source origin or starting point of the action or 2. I smell the odor of onions. state identified by the verb. 3. A misunderstanding caused the trouble.
Thematic Description Example Role The semantic role that refers to the entity which receives or 1. He was scared.Experiencer undergoes the effect of an action 2. Lucy loves her new bicycle. or a particular condition which is 3. She felt the pain. usually related to physical senses, feelings, or emotional experience. The semantic role that refers to 1. She opened the door for Tom. the entity which benefits from theBenefactive 2. This book is for Bob. action or event denoted by the 3. I bought this cake for you. predicate. The semantic role that refers to the place to which something 1. John swam to the raft. Goal moves, or thing toward which an 2. London was his destination. action is directed. The semantic role which identifies 1. It rains in Spain. Locative the location or spatial orientation 2. The paper is in the folder. (thing that has position, area, 3. It‟s pleasant in this room. size, etc.) of a state or an action.
Thematic Role Description Example The semantic role that refers to the 1. The wind damaged the roof. Causer natural force (violence) that causes a 2. The earthquake had brought down change. many trees in the area. 1. The tail of the dog got caught in the The semantic role that refers to the door.Possessor one or thing that has (possesses) 2. They have a new house. something. 3. Mary‟s book is expensive. The semantic role which identifies 1. They gave the workers raise. Recipient one or thing that receives something 2. I paid my landlord the rent. in a state or situation. 3. I give my sister a present. 1. She used a crayon to scribble a note. The semantic role that refers to theInstrumental thing that an agent uses to implement 2. The stone broke the window. 3. They must have used indelible ink. (do) an action. 1. The whistle will sound at noon. Temporal The semantic role that refers to the 2. Lectures end on Thursday. temporal state or action. 3. We expected sunshine in the summer. The semantic role that refers to the 1. Smoke filled the air. move or undergo change or the Objective objects which are affected by the 2. John saw the intruder. 3. He hit him with a stick. action or state identified by the verb.
Agent NOTE:Goal Fillmore, Radford, & AartsExperiencer It should be noticed that there is no agreement aboutSource which and how many roles Fillmore & Aarts are needed to identify theLocative thematic role in a clause or sentence.Theme Aarts & RadfordPatient Charles. J. FillmoreInstrumental (Universal in Linguistic Theory, 1968).Objective Fillmore Andrew RadfordTemporal (Transformational Grammar, 1994) . Bas AartsPossessor (Syntax and Argumentation, 1997).Causer Fillmore uses the term “Case Grammar” Radford theory; Both Radford & Aarts use the termRecipient “Thematic Roles” theory.Benefactive Aarts