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(3) vowels (dimension & presentation)
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(3) vowels (dimension & presentation)

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  • 1. Physical Dimension & PresentationVOWELShttp://www.slideshare.net/Andriyanieka12PART ONE
  • 2. Definition:Vowel is a speech soundproduced by humans when thebreath flows out through the mouthwithout being blocked by the teeth,tongue, or lips.
  • 3.  A clear understanding of the vowels isimportant because vowels are thenucleus (peak) of the syllable. As we have discussed in the previoussection, twelve vowels (12) arecommonly used in British English andfifteen (15) vowels are used in AmericanEnglish (consists of the eastern dialects).
  • 4. BBC / RP GAPNOTE: In this subject, we will concern about the British English as the standardpronunciation of General English that is used by Oxford EnglishDictionary (OED).
  • 5. Position of the tongue in relation tothe parts of the mouth (front – back)Chart of The English Vowel Phonetic Symbols based on the English Oxford Dictionary(OED)Position ofthemandible(Open - Close)ORVerticalposition ofthe tonguetowardsthe palatalarea(High – Low)(High)(Low)Shape ofthe lipsduring theproductionof thesound
  • 6.  Thus, we all have known, that vowels aredescribed based on the physical dimension,such as:Closeness / HeightFrontnessRounding
  • 7.  The closeness category refers to the position ofthe mandible (open - close category); while theheight of a vowel refers to the vertical position ofthe tongue towards the palatal area (high – lowcategory); The frontness refers to the horizontal position ofthe tongue in relation to the front or back of themouth; and The rounding refers to the position of the lipsduring the production of the vowel.
  • 8.  For the purposes of clarity and consistency of theparameters of vowel sounds, thus, it is determinedsequentially based on the three aspects of vowels asfollows: Describing the sound based on the closeness or heightaspect; Describing the sound based on the frontness aspect; and Describing the sound based on the rounding aspect.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /i:/, for example, wecan describe it as:“/i:/ is a close (high) front unrounded vowel (sound)”.
  • 9. THE COMPLETE VOWELPRESENTATION FORMAT:So far, we have known that each vowel is discussed interms of parameter (physical dimensions) of:closeness (height), frontness, and rounding.Thus, we can determine all the vowel sounds as follows:
  • 10. Vowels: Closeness: Frontness: Rounding: Example:[i:] close front unrounded See /si:/[i] close front unrounded Any /eni/[ɪ] near-close near-front unrounded Sit /sɪt/[æ] near-open front unrounded Hat /hæt/[e] open-mid front unrounded Ten /ten/[ɑ:] open back unrounded Arm /ɑ:(r)m/[ʌ] open-mid back unrounded Cup /kʌp/[ɔ:] open-mid back rounded Saw /sɔ:/[ɒ] open back rounded Got /gɒt/[ɜ:] open-mid central unrounded Fur /fɜ:(r)/[ə] mid central unrounded Ago /ə’gəʊ/[u:] close back rounded Too /tu:/[ʊ] near-close near-back rounded Put /pʊt/
  • 11. Other aspects (physical dimensions) ofdescribing the vowel sounds are based on:Tenseness (Tense-Lax)Closeness of Syllables (Open-ClosedSyllables)Length (Long-Short)abc
  • 12. A. TENSENESS (TENSE - LAX ): Tense vowels require tension inparticular muscles for productionand are long in duration. The tense vowels in British Englishare /i:/, /i/ /u:/, /3:/, /ɔ:/, /ɑ:/.
  • 13.  Lax vowels are produced when themuscles are in resting postures and areshort in duration. The lax vowels in British English are/I/, /e/, /æ/, /ə/, /ʊ/, /ɒ/, and /ʌ/. Both tense and lax vowels can initiate a syllable.Examples:eat /i:t/ → (tense vowel)and /ænd/ → (lax vowel)
  • 14.  Open and closed syllables (closeness of syllables)are two common syllable types used in the Englishlanguage. An open syllable is a syllable that ends with a tensevowel or diphthong.In a monosyllabic word, the basic phonologicalpattern for an open syllable is CV (Consonant-Vowel). A closed syllable is a syllable that ends with aconsonant sound.In a monosyllabic word, the basic phonologicalpatterns for a closed syllable is VC (Vocal-Consonant)or CVC (Consonant-Vowel-Consonant).B. CLOSENESS (OPEN - CLOSED SYLLABLES):
  • 15.  Tense vowels can appear in both open andclosed syllables, whereas lax vowels canappear only in closed syllables.Examples:tea /ti:/ → (tense vowel, open syllable).cool /ku:l/ → (tense vowel, closed syllable).sit /sɪt/ → (lax vowel, closed syllable).cup /kʌp/ → (lax vowel, closed syllable).
  • 16.  Vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowelsound. The long vowels in British English are:/i:/, /u:/, /3:/, /ɔ:/, and /ɑ:/ In phonetics, symbols for denoting vowel length is (ː),but is often written as colon (:).C. LENGTH (LONG - SHORT ):