CONSONANTS:Consonants & The Characteristics of Consonants Sounds t p b g d ʒ m ŋ
Definitions of Consonant: Consonant is a speech sound produced by completely or partly stopping the air being breathed out through the mouth. (Hornby: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Consonant is a speech sound which is pronounced by stopping the air from flowing easily through the mouth, especially by closing the lips or touching the teeth with the tongue. (Cambridge University Press. : Cambridge Advanced
Thus, we can describe consonant as a speech sound that isarticulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal track.
English consonants are described by the IPA (International Phonetics Alphabets) based on: A. Voicing; B. Place of articulation; and C. Manner of Articulation.
A. Voicing The aspects of voicing are: voiced consonants (those created by the vibration of the vocal cords during production); and voiceless consonants (those created by the absence of vibration of the vocal cords during production).**In the previous phonetic chart of the English consonants, where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
B. Place of Articulation: Place of articulation refers to theplaces where the air stream from the lungs or the sound stream from the larynx is constricted (limited) by the articulators.
IPA Places of Articulation Summary Chart: Place: Description: Bilabial Produced by lower and upper lips. Such as: [p, b, m, (w)].Labiodental Produced by lower lip and upper front teeth. Such as: [f, v]. Produced by tip or blade of the tongue and the upper front teeth. Dental Such as: [θ, ð]. Produced by tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge or the Alveolar gum. Such as: [t, d, n, s, z, r, l]. Produced by the blade of the tongue and the back part of the alveolar Palato ridge. Alveolar Such as: [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ]. Palatal Produced by front of the tongue and the hard palate. Such as: [j]. Produced by back of the tongue and the velum (soft palate). Velar Such as: [k, g, ŋ, w]. Glottal Produced in the epiglottis. Such as: [h].
C. Manner of Articulation: Manner of articulation refers to how the air stream from the lungs is directed to the mouth andmodified by the various structuresto produce a consonant phoneme.
IPA Manner of Articulation Summary Chart: Manner: Description: Plosive Produced by the obstruction of air stream from the lungs followed (Oral Stop) by a release of the air stream. Such as: [p, b, t, d, k, g] Nasal Produced by the release of the air through the nasal cavity.(Nasal Stop) Such as: [m, n, ŋ] Produced by the release of a „frictionlike noise‟ created by the air Fricative stream escaping through a variant of narrow gaps in the mouth. Such as: [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h] Produced by the obstruction of the air stream at a point along the LateralApproximant center of the oral track, with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the tongue. Such as: [l] Central Produced by proximity (closeness) of two articulators withoutApproximant turbulence (hard movement and frictionlike noise).(Semi Vowel) Such as: [w, r, j] Produced by involving more than one of those manners of Affricate articulation. Firstly, produce the sounds in the alveolar ridge, then followed by or combined with fricative sounds. Such as: [tʃ, dʒ]
Labio- Palato- Bilabial Dental Alveolar alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal dental Plosive (oral stop) p b t d k g Nasal (nasal stop) m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h Fricative Affricate tʃ dʒ Central (w) r j wApproximant LateralApproximant l
The Explanation of ConsonantsPresentation Format: For the purposes of clarity and consistency of the parameters of consonant sounds, generally, it can be determined sequentially based on the three aspects of consonants: Describe the sound based on the voicing; Describe the sound based on the place of articulation; and Describe the sound based on the manner of articulation.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /b/ for example, we candescribe it as following: “/b/ is a voiced bilabial plosive sound”.
More Descriptions: Thus, in the word “skinflint” below, the consonant descriptions can be shown as:Consonant Place of Manner of Voicing: s: Articulation: Articulation: [s] voiceless alveolar fricative [k] voiceless velar plosive [n] voiced alveolar nasal [f] voiceless labiodental fricative [l] voiced alveolar lateral approximant [t] voiceless alveolar plosive
The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonants in Words: Phonetic Consonants: Words: Transcriptions: [p] pen /pen/ [b] bad /bæd/ [t] tea /ti:/ [d] did /dɪd/ [k] cat /kæt/ [g] got /gɒt/ [tʃ] chin /tʃɪn/ [dʒ] June /dʒu:n/ [f] fall /fɔ:l/ [v] van /væn/ [θ] thin /θɪn/ [ð] then /ðen/
The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonants in Words:Consonants: Words: Phonetic Transcriptions: [s] so /səʊ/ [z] zoo /zu:/ [ʃ] she /ʃi:/ [ʒ] vision /vɪʒn/ [h] how /haʊ/ [m] man /mæn/ [n] no /nəʊ/ [ŋ] sing /sɪŋ/ [l] leg /leg/ [r] red /red/ [j] yes /jes/ [w] wet /wet/
Consonant Cluster: A cluster is when two consonants of different places of articulation are produced together in the same syllable. Note that clusters are determined based on the sounds, not the letters of the words.
Clusters can appear in the initial, medial, or final positions of words: Initial clusters are usually formed by combining various consonants with the /s/, /r/, or /l/ phonemes. Examples: sleep [sli:p], green [gri:n], blue [blu:] Medial clusters usually appear at the beginning of a second or third syllable in a multisyllabic word. Examples: regret [rɪgret], apply [əplaɪ], approve [əpru:v]• Final clusters are usually composed of a variety of phonemes including /sk/, /mp/, /ns/, /st/, and /ŋk/. Examples: desk [desk], camp [kæmp], mince [mɪns], fast [fɑ:st], bank [bæŋk].