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3. consonants
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3. consonants



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3. consonants Presentation Transcript

  • 1. CONSONANTS:Consonants & The Characteristics of Consonants Sounds t p b g d ʒ m ŋ
  • 2. Definitions of Consonant: Consonant is a speech sound produced by completely or partly stopping the air being breathed out through the mouth. (Hornby: Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary). Consonant is a speech sound which is pronounced by stopping the air from flowing easily through the mouth, especially by closing the lips or touching the teeth with the tongue. (Cambridge University Press. : Cambridge Advanced
  • 3. Thus, we can describe consonant as a speech sound that isarticulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal track.
  • 4.  English consonants are described by the IPA (International Phonetics Alphabets) based on: A. Voicing; B. Place of articulation; and C. Manner of Articulation.
  • 5. A. Voicing The aspects of voicing are: voiced consonants (those created by the vibration of the vocal cords during production); and voiceless consonants (those created by the absence of vibration of the vocal cords during production).**In the previous phonetic chart of the English consonants, where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
  • 6. B. Place of Articulation: Place of articulation refers to theplaces where the air stream from the lungs or the sound stream from the larynx is constricted (limited) by the articulators.
  • 7. IPA Places of Articulation Summary Chart: Place: Description: Bilabial Produced by lower and upper lips. Such as: [p, b, m, (w)].Labiodental Produced by lower lip and upper front teeth. Such as: [f, v]. Produced by tip or blade of the tongue and the upper front teeth. Dental Such as: [θ, ð]. Produced by tip or blade of the tongue and the alveolar ridge or the Alveolar gum. Such as: [t, d, n, s, z, r, l]. Produced by the blade of the tongue and the back part of the alveolar Palato ridge. Alveolar Such as: [ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ]. Palatal Produced by front of the tongue and the hard palate. Such as: [j]. Produced by back of the tongue and the velum (soft palate). Velar Such as: [k, g, ŋ, w]. Glottal Produced in the epiglottis. Such as: [h].
  • 8. C. Manner of Articulation: Manner of articulation refers to how the air stream from the lungs is directed to the mouth andmodified by the various structuresto produce a consonant phoneme.
  • 9. IPA Manner of Articulation Summary Chart: Manner: Description: Plosive Produced by the obstruction of air stream from the lungs followed (Oral Stop) by a release of the air stream. Such as: [p, b, t, d, k, g] Nasal Produced by the release of the air through the nasal cavity.(Nasal Stop) Such as: [m, n, ŋ] Produced by the release of a „frictionlike noise‟ created by the air Fricative stream escaping through a variant of narrow gaps in the mouth. Such as: [f, v, θ, ð, s, z, ʃ, ʒ, h] Produced by the obstruction of the air stream at a point along the LateralApproximant center of the oral track, with incomplete closure between one or both sides of the tongue and the roof of the tongue. Such as: [l] Central Produced by proximity (closeness) of two articulators withoutApproximant turbulence (hard movement and frictionlike noise).(Semi Vowel) Such as: [w, r, j] Produced by involving more than one of those manners of Affricate articulation. Firstly, produce the sounds in the alveolar ridge, then followed by or combined with fricative sounds. Such as: [tʃ, dʒ]
  • 10. Labio- Palato- Bilabial Dental Alveolar alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal dental Plosive (oral stop) p b t d k g Nasal (nasal stop) m n ŋ f v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ h Fricative Affricate tʃ dʒ Central (w) r j wApproximant LateralApproximant l
  • 11. The Explanation of ConsonantsPresentation Format: For the purposes of clarity and consistency of the parameters of consonant sounds, generally, it can be determined sequentially based on the three aspects of consonants:  Describe the sound based on the voicing;  Describe the sound based on the place of articulation; and  Describe the sound based on the manner of articulation.Thus, to make a sound parameter of /b/ for example, we candescribe it as following: “/b/ is a voiced bilabial plosive sound”.
  • 12. More Descriptions: Thus, in the word “skinflint” below, the consonant descriptions can be shown as:Consonant Place of Manner of Voicing: s: Articulation: Articulation: [s] voiceless alveolar fricative [k] voiceless velar plosive [n] voiced alveolar nasal [f] voiceless labiodental fricative [l] voiced alveolar lateral approximant [t] voiceless alveolar plosive
  • 13. The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonants in Words: Phonetic Consonants: Words: Transcriptions: [p] pen /pen/ [b] bad /bæd/ [t] tea /ti:/ [d] did /dɪd/ [k] cat /kæt/ [g] got /gɒt/ [tʃ] chin /tʃɪn/ [dʒ] June /dʒu:n/ [f] fall /fɔ:l/ [v] van /væn/ [θ] thin /θɪn/ [ð] then /ðen/
  • 14. The Phonetic Transcriptions of the English Consonants in Words:Consonants: Words: Phonetic Transcriptions: [s] so /səʊ/ [z] zoo /zu:/ [ʃ] she /ʃi:/ [ʒ] vision /vɪʒn/ [h] how /haʊ/ [m] man /mæn/ [n] no /nəʊ/ [ŋ] sing /sɪŋ/ [l] leg /leg/ [r] red /red/ [j] yes /jes/ [w] wet /wet/
  • 15. Consonant Cluster: A cluster is when two consonants of different places of articulation are produced together in the same syllable.  Note that clusters are determined based on the sounds, not the letters of the words.
  • 16. Clusters can appear in the initial, medial, or final positions of words: Initial clusters are usually formed by combining various consonants with the /s/, /r/, or /l/ phonemes. Examples: sleep [sli:p], green [gri:n], blue [blu:] Medial clusters usually appear at the beginning of a second or third syllable in a multisyllabic word. Examples: regret [rɪgret], apply [əplaɪ], approve [əpru:v]• Final clusters are usually composed of a variety of phonemes including /sk/, /mp/, /ns/, /st/, and /ŋk/. Examples: desk [desk], camp [kæmp], mince [mɪns], fast [fɑ:st], bank [bæŋk].