Definition:A sentence is a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it, expresses a thought in the form of a statement, question, instruction, orexclamation, which starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop when written.
Sentence can be classified based on the categories of Pragmatic Aspect, Form, and Grammatical Structure
Based on the Pragmatic Aspect (realistic condition of the usage), sentence can be classified into:1 •Declarative Sentence2 •Imperative Sentence3 •Interrogative Sentence4 •Exclamatory Sentence
1. Declarative Sentence A declarative sentence is a sentence in the form of a statement. Examples: I have to go to work. I‟ll never do that. We are studying linguistics. He took my bicycle.
2. Imperative Sentence An imperative sentence is a sentence that tells someone to do something, gives advice or instructions, or that expresses a request or command. An imperative sentence usually have no obvious subject. Examples: Go to work! Don‟t do that! Don‟t walk on the grass! You should study hard.
3. Interrogative Sentence An interrogative sentence is a sentence in the form of question, which is used to request information. There are two types of interrogative sentence; those which expect the answer „yes‟ or „no‟, and those which begin with the question words „what‟, „where‟, „which‟, „who‟, „whom‟, „when‟, „why‟, „whose‟, or „how‟ that expect the complete answer.
Examples: Do you have to go to work? Did you do that? Have you got the message? Yes/no questions. Are you OK? Is she your girlfriend? What are you doing? Why did you do that? Whose car is that? Wh- questions. Where is my book? How are you?
4. Exclamatory Sentence An exclamatory sentence is a sentence that expresses strong feelings by making an exclamation. Examples: I did it! What a fool I was! What a beautiful country! Oh my God!
Based on the Form (completeness of the structure), sentence can be classified into: • MAJOR SENTENCEA • MINOR SENTENCEB
A. MAJOR SENTENCE A major sentence is a regular sentence which contains a finite verb; it has a subject and a predicate. Example: I have a book. (in this sentence, one can change the persons, such as: we have a book, she has a book, you have a book, and so on.)
B. MINOR SENTENCE A minor sentence is an irregular type of sentence. It does not contain a finite verb, and frequently found in colloquial speech. Examples: Just a minute. Yes. Coffee?
Based on the Grammatical Structure (the composition and relation between clauses), sentence can be classified into:A • SIMPLE SENTENCEB • COMPOUND SENTENCEC • COMPLEX SENTENCED • COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE
A. SIMPLE SENTENCE A simple sentence is a sentence which consists of one independent clause (main clause) with no dependent clause (subordinate clause). Examples: I come. The boy cried. Canada is a rich country. The girl ran into her bedroom. Some students like to study in the morning.
B. COMPOUND SENTENCE A compound sentence is a sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (main clauses) with no dependent clause (subordinate clause); usually linked by the coordinating conjunctions: and, but, so, or, either …. or, neither …. nor, or then. She works in the city but She lives in the suburbs Coordinating Conjunction Independent Clause Independent Clause (Main Clause) (Main Clause)
Other Examples: 1. My friend invited me to a birthday party, but I don‟t want to go. 2. He ran out and fell over the suitcase. 3. Either the students or the teacher takes a day off every month. 4. He could neither eat nor sleep. 5. Do you want to stay here, or would you like to come with me? 6. She has five children, so she is incredibly busy. 7. She ate breakfast, then went to school.
C. COMPLEX SENTENCE A complex sentence is a sentence consists of one independent clause (main clause) and at least one dependent clause (subordinate clause), and often formed by putting the subordinating conjunctions, such as: as, as if, before, after, because, although, while, when, whenever, during, as soon as, as long as, since, until, unless, where, wherever, etc. Examples: John cannot set up his computer because the setting is complicated. She became queen when her father died, because she was the eldest child.
John cannot set up his computer Independent Clause because the setting is complicated. Dependent Clause Subordinating Conjunction
D. COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE A compound-complex sentence is a sentence consists of two or more independent clauses (main clauses) and at least one dependent (subordinate clause).Example:• Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did not know who she was, and her friends did not even appreciate her work.
“Although she worked hard to gain recognition, many people did notknow who she was, and her friends did not even appreciate her work.” Although she worked hard to gain recognition, (Dependent Clause) many people did not know who she was, (Independent Clause) (Subordinating (Coordinating Conjunction) and Conjunction) her friends did not even appreciate her work. (Independent Clause)
Summary of Sentence Patterns based on the Grammatical Structure: Type of Independent DependentSentence: Clause: Clause:Simple Sentence Θ Compound Sentence or > ΘComplex Sentence at least Compound-Complex Sentence or > at least
GRAMMATICAL RELATIONS (SYNTACTIC FUNCTIONS) So far, we have looked at the types of sentences based on the usage, form, and structure. Now we will focus on the internal structure of sentence, involving the grammatical relations (syntactic functions). Commonly, the basic pattern of the simple English sentence is: (Adjunct) + (Subject) + Predicate + (Object) + (Complement) + (Adjunct) (A) (S) P (O) (C) (A) where only the Predicate (P) is essential, and in which the Adjunct (A) is mobile.
NOTE: A noun (person or thing) which performs the action of a verb, or which Subject is joined to a description by a verb. (S) A part of sentence or clause containing a verb and stating something Predicate about the subject. (P) Object A noun (person or thing) that is affected by the action of a verb or (O) involved in the result of an action that is done by a subject. Adjunct A word used as modifier in a sentence. (A)Complement A word or word group that completes the predicate in a sentence. (C)
The following example will show how the previous pattern works: The man called the boy suddenly • (Noun Part) (Verb Part) (Noun Part) (Adverb Part) S P O A We call the noun part a „subject‟ (S), the verb part a „predicate‟ (P), the other noun part an „object‟ (O), and the adverb part an „adjunct‟ (A).
As mentioned before that an adjunct (A) is usually mobile. See the following examples:The man called the boy suddenly.The man suddenly called the boy.Suddenly the man called the boy.
EXAMPLES of COMPLEMENT: She is beautiful. She becomes a doctor. He was in the bus. Your perfume smells very good. Before the show, she seemed nervous.A word or a group of words that involve “linking verbs” (such asAPPEAR, BECOME, BE, SEEM,GROW, LOOK, TASTE, SMELL,SOUND, FEEL, etc.) to complete the predicate in a sentence, is calleda Complement (C).Thus, the words: beautiful, a doctor, in the bus, very good, andnervous in the sentences above are all complements.
There are two kinds of Complement: Subject Complement Object Complement
(1) Subject complement is the complement that provides information on the subject (like in the previous examples), such as: He was in the bus. S P C („in the bus‟ provides the information about the subject „he‟).(2) Object complement is the complement that provides information on the object, for examples: • The man called his brother a fool. S P O C („a fool‟ provides the information about the object „his brother‟) • Susan found the assignment difficult. S P O C („difficult‟ provides the information about the object „assignment‟)
Example of the complete basic pattern of simple English sentence:John often called his brother a fool • S A P O C
“Word Order Typology” of English PATTERNS: EXAMPLES: P Go PA Go quietly SP John slept SPA John slept quietly PO Eat your breakfast SPO John ate his breakfast SPOA John ate his breakfast quickly SPC John is a fool ASPC At times John is a fool SPOC John called his brother a fool SAPOC John often called his brother a fool
Dealing with the sentence patterns, there are four kind of operations that can be used to examine a sentence variation without changing its semantic aspect. They are: 1 • Insertion (Addition) 2 • Deletion 3 • Substitution 4 • Transposition (Permutation)
1. Insertion (Addition) Insertion is the process of putting one or more constituents inside a sentence. Example: The boy is clever. → The handsome boy is very clever. insertion insertion
2. Deletion Deletion is the process of removing one or more constituents of a sentence. Example: The handsome boy is very clever. → The boy is clever. deletion deletion
3. Substitution Substitution is the process of substituting both subject or object into pronouns, or verb phrases into auxiliary verbs. Examples: a. The young man visited her mother → He visited her.
4. Transposition (Permutation) Transposition (permutation) is the process of exchanging the position or the order of constituents in a sentence without changing the grammatical and semantic aspects. Example: The man called the boy suddenly. S P O A The man suddenly called the boy. S A P O Suddenly the man called the boy. A S P O
GRAMMATICAL vs. UNGRAMMATICAL SENTENCES In English and in every language, every sentence is a sequence of words, but not every sequence of words is a sentence. Sequences of words that conform to the rules of syntax are said to be “grammatical”, and those that violate the syntactic rules are called “ungrammatical”. In other words, utterances (sentences) which are constructed appropriately based on grammatical rules are normally called “grammatical sentences”; while utterances which are not constructed based on the grammatical rules are called “ungrammatical sentences”.
In linguistics, an ungrammatical sentence is normally marked with an asterisk (*) – sometimes two in front of it. Example: a) The boy kissed the girl. (grammatical) b) *The boy kissing the girl. (ungrammatical)
GRAMMATICAL & ACCEPTABLE As the “grammatical” refers to the condition in which the utterance is constructed appropriately based on grammatical rules, “acceptable” is used to decide whether or not an utterance (sentence) can be accepted in case of form or the effectiveness of the sentence. Compare the following sentences:
The man hit the dog. (grammatical-acceptable) The dog chased the cat. (grammatical-acceptable) The cat died. (grammatical-acceptable)Based on the structure, we can combine the three sentencesas follow: The cat that the dog that the man hit chased died. (grammatical-unacceptable)Most native speakers would not accept the sentence above.It is certainly grammatical in that all we have done is add one adjective clause“that the man hit” that describes the dog.However, the consecutive/serial verbs (hit-chased-died) make the sentenceunacceptable.
• When they are embedded within a sentence, most people cannot accept more than two adjective clauses.• However, as soon as the adjective clauses occur at the end of the sentence, we can accept any number of them. Thus, the previous sentence will be both grammatical and acceptable by this structure: This is the man that hit the dog that chased the cat that died. (grammatical-acceptable)
AMBIGUOUS & INTERPRETABLE When a word or phrase has more than one possible meaning and may cause confusion, it is called “lexical ambiguity”, and this is a common feature of English and of many other languages. Example: a small piece of wood CHIP a long thin piece of potato a small piece of siliconLexical Ambiguous
As well as lexical ambiguity, there is also “syntactic ambiguity” where a structure is capable of more than one interpretation. Example: “Visiting relatives can cause problems” Syntactic Ambiguous This sentence is ambiguous because it can be interpreted as: 1. Relatives who visit us can cause problems. OR 2. When we visit relatives, there can be problems.
Diagram of the Correlation between Interpretation and Ambiguity: AmbiguityLexical Ambiguity Syntactic Ambiguity Interpretation