THE BASIS OFPHONETICS & PHONOLOGYEka Andriyani, S.Pd.,M.Hum
So far, we have known the difference betweenPhonetics and Phonology.Phonetics is the study of speech sounds; whereasPhonology is the study of sound patterns. In other words, phonetics concerned withdescribing the speech sounds (the physical andarticulatory aspects) that occur in a language;phonology focuses on the study of rules andorganization of sound units in the language.
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA)provides the user with a universally acceptedsymbol for each of the speech sounds. The IPA is phonetic, not phonemic in design.In other words, a particular symbol is used torepresent the pronunciation of a speechsound, not to describe a change in meaning.
Phonetics has been created to give you athorough understanding of pronunciation of alanguage. Phonetics will help you improve your Englishaccent, your listening skills, and your ability tocommunicate effectively with others.A. PHONETICS
In this chapter, it will beexplained why spoken English(British or American) are sodifferent to written English.
Let us begin by looking at the following British Englishphonetic chart:NOTE:The symbols in the chart were developed by the InternationalPhonetic Association as a standardized of representing thesounds of spoken language.i: ɪ ʊ u: ɪə eɪe ə ɜ: ɔ: ʊə ɔɪ əʊæ ʌ ɑ: ɒ eə aɪ aʊp b t d tʃ dʒ k gf v θ ð s z ʃ ʒm n ŋ h l r w j
The full IPA chart has over 160 symbols representingall of the distinct sounds of all the world’s languages. British English IPA chart uses 44 of the IPA symbols,consists of 12 vowels, 24 consonants, and 8diphthongs. Each symbol in the chart represents a distinct soundin English. It is important that you can distinguishbetween each of the different sounds on the chart andthat you can accurately reproduce them.This ability will help you to better understand Englishpronunciation, and will also help you if you need tolook up the pronunciation of any English word in adictionary.
SOUNDS or LETTERS? Some of the symbols in the IPA chart matchthe letters of the alphabet and have theirusual English sound values. That is the letterof the alphabet and the sound representedby the IPA symbol are always the same. However, there are some other consonantletters of the alphabet have no set soundvalue and may be represented by several ofthe IPA symbols.
Take the words “cat” /kæt/ and “key” /ki:/, forinstance.Both begin with a different consonant letter.“k” is one of those consonants that are alwayspronounced the same /k/; while “c” is one of theconsonants that have no set sound value.Its sound can change depending on the word in which itis found.In the case of the word “cat” /kæt/, “c” is alsopronounced as /k/, but it is not pronounced the same inthe word “chair” /tʃeə(r)/.
Cat becomes/kæt/Key becomes/ki:/Chair becomes/tʃeə(r)/The IPA allows you to write down the actual sound of the word.Phonetic symbols, which represent sounds (not the letters)of the alphabet, are normally written between forwardslashes (/ /). Any symbol you see written between forwardslashes, represents a sound, not a letter of the alphabet.
A. CONSONANTSNote:Pulmonic consonants are consonants produced by air pressure from the lungs,as opposed to ejective (sudden production of a plosive sound followed by a puff of air), implosive (aweakened production of a plosive sound without a puff of air), and click consonants.
DISTINCTIVE FEATURES Another way of describing the sounds of English is byspecifying the distinctive features of which they arecomposed. We may regard a feature as a phonetic property thatcan be used to classify sounds. A set of features thatcan be used for classifying the sounds of English willbe shown in the table of English segments. When a feature can be used to classify sounds interms of two possibilities in this way, it is said to be abinary feature. Features are binary in naturemeaning the feature is either present (+) or absent (-).
DistinctiveFeatures• Vocalic• Consonantal• High• Back• Low• Anterior• Coronal• Round• Tense• Voice• Continuant• Nasal• Strident• Sonorant• Interrupted• Distributed• LateralChomsky and Halle (1968) proposed the use of 17 features to describephonemes. These features include:
Distinctive Feature Summary ChartVocalic A voiced phoneme produced with an open vocal tract. (vowels, /r/, /l/)Consonantal Phonemes produced with a constriction/stricture of the vocal tract. (all consonants except /h/)High Phonemes made with a raised tongue position. (/k/, /i/)Back Phonemes made with a retracted tongue position. (/ɔ:/, /g/Low Phonemes produced with a low tongue position. (/æ/, /h/)AnteriorPhonemes produced when the point of constriction is anterior (placed before) to the point ofconstriction for the (/ʃ/, /l/, /z/).Coronal Phonemes produced with the tongue blade in a raised position. (/θ/, //t/)Round Phonemes produced with the lips in a rounded position. (/o/, /w/)Tense Phonemes produced with tension in the muscles. (/i/, /u/)Voice Phonemes produced with the vibration of the vocal folds. (/z/, /v/)Continuant Phonemes produced in a steady state. (/θ/, /s/)Nasal Phonemes produced when air is emitted directly through the nasal cavity. (/n/, /m/)Strident Phonemes produced when air is forced through a small opening causing friction. (/f/, /v/)SonorantPhonemes produced when the airstream is unimpeded (not obstructed) by any structure in thenasal or oral cavity. (/m/, /l/)InterruptedPhonemes produced when the airstream is completely occluded (obstructed) at some pointduring the production. (/p/, /b/)Distributed Phonemes produced when the constriction is extended through the vocal tract. (/θ/, /ʃ/)Lateral A phoneme produced when the air stream is emitted laterally. (/l/)
p b t d k gm n ŋf v θ ð s z ʃ ʒ htʃ dʒ(w) ɹ j wlBilabial Labio-dentalDental Alveolar Palato-alveolarPalatal Velar GlottalPlosiveNasalFricativeApproximantLateralApproximantAffricateBRITISH CONSONANTS PHONETICCHART:Note: /ɹ/ is transcribed in broad transcription as /r/.
B. PHONOLOGY The phone is the basic unit of phonology. Thissingle speech sound can take the form of either aphoneme (the target) or the allophone (individualvariations of the target). Phonological rules for a particular languagedictate both the phonemes and allophonesused by the language and the acceptablesyllable structures (phoneme/allophonecombinations).
Basic patterns used in monosyllabic words are: Consonant-vowel (CV) as in the word tea [ti:]. Vowel-consonant (VC) as in the word at [æt]. Consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) as in the word sin[sɪn]. Consonant-consonant-vowel-consonant (CCVC) as inthe word stop [stɒp]. Consonant-vowel-consonant-consonant (CVCC) as inthe word sand [sænd].(Other patterns and rules will be discussed in the next chapters).