Knowledge as Love How Metaphors Direct our Efforts to Manage Knowledge in Organisations Keynote address 8th European Confe...
Simplified Chinese
Lakoff and Johnson (1999)
Create an  inventory  of knowledge Check where knowledge is  located Store  important knowledge Improve  access to  knowle...
I  got plenty  of time That  took  three hours He  wasted  my time This will  save  time TIME AS A RESOURCE
The TIME ORIENTATION metaphor PAST FUTURE
Aymara’s use the opposite
MOVING OBSERVER metaphor EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3 “ will you be staying a long time o r  a short time ?” "how long is ...
MOVING TIME metaphor TIME "the time for action has arrived" "time flies by"
What happened before the Big Bang? EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3
Time traveling
Mapping from source to target Target  Domain (time) Source  Domain (space) Characteristics of target domain not covered by...
Time as a moving object metaphor Time Moving Object “ length” “ amount” “ scarcity” “ direction” “origin” “ destination” “...
Mapping from sources to target Target  Domain (TIME) Source  Domain Source  Domain Source  Domain Source  Domain RESOURCE ...
Intermezzo 1: truth does not exist <ul><li>as direct observation does not exist because people always use concepts to desc...
Conceptualisation s  of knowledge  are  metaphorical <ul><li>Knowledge as an object </li></ul><ul><li>“ Locate knowledge” ...
Knowledge as Resource metaphor Knowledge becomes  part of logistic discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li>...
Knowledge as Assets metaphor Knowledge becomes part of accounting discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li><...
Knowledge as Property metaphor Knowledge becomes  part of legal discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Other physica...
There are big differences between the authors Davenport & Prusak  (2000) Nonaka & Takeuchi  (1995)
Transformation of entailments require argumentation <ul><li>Capital is valuable and important </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is...
What is wrong with KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF <ul><li>Knowledge as an object </li></ul><ul><li>“ Locate knowledge” </li></ul><ul><...
Western and Eastern views on knowledge <ul><li>Dominant view in the West </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as a  thing  that can...
Design of the exercise Employees Metaphor 1 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4...
KNOWLEDGE AS WATER <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge does not flow </li></ul><ul><li>Separate source of knowle...
KNOWLEDGE AS LOVE <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is not cherished </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul...
Intermezzo 2: problems don't exist <ul><li>Problems are not phenomena waiting out there in reality to be observed.  </li><...
KM Metaphor Analysis Scoring Form
W hat would  be  the outcome of your research if we see knowledge not at stuff but as love?
Thank You! <ul><li>Dr.  Daniel  Andriessen </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of  Intellectual Capital INHOLLAND  University  of ...
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Slidecast Andriessen ECKM 2007

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This is a slidecast of my presentation at the European Congress on Knowledge Management 2007 in Barcelona. It includes the slides and the audio of my presentation

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  • I referenced your excellent presentation in Slideshare group 'BANK OF KNOWLEDGE' : http://www.slideshare.net/group/bank-of-knowledge - to inform our members ...We would be honored by your support through your membership. You are invited to join us ! I wish you a nice day. Greetings from France. Bernard
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  • This work is very interesting ! Very good information! Bernard
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Slidecast Andriessen ECKM 2007

  1. 1. Knowledge as Love How Metaphors Direct our Efforts to Manage Knowledge in Organisations Keynote address 8th European Conference on Knowledge Management Consorci Escola Industrial de Barcelona (CEIB), Barcelona, Spain 6-7 September 2007 Dr. Daniel Andriessen INHOLLAND University of professional Education Amsterdam The Netherlands
  2. 2. Simplified Chinese
  3. 3. Lakoff and Johnson (1999)
  4. 4. Create an inventory of knowledge Check where knowledge is located Store important knowledge Improve access to knowledge KNOWLEDGE AS A RESOURCE
  5. 5. I got plenty of time That took three hours He wasted my time This will save time TIME AS A RESOURCE
  6. 6. The TIME ORIENTATION metaphor PAST FUTURE
  7. 7. Aymara’s use the opposite
  8. 8. MOVING OBSERVER metaphor EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3 “ will you be staying a long time o r a short time ?” &quot;how long is your visit?&quot;
  9. 9. MOVING TIME metaphor TIME &quot;the time for action has arrived&quot; &quot;time flies by&quot;
  10. 10. What happened before the Big Bang? EVENT 1 EVENT 2 EVENT 3
  11. 11. Time traveling
  12. 12. Mapping from source to target Target Domain (time) Source Domain (space) Characteristics of target domain not covered by source domain Characteristics of source domain not used by metaphor metaphorical entailments
  13. 13. Time as a moving object metaphor Time Moving Object “ length” “ amount” “ scarcity” “ direction” “origin” “ destination” “ arrives” “ flies by” “ speed”
  14. 14. Mapping from sources to target Target Domain (TIME) Source Domain Source Domain Source Domain Source Domain RESOURCE SPACE
  15. 15. Intermezzo 1: truth does not exist <ul><li>as direct observation does not exist because people always use concepts to describe reality … </li></ul><ul><li>as these concepts derive their meaning from metaphor … </li></ul><ul><li>as half of these metaphors are embodied in our brain and cannot be shut off or altered … </li></ul><ul><li>as the choice of the other half is too large extent arbitrary … </li></ul><ul><li>… w e will never be able to perfectly describe and understand reality and ego, truth (defined as correspondence with reality) does not exist. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Conceptualisation s of knowledge are metaphorical <ul><li>Knowledge as an object </li></ul><ul><li>“ Locate knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Recognize knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Move knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Exchange knowledge” </li></ul>Knowledge as a resource “ Apply knowledge” “ Use knowledge” “ Store knowledge” “ Accumulate knowledge” Knowledge as thoughts or feelings “ Articulate knowledge” “ Verbalize knowledge” “ Externalize knowledge” “ Internalize knowledge” KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF Knowledge as organism “ Growing knowledge” “ Nurturing knowledge” “ Knowledge develops” Knowledge as capital “ Value knowledge ” “ Invest knowledge”
  17. 17. Knowledge as Resource metaphor Knowledge becomes part of logistic discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Other physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Use in production </li></ul><ul><li>Adding to </li></ul><ul><li>Storing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Place in input/output (logistical) system </li></ul><ul><li>Non-rivalry of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Non-additiveness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tacitness of knowledge </li></ul>What is not used What the metaphor highlights What the metaphor hides Target Domain Source Domain RESOURCE
  18. 18. Knowledge as Assets metaphor Knowledge becomes part of accounting discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Weight </li></ul><ul><li>Other physical characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Generate future economic benefits that flow to enterprise </li></ul><ul><li>Identifiable and cost can be measured </li></ul><ul><li>Use in production </li></ul><ul><li>Place in reporting system </li></ul><ul><li>Non-rivalry of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Non-additiveness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tacitness of knowledge </li></ul>What is not used What the metaphor highlights What the metaphor hides Target Domain Source Domain ASSETS
  19. 19. Knowledge as Property metaphor Knowledge becomes part of legal discourse <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><li>Other physical characteristics of property </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Legal rights </li></ul><ul><li>Transferability </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to commercialize </li></ul><ul><li>Place in legal system </li></ul><ul><li>People can not be owned </li></ul><ul><li>Tacitness of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Purposeness of knowledge </li></ul>What is not used What the metaphor highlights What the metaphor hides Target Domain Source Domain PROPERTY
  20. 20. There are big differences between the authors Davenport & Prusak (2000) Nonaka & Takeuchi (1995)
  21. 21. Transformation of entailments require argumentation <ul><li>Capital is valuable and important </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is an asset for the future and not an expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>Capital can be invested in </li></ul><ul><li>Capital can be capitalized </li></ul><ul><li>Capital itself can be invested </li></ul><ul><li>Capital allows for a return </li></ul><ul><li>Capital resonates with managers and CFO’s </li></ul><ul><li>Having more capital is better </li></ul><ul><li>Capital can be owned </li></ul><ul><li>Capital can be valued financially </li></ul><ul><li>Capital often appears on the balance sheet </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is additive (1+1=2) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital is a stock </li></ul><ul><li>Capital can and must be measured and managed </li></ul>√ √ √ √ √ √ √ X X X X X X X
  22. 22. What is wrong with KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF <ul><li>Knowledge as an object </li></ul><ul><li>“ Locate knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Recognize knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Move knowledge” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Exchange knowledge” </li></ul>Knowledge as a resource “ Gather knowledge” “ Store knowledge” “ Distribute knowledge ” KNOWLEDGE AS STUFF Knowledge as capital “ Value knowledge ” “ Invest knowledge”
  23. 23. Western and Eastern views on knowledge <ul><li>Dominant view in the West </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as a thing that can be controlled and manipulated </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as information that can be codified, stored, accessed and used </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as resource that can be created, stored, shared, located, or moved, and that is part of the input-throughput-output system of the organization </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as capital that can be valued, capitalized and measured; that is part of the financial flow and requires an return on investment </li></ul><ul><li>Dominant view in the East </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as spirit and wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as unfolding truth </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of universe and human self </li></ul><ul><li>Unity of knowledge and action </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as illumination or enlightenment of an underlying, deeper reality </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge as essence-less and nothingness (Japan) </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge creation as a continuous, self-transcending process </li></ul>
  24. 24. Design of the exercise Employees Metaphor 1 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4 plenary session Metaphor 2 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4 plenary session Vote (2 votes per person) Questionnaire Personal reflection Managers Metaphor 1 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4 plenary session Metaphor 2 Gathering results Diagnosis and development of solutions Working in teams of 4 plenary session Vote (2 votes per person) Questionnaire Personal reflection
  25. 25. KNOWLEDGE AS WATER <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge does not flow </li></ul><ul><li>Separate source of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is not channeled </li></ul><ul><li>No dispersion of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocephalus: people keeping knowledge to themselves </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Build canals </li></ul><ul><li>Flush out and freshen knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Tap knowledge from people leaving </li></ul><ul><li>Create knowledge map </li></ul><ul><li>Managers as knowledge channels </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management </li></ul>
  26. 26. KNOWLEDGE AS LOVE <ul><li>DIAGNOSIS </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is not cherished </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of trust </li></ul><ul><li>Unrequited love </li></ul><ul><li>Rivalry and forced marriages </li></ul><ul><li>Attractive but lonely singles </li></ul><ul><li>In-breeding </li></ul><ul><li>We only talk about our wedding certificate but not about our relationship </li></ul><ul><li>SOLUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Provide time and space for sharing knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Match people’s passions and tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Go out and date more </li></ul><ul><li>Hire marriage counselor </li></ul><ul><li>Partner-swapping </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t manage and systemize knowledge </li></ul>
  27. 27. Intermezzo 2: problems don't exist <ul><li>Problems are not phenomena waiting out there in reality to be observed. </li></ul><ul><li>A problem is a gap between an existing and a preferred situation (Ist and Soll). </li></ul><ul><li>B oth the perception of the existing as the perception of the preferred situation depends on how you prefer to look at it </li></ul><ul><li>Ergo, a problem is by definition subjective. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;a problem is an interpretation of a feeling of discomfort“ (J. Kessels) </li></ul>
  28. 28. KM Metaphor Analysis Scoring Form
  29. 29. W hat would be the outcome of your research if we see knowledge not at stuff but as love?
  30. 30. Thank You! <ul><li>Dr. Daniel Andriessen </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of Intellectual Capital INHOLLAND University of Professional Education </li></ul><ul><li>Amsterdam/ Diemen The Netherlands </li></ul><ul><li>Daan. andriessen @ inholland . nl </li></ul><ul><li>www.weightlesswealth.com </li></ul><ul><li>+31- 204951719 </li></ul>

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