The British isles are separatedfrom the European continentby the North Sea and theEnglish Channel.The western coast of GreatBritain is washed by theAtlantic Ocean and the IrishSea. The surface of the BritishIsles varies very much.The north of Scotland ismountainous and is calledHighlands, while thesouth, which has beautifulvalleys and plains, is calledLowlands. The north and westof England aremountainous, but all the rest -east, center and southeast - isa vast plain. Mountains are notvery high. Ben Nevis is thehighest mountain.
The United Kingdom ofGreat Britain and NorthernIreland is situated on theBritish Isles.The British Isles consist of twolarge islands, Great Britainand Ireland, and abovefive thousand small islands.Their total area is over 244000 square kilometers.The United Kingdom ismade up of four countries:England, Scotland, Walesand Northern Ireland.Their capitals areLondon, Edinburgh, Cardiffand Belfast.
There are a lot of rivers in GB, but they are not very long. TheSevern is the longest river, while the Thames is the deepest andthe most important one.The mountains, the Atlantic Ocean and the warm waters if GulfStream influence the climate of the British Isles. The weather in GBis very changeable. A fine morning can change into a wetafternoon and evening and the wrong side out. The Englishpeople say: "Other countries have a climate; in England we haveweather." The English also say that they have three variants ofweather: when it rains in the morning, when it rains in theafternoon or when it rains all day long.
The most unpleasant aspect of English weather is fog and smog. This is extremely bad in big cities especially in London. The fog spreads everywhere so cars move along slowly and people cant see each other. They try not to be run over by a car but still accidents are frequent in the fog.
a unified entity since the 10th century; The union between England and Wales began in 1284 with the Statute of Rhuddlan,but was not formalized until 1536 with an Act of Union; In another Act of Union in 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanently join as Great Britain; The legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801 with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; The Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland; The current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927
British nation is considered to bethe most conservative inEurope. It is not a secret thatevery nation and every countryhas its own customs andtraditions.In Great Britain people attachgreater importance to traditionsand customs than in otherEuropean countries. Englishmenare proud of their traditions andcarefully keep them up. Thebest examples are theirqueen, money system, theirweights and measures.
Constitutional monarchy and Commonwealth realm Head of state – Queen Elizabeth II Parliament consists of two houses:• House of Commons• House of Lords Government Devolved governmentScottish Parliament – 1999Scottish Government – 2007Northern Ireland Assembly – 1998Northern Ireland Executive – 1998National Assembly for Wales - 1999
Monarchy is the oldest form of government in the United Kingdom.In a monarchy, a king or queen is Head of State. The British monarchy isknown as a constitutional monarchy. This means that, while The Sovereign isHead of State, the ability to make and pass legislation resides with anelected Parliament.Although the British Sovereign no longer has a political or executive role, heor she continues to play an important part in the life of the nation.As Head of State, The Monarch undertakes constitutional andrepresentational duties which have developed over one thousand years ofhistory. In addition to these State duties, The Monarch has a less formal roleas Head of Nation. The Sovereign acts as a focus for national identity, unityand pride; gives a sense of stability and continuity; officially recognizessuccess and excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service.In all these roles The Sovereign is supported by members of their immediatefamily.
Commonwealth of NationsAn intergovernmental organization of 54 independent memberstates. All but two of these countries were formerly part of the BritishEmpire.The member states co-operate within a framework of commonvalues and goals as outlined in the Singapore Declaration.These include the promotion of democracy, human rights, goodgovernance, the rule of law, individual liberty, egalitarianism, freetrade, multilateralism and world peace.The Commonwealth is not a political union, but anintergovernmental organisation through which countries with diversesocial, political and economic backgrounds are regarded as equalin status.
British people think that the Grand National horse race is themost exciting horse race in the world. It takes place nearLiverpool every year. Sometimes it happens the same day asthe Boat Race takes place, sometimes a week later. Amateurriders as well as professional jockeys can participate. It is avery famous event.
Halloween is a day on which many children dress up in unusualcostumes. In fact, this holiday has a Celtic origin.The day was originally called All Halloweens Eve, because ithappens on October 31, the eve of all Saints Day.The name was later shortened to Halloween.The Celts celebrated the coming of New Year on that day.
On November 5,1605, a man called Guy Fawkesplanned to blow up the Houses of Parliament where theking James 1st was to open Parliament on that day. ButGuy Fawkes was unable to realize his plan and wascaught and later, hanged. The British still remember thatGuy Fawkes Night. It is another name for this holiday.This day one can see children with figures, made ofsacks and straw and dressed in old clothes. OnNovember 5th, children put their figures on thebonfire, burn them, and light their fireworks.
British LibraryAfter fifteen years of problems and millions of public moneyspent, the library finally opened its doors to the public in thespring of 1998. The sheer number of books inside will takeyour breath away. This is actually the largest library inLondon. Location - Euston Road (near St Pancras Station).
In the City of London youwill come upon St Paul`sCathedral.The present structure isthe fifth cathedral to bebuilt on the site. Theweddings of the Princeand Princess of Wales, thefuneral of Sir WinstonChurchill and many otheroccasions have gracedthis spiritual centre.Built of Portland stone witha Dome that rises to 365feet and with GreatPaul, the largest bell inEngland, this has to beone of THE MUST SEE sightsin London.
The most famous Londonsight is Westminster Abbey. It has been so closelyconnected with the Crownand the nations history.The coronation of every kingand queen (apart from two)spanning 900 years has beenheld here.The magnificent Gothicbuilding seen today datesfrom the 11th century.