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Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
Guidelines for effective reading discussion
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Guidelines for effective reading discussion

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Effective ways to teach and develop critical thinking skills to young learners and adults. Tools for effective discussion. …

Effective ways to teach and develop critical thinking skills to young learners and adults. Tools for effective discussion.

Eva F. Andrianarivo and Manda Radafy,
English Teaching Program,
Antananarivo, Madagascar

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • 1. Guidelines forEffective Reading Discussion in Madagascar Eva Fanjanirina Andrianarivo TESOL 2012 PHILADELPHIA
  • 2. Objectives:o Build up vocabulary and contento Encourage critical thinking and communication for a purposeo Develop multi-cultural understanding and awareness of global issueso Stimulate reading discussion
  • 3. Teacher’s Roles:o Cultivate, Facilitate, Smooth reading discussiono Highlight new conceptsoTeach a system of critical thinkingo Give clear directionso Prepareo Guideo Monitoro Assess / Evaluate
  • 4. Students’ Roles:o Organize informationo Plano Practiceo Express opiniono Participate effectively
  • 5. Effective Guidelines for Reading Discussion.3. Reading comprehension: gist of the passage and main ideas.5. Get facts from the passage and answer reading comprehension questions.7. Using prior knowledge (certainty / probability) to make Inferences from the passage.9. Practice reacting to key facts from the passage.11. Relate to the passage. Practice linking facts from the passage to other realities.13. Give discussion questions or statements. Take a position by answering the questions.15. Make a list of arguments for and against the statements or questions to be discussed.17. Discuss in groups of 3 or 4.
  • 6. Useful Functions Checklist: Advice  Advantages / Disadvantages  Agreement, appreciation, concession, determination  Disagreement and criticism  Cause and effect  Comparison  Contrast and contradiction  Condition and hypothesis  Desires and wishes  Emphasis  Giving opinion  Liking and disliking  Reacting  Reporting  Reproach  Summing up ideas
  • 7. Graphic Organizers :For reading comprehension: 1. Main idea 2. Question Generation 3. Word mapTo brainstorm ideas before discussion: 1. Cause and Effect 2. Compare / Contrast 3. Similarities / Differences 4. ReactionsFor the discussion: 1. Performance Evaluation Parameters with four Rubrics: • Vocabulary • Content • Grammar • Pronunciation
  • 8. MAIN IDEA MAPTo identify the main ideas in the text, to help understand how the ideas fit together. To summarize and review the content of the passage.
  • 9. Main Idea MapTo identify the main ideas in the text, to help understand how the ideas fit together. To summarize and review the content of the passage.Gist and Main Ideas:1. Skim for the Gist or Main Idea of the passage: Underline the first sentence of each paragraph (topic sentence) and the last sentence in the passage. Identify and double underline the key words in each sentence.Read all topic sentences and concluding sentence and see how the ideas are related: CAUSE and EFFECT, COMPARE and CONTRAST, CHRONOLOGY, …2. Scan: Underline key words in the comprehension questions.Write the gist or main idea of the passage in a complex sentence, using any appropriate key word and complex structure: Due to, As a result, Even though, Initially, Eventually, …3. Get the main ideas of each paragraph: Read the Topic Sentence and pay attention to the underlined words in the Topic Sentence. Look for repeated words in the paragraph. Use them in a sentence that sums up the main idea of the paragraph.4. Add key facts and important details to each main idea in the Main Idea Map.5. Report to the class: The first paragraph states that … Here are the key facts and important details…
  • 10. INFERENCE GRAPHIC ORGANIZERTo make inferences from hints in the passage. To develop critical thinking. Hint: ……………………………………………………………………….. Why did he / she ….. ? What might / must have happened before that ? Hint : ………………………………………………………………………. What made him / her decide to ……………………………. ? Hint : ………………………………………………………………………. What might / must happen next ?
  • 11. Inference Graphic OrganizerTo make inferences from hints in the passage. To develop critical thinking.Getting ready:o Pick up factual information from the passage.o Draw a conclusion from those hints using the Inference Graphic Organizer. The author implies that … It can be inferred that …
  • 12. WORD MAPTo identify and connect “key words”. To recall the central idea of the passage. To develop vocabulary. …. ……… ………… … . … …… ………… … …… ………… … . ……………… … . … …… ……… … ……… …… ...
  • 13. Word MapTo identify and connect key words in the passage. To develop vocabulary.Getting ready:o Highlight the key words in the passage.o Complete the Word Map in order to recall the central idea of the passage.o Write several sentences about the passage while using those key words.
  • 14. CAUSE AND EFFECTTo collect ideas and supporting details from the passage for the discussion. To develop ability to think critically. CAUSES: EFFECTS:………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………………… ……………………………………………………………………………….. SOLUTIONS: …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………………….
  • 15. Cause and EffectTo collect ideas and supporting details from the passage for the discussion. To develop ability to think critically.Getting ready:o Complete the Cause and Effect Graphic Organizer with key words and key facts from the passage.o Suggest solutions if there are not any in the passage.o Report the ideas using verbs and then subordinators: For causes: … is caused by, results from, is due to … The reason for +Noun is that … because, since, as, for, due to, owing to … For effects: … causes, leads to, results in, triggers, brings about, … consequently, as a result, therefore, … For solutions: To solve …, to reduce, to fight, to tackle, to crack down on, …
  • 16. COMPARE AND CONTRASTTo link key facts and ideas from the passage to prior knowledge. To brainstorm ideas for the discussion of two contrary opinions related to the passage. To think critically and form strong arguments.
  • 17. Compare and ContrastTo link key facts and ideas from the passage to prior knowledge. To brainstorm ideas for the discussion of two contrary opinions related to the passage. To think critically and form strong arguments.Getting ready:o The discussion question gives two contrary opinions.o Choose a position using specific reasons from the passage and from prior knowledge to support your answer.o Consider the advantages and list three or four advantages to form your arguments FOR your position.o Think critically by considering the disadvantages of your position. List a few arguments AGAINST your position.o Report arguments using: Advantages: The advantage of (+Noun / V.ing)… is that … The good thing about … is that … Disadvantages: The disadvantage of … is that … The problem of … is that … The bad thing about … is that …
  • 18. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCESTo discuss similarities and differences of key facts and ideas from the passage to other situations. Situation in my Facts from the text Country SAME DIFFt  ……………… ……… ………  …………..….  ……………… ……… ………  ……………...  ……………… ……… ………  ……………… ……… ………  ……………… ……… ………  ………………  …………….. ……… ………  ……………..  .................... ……… ………  ..................... ……… ……..
  • 19. Similarities / DifferencesTo discuss similarities and differences of key facts and ideas from the passage to other situations.Getting ready:o Complete the graphic organizer with important facts from the passage.o Think about similar or different situations from your country (or another) and complete the graphic organizer.o Check (√) if the facts are similar or different.o Use subordinators and verbs to talk about these facts: For Similarity:: similarly, likewise, … is similar to, resembles, … For Differences: in contrast to, while, whereas, however, unlike,… … differs from, contrasts with,…
  • 20. REACTIONSTo react to key facts and ideas from the passage. To brainstorm ideas for the discussion
  • 21. ReactionsTo react to key facts and ideas from the passage. To brainstorm ideas for the discussionGetting ready:o Make a list of important facts from the passage.o Write down your reactions to these facts and ideas by using the following: I find it + Adj.ing that …. It is + Adj.ing that …o State a few reasons for your reaction.o To form strong reactions, change facts from the passage into contrary-to-fact statements by using unreal conditionals for the present and past: If (past), would + V If (past perfect), would / could have + P.P.
  • 22. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION PARAMETERSTo evaluate students’ performance during the discussion. To assess ability to interact in English, handle questions, support opinions, clarify points of view. PARAMETER RUBRIC CREDITS /15Participation - Little participation 0 - Adequate participation 1 - Large participation 2Pronunciation -Many errors – Interferes with understanding 0comprehensibility - Few consistent errors but comprehensible 1 - Comprehensible and clear 2Vocabulary: breadth -Limited, inadequate, inaccurate, unable to rephrase 0and precision of -Use frequent circumlocution 1usage - Adequate, less frequent circumlocution 2 - Extensive, appropriate, accurate usage 3Content -Limited arguments – Irrelevant support 1 - Adequate supporting arguments 2 -Appropriate and enough supporting arguments with examples 3Structure and -Major structural errors - Incorrect utterances 0Grammar - Definite structural problems – Correct utterances 1 - Minor structural errors – Many utterances correct 2 - Very good control – Most utterances correct 3Fluency -Speech halting and fragmentary – Long unnatural pauses 0 - Less frequent hesitation with some incomplete sentences 1 -Quite fluent – Natural and continuous speech 2

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