SemWeb 4 Gov – opportunities and challenges
Dr. Andrew Woolf
Acting Assistant Director (Climate & Water IT Services), Bure...
Acknowledgements…
• Josh Bobruk, Robert Boczek, Karl Braganza, Sarah
Callaghan, Shirley Crompton, Armin Haller, Colin Harp...
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Information explosion

http://www.economist.com/node/21537922
Big data

http://strataconf.com/
Data journalism

http://www.guardian.co.uk/data
Data for development

http://data.worldbank.org/
Harvard Business Review (Oct 2012)
United States
My Administration will take appropriate action … to
disclose information rapidly in forms that the public
ca...
United Kingdom
Our plans include:
•Radically opening up data and public information,
releasing thousands of public data se...
Europe
…open access is reaching the tipping point, with around
50% of scientific papers published in 2011 now available fo...
United Nations
We also call for a data revolution for sustainable
development, with a new international initiative to
impr...
Australia
Principle 1: Open access to information - a default position
Principle 2: Engaging the community
Principle 3: Ef...
Australia
We will [establish] policies to:
•accelerate Government 2.0 efforts to engage online,
make agencies transparent ...
Government Open Data
“We commit to pro-actively provide
high-value information, including
raw data, in a timely manner, in...
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Climategate
Independent reviews

“We … conclude that there is independent verification… of the results and
conclusions of the Climate ...
climate change
biodiversity loss
natural resource management
water availability and use
disaster management
National Plan for Environmental
Information
“an environmental information system
to support the delivery and discovery
of ...
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Sir Tim Berners-Lee on open data...
But HOW do we open data?
Sir Tim again…
Linked (Government) Data
Linked Data

Linked Data Principles
1. Use URL (Web
addresses) as identifiers
for objects
2. Publish them on the
Web
3. Us...
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Geospatial Transformation with
OGSA-DAI (GeoTOD) [2010]
•Project aims:
– Exploit a high-profile
outcome from the >£200M
UK...
Designing Location URIs
‘Spatial T
hing’ http:/ea.gov.uk/
/
id
/ Y/ atercourse/ hames
H W
T
‘303 See other:’
‘web document...
GeoTOD linked data framework
OGSA-DAI SO store

orkflow
L
inked SO W
Store

OGSA-DAI
service

GM query
L

GeoServer
W
S
W resources
eb

SP
ARQL query
+...
GeoTOD
• Challenges:
– Pragmatic interpretation of URI guidelines
– Mapping UML geospatial conceptual models to RDF

• Geo...
Advanced Climate Research Infrastructure
for Data (ACRID) [2010]

https://www.uea.ac.uk/mac/
comm/media/press/2010/july/
c...
Linked-data for ACRID
DOI and OAI-ORE
•CrossRef DOIs (e.g.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.11
57784) are linked-data-enabled (as
of April 2011...
ACRID – dataset workflows /
provenance
•Various choices
– Open Provenance Model
– Provenance Markup Language
– ISO 19156 (...
Australian Climate Observations
Reference Network – Surface Air
Temperature (ACORN-SAT) [2012]
•High-quality daily surface...
ACORN-SAT
• Project aims:
– Establish the first Australian Government linked data
under data.gov.au
– Trial linked-data fo...
Station history: e.g. Darwin

014016
014015

014040
014015
Semantic Sensor Network Ontology
(W3C Incubator Group)
ACORN-SAT observations as a cube
(W3C DataCube ontology)
Coupling SSN and Data Cube
ontologies
Deployment

*.txt
Querying: SPARQL
PREFIX gn: <http://www.geonames.org/ontology#>
PREFIX acorn-sat: <http://lab.environment.data.gov.au/def/...
Mashups
Mashups
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
Australian Government Linked Data
Working Group (AGLDWG)
•Terms of reference
– Develop technical guidelines
and best pract...
LD-enabling CKAN
• CKAN used by a number of Government open data
platforms (incl. UK, AU, US)
• Could it be made more LD-f...
Outline
• Drivers
• Use case exemplars
• SemWeb as enabler
• A few projects
• Next steps
• Key lessons
1. Believe in SemWeb 4 Gov!
• Domain/agency-neutral data publishing mechanism
• Encourages information points-of-truth
• A...
2. Address agency needs
• Simple dictionary publishing would be a good start!
– http://test.wmocodes.info/
• Create robust...
3. Be pragmatic
• At this stage of the adoption curve, more important to get
something up than establishing complete seman...
4. Establish enabling infrastructure
• May be difficult to deploy own triplestores
• Encourage cloud solutions (public, go...
5. ‘Geo’ as killer app for LD
• Much government data is spatially-enabled
• Huge value proposition in technology enabling ...
6. Skill-up the ICT contractor pool
• Government uses contractors
• Need to build up a SemWeb ‘cottage industry’
– critica...
7. Engage with Gov
• Chat to your local friendly Gov IT geeks
• Be aware of stuff already happening
– e.g. in environmenta...
Thank you…
Acknowledgements (again) to collaborators: Josh Bobruk,
Robert Boczek, Karl Braganza, Sarah Callaghan, Shirley
...
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SemWeb 4 Gov – opportunities and challenges

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  • SemWeb 4 Gov – opportunities and challenges

    1. 1. SemWeb 4 Gov – opportunities and challenges Dr. Andrew Woolf Acting Assistant Director (Climate & Water IT Services), Bureau of Meteorology
    2. 2. Acknowledgements… • Josh Bobruk, Robert Boczek, Karl Braganza, Sarah Callaghan, Shirley Crompton, Armin Haller, Colin Harpham, Mike Jackson, Bryan Lawrence, Laurent Lefort, Brian Matthews, Tim Osborn, Clinton Rakich, Will Rogers, Arif Shaon, Jeremy Tandy, Kerry Taylor, Blair Trewin
    3. 3. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    4. 4. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    5. 5. Information explosion http://www.economist.com/node/21537922
    6. 6. Big data http://strataconf.com/
    7. 7. Data journalism http://www.guardian.co.uk/data
    8. 8. Data for development http://data.worldbank.org/
    9. 9. Harvard Business Review (Oct 2012)
    10. 10. United States My Administration will take appropriate action … to disclose information rapidly in forms that the public can readily find and use. Executive departments and agencies should harness new technologies to put information about their operations and decisions online and readily available to the public. Memorandum on Transparency and Open Government, Federal Register Vol. 74, No. 15
    11. 11. United Kingdom Our plans include: •Radically opening up data and public information, releasing thousands of public data sets – including Ordnance Survey mapping data, real-time railway timetables, data underpinning NHS choices, and more detailed departmental spending data – and making them free for re-use. Putting the Frontline First: smarter government Cabinet Office, 7 December 2009
    12. 12. Europe …open access is reaching the tipping point, with around 50% of scientific papers published in 2011 now available for free. …open access will be mandatory for all scientific publications produced with funding from Horizon 2020, the EU's Research & Innovation funding programme for 2014-2020. …Under Horizon 2020 … the Commission will also start a pilot on open access to data collected during publicly funded research… European Commission - IP/13/786, Brussels, 21 August 2013
    13. 13. United Nations We also call for a data revolution for sustainable development, with a new international initiative to improve the quality of statistics and information available to citizens. A NEW GLOBAL PARTNERSHIP: ERADICATE POVERTY AND TRANSFORM ECONOMIES THROUGH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT The Report of the High-Level Panel of Eminent Persons on the Post2015 Development Agenda United Nations, 30 May 2013
    14. 14. Australia Principle 1: Open access to information - a default position Principle 2: Engaging the community Principle 3: Effective information governance Principle 4: Robust information asset management Principle 5: Discoverable and useable information Principle 6: Clear reuse rights Principle 7: Appropriate charging for access Principle 8: Transparent enquiry and complaints processes Principles on open public sector information OAIC, May 2011
    15. 15. Australia We will [establish] policies to: •accelerate Government 2.0 efforts to engage online, make agencies transparent and provide expanded access to useful public sector data; …The next wave of opportunities to improve the quality and effectiveness of government services are likely to be driven by access to (appropriately anonymized) public sector data sets and ‘big data’. The Hon Andrew Robb AO MP, The Hon Malcolm Turnbull MP Liberal Party of Australia, 2 Sep 2013
    16. 16. Government Open Data “We commit to pro-actively provide high-value information, including raw data, in a timely manner, in formats that the public can easily locate, understand and use, and in formats that facilitate reuse.”
    17. 17. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    18. 18. Climategate
    19. 19. Independent reviews “We … conclude that there is independent verification… of the results and conclusions of the Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia. ... We … consider that climate scientists should take steps to make available all the data used to generate their published work, including raw data” House of Commons Science and Technology Committee (31 Mar 2010) CRU should make available sufficient information, concurrent with any publications, to enable others to replicate their results. … It would benefit the global climate research community if a standardised way of defining station metadata and station data could be agreed, preferably through a standards body, or perhaps the WMO. The Independent Climate Change E-mails Review, Sir Muir Russell (7 Jul 2010)
    20. 20. climate change
    21. 21. biodiversity loss
    22. 22. natural resource management
    23. 23. water availability and use
    24. 24. disaster management
    25. 25. National Plan for Environmental Information “an environmental information system to support the delivery and discovery of priority environmental information” http://www.bom.gov.au/environment /
    26. 26. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    27. 27. Sir Tim Berners-Lee on open data...
    28. 28. But HOW do we open data?
    29. 29. Sir Tim again…
    30. 30. Linked (Government) Data
    31. 31. Linked Data Linked Data Principles 1. Use URL (Web addresses) as identifiers for objects 2. Publish them on the Web 3. Use Semantic Web standards to model the data 4. Link objects in your dataset to objects in other datasets ‘5 stars’ maturity model
    32. 32. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    33. 33. Geospatial Transformation with OGSA-DAI (GeoTOD) [2010] •Project aims: – Exploit a high-profile outcome from the >£200M UK government-funded eScience program – Implement the UK Cabinet Office guidelines on ‘URI Sets for Location’ – Enable dynamic transformation of existing large spatial datasets http://data.gov.uk/sites/default/files/ Designing_URI_Sets_for_Location-V1.0_10.pdf
    34. 34. Designing Location URIs ‘Spatial T hing’ http:/ea.gov.uk/ / id / Y/ atercourse/ hames H W T ‘303 See other:’ ‘web document’ http://ea.gov.uk/doc/HY/Watercourse/Thames rdfs:seeAlso http://ea.gov.uk/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W ea-UK rivers/ e7w1 rdfs:seeAlso http://geotod/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W stfc-strategi/ 4a97 ov:similarTo http://ceh.nerc/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W nerc-hydrodb/ thames-001 ‘Spatial Object’ http://geotod/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W stfc-strategi/ 4a97.rdf http://geotod/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W stfc-strategi/ 4a97.html http://geotod/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W stfc-strategi/ 4a97.kml http://geotod/so/ Y/ atercourse/ H W stfc-strategi/ 4a97.gml ‘ content negotiation’
    35. 35. GeoTOD linked data framework
    36. 36. OGSA-DAI SO store orkflow L inked SO W Store OGSA-DAI service GM query L GeoServer W S W resources eb SP ARQL query + output formatting SQL RDB Generate RDB -specific SQL using mapping file GeotodD2RQ Relational resources D2RQ M apping F ile
    37. 37. GeoTOD • Challenges: – Pragmatic interpretation of URI guidelines – Mapping UML geospatial conceptual models to RDF • GeoTOD demo: – http://tiger.dl.ac.uk:8080/geotodls • UML-to-RDF schema generator: – http://tiger.dl.ac.uk:8080/rdfsgenerator
    38. 38. Advanced Climate Research Infrastructure for Data (ACRID) [2010] https://www.uea.ac.uk/mac/ comm/media/press/2010/july/ climatedataproject •Project aims: – – – – Address Climategate concerns re publishing climate data Enable seamless link from research publication to data Include dataset provenance information Verify linked-data principles for this problem
    39. 39. Linked-data for ACRID
    40. 40. DOI and OAI-ORE •CrossRef DOIs (e.g. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.11 57784) are linked-data-enabled (as of April 2011) with conneg: – RDF/XML, TTL, ATOM •Open Archives Initiative Object Reuse and Exchange (OAI-ORE) – description and exchange of aggregations of Web resources – http://www.openarchives.org /ore/
    41. 41. ACRID – dataset workflows / provenance •Various choices – Open Provenance Model – Provenance Markup Language – ISO 19156 (Observations and Measurements) – Climate Science Modelling Language (CSML) •Adopted CSML – Observation measures a Property of a Feature-of-interest using a Procedure and generating a Result
    42. 42. Australian Climate Observations Reference Network – Surface Air Temperature (ACORN-SAT) [2012] •High-quality daily surface temperature (min/max) timeseries’ •112 stations •Over 100 years of records •Homogenised for – Site relocations – Instrument replacement – Local changes
    43. 43. ACORN-SAT • Project aims: – Establish the first Australian Government linked data under data.gov.au – Trial linked-data for large time-series observation dataset – Gain experience in applying linked data to information sharing in support of the National Plan for Environmental Information
    44. 44. Station history: e.g. Darwin 014016 014015 014040 014015
    45. 45. Semantic Sensor Network Ontology (W3C Incubator Group)
    46. 46. ACORN-SAT observations as a cube (W3C DataCube ontology)
    47. 47. Coupling SSN and Data Cube ontologies
    48. 48. Deployment *.txt
    49. 49. Querying: SPARQL PREFIX gn: <http://www.geonames.org/ontology#> PREFIX acorn-sat: <http://lab.environment.data.gov.au/def/acorn/sat/> SELECT ?station ?day ?month ?year ?temp WHERE { ?obs acorn-sat:maxTemperature ?temp; acorn-sat:timeSeries ?tseries; acorn-sat:day ?day; acorn-sat:month ?month; acorn-sat:year ?year. ?tseries gn:name ?station. FILTER (?temp > 50). } station day month year temp Forrest New record Jan 2013: Seven consecutive days over 45oC 13 01 1979 50.1 Oodnadatta 03 01 1960 50.3 Oodnadatta 02 01 1960 50.7 Albany 08 02 1933 51.2
    50. 50. Mashups
    51. 51. Mashups
    52. 52. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    53. 53. Australian Government Linked Data Working Group (AGLDWG) •Terms of reference – Develop technical guidelines and best practice on the use of ‘linked-data’ by AG agencies – Inform the development of data.gov.au as a platform for publishing Commonwealth PSI – Promote the benefits and encourage adoption of ‘linkeddata’ for publishing Commonwealth PSI – Where appropriate, undertake specific activities and coordinate projects in pursuit of these objectives AGLDWG meeting with Sir Tim Berners-Lee, 31 Jan 2013 (Canberra)
    54. 54. LD-enabling CKAN • CKAN used by a number of Government open data platforms (incl. UK, AU, US) • Could it be made more LD-friendly? – Add registry functionality (e.g. for simple term dictionaries) – Support namespace-forwarding (e.g. for proxying manyto-many agency-to-subdomain mappings) • UK Gov LD WG has a prototype already – https://github.com/der/ukl-registry-poc/wiki – http://www.slideshare.net/der42/ukgovld-registrywebinarv3
    55. 55. Outline • Drivers • Use case exemplars • SemWeb as enabler • A few projects • Next steps • Key lessons
    56. 56. 1. Believe in SemWeb 4 Gov! • Domain/agency-neutral data publishing mechanism • Encourages information points-of-truth • Assists ‘naturally’ with cross-agency data integration • BUT: – Need to demonstrate value (pilots, prototypes, etc.) – Agencies will have security concerns – Deployment behind government firewalls is difficult
    57. 57. 2. Address agency needs • Simple dictionary publishing would be a good start! – http://test.wmocodes.info/ • Create robust guidance on simple things – GeoRSS – schema.org – URI Rules – Vocabulary management – Effective use of CKAN
    58. 58. 3. Be pragmatic • At this stage of the adoption curve, more important to get something up than establishing complete semantics • Agency people mostly won’t like sitting through multi-day ontology workshops!
    59. 59. 4. Establish enabling infrastructure • May be difficult to deploy own triplestores • Encourage cloud solutions (public, government, research) e.g. NCI in Australia • Build SemWeb into collaborations around data.gov(.xxx), e.g. AGLDWG, Cross Jurisdictional Open Government Data Working Group
    60. 60. 5. ‘Geo’ as killer app for LD • Much government data is spatially-enabled • Huge value proposition in technology enabling linkage by location of: health, education, statistics, transport, environmental data, etc • Note geospatial semantics standards work – ISO 19150 (Geographic information – Ontology) – OGC GeoSPARQL
    61. 61. 6. Skill-up the ICT contractor pool • Government uses contractors • Need to build up a SemWeb ‘cottage industry’ – critical mass issue • Research partners are essential, but also need industry partners
    62. 62. 7. Engage with Gov • Chat to your local friendly Gov IT geeks • Be aware of stuff already happening – e.g. in environmental information sharing: WaterML, GeoSciML, GWML, INSPIRE
    63. 63. Thank you… Acknowledgements (again) to collaborators: Josh Bobruk, Robert Boczek, Karl Braganza, Sarah Callaghan, Shirley Crompton, Armin Haller, Colin Harpham, Mike Jackson, Bryan Lawrence, Laurent Lefort, Brian Matthews, Tim Osborn, Clinton Rakich, Will Rogers, Arif Shaon, Jeremy Tandy, Kerry Taylor, Blair Trewin Dr Andrew Woolf a.woolf@bom.gov.au
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