A collectivity where participants are little affected by the formal structure of official goals but who shares a common interest in the survival of the system and who engage in collective activities to secure this end.
Usually seen as an agreement among individuals in an organization
Hospitals have developed a regional cooperating systems (departments) in which there are agreements of cooperation between facilities and each components agrees to focus service in certain ways that will promote the system and allow the easy flow of the patients between facilities
School Systems Practices<br />
School systems have always been an attractive setting for physical therapist who specializes in pediatric care; because it is a setting which child can be observed and treated in a natural environment.
In the US, Physical therapist have become an integral part of the public school team to plan an appropriate educational plan for each handicapped child
StagesDevelopmental PhaseTrust vs. MistrustInfancyInitiative vs. GuiltEarly childhoodAutonomy vs. ShameEarly childhoodIndustry vs. InferiorityChildhood and adolescenceIdentity vs. ConfusionAdolescenceIntimacy vs. IsolationYoung adulthoodGenerativity vs. StagnationAdulthood and middle ageIntegrity vs. DespairOld age
Employers thinks that workers are basically lazy, unmotivated to work; seek security and needs closer supervision in order to accomplish task. These represent the THEORY X.
Employers should change these perception of workers to be more in line with maximizing the workers human potentials which means that employees should be the opposite of Theory X. These represent the THEORY Y.
Recruitment and Retention<br />
Recruitment and retention of physical therapist is one of the major problems facing mangers in the hospital settings therefore several programs have been instituted in hospital PT programs to enhance motivation and remain in this setting.
Shortage in PT had caused starting salaries to increase dramatically. At the same time that compensation of salaries for more experienced PT is leading to low morale.
In these systems target productivity levels within a set of quality a guidelines are established and the individual workers are paid predetermined variable amounts of money for achieving specific targets.
This is the most easily administered and he most common incentive program