Codon Sequences of three nucleotides DNAsequence chromatogram. 3 of the bases equal one codon.
ElongationA cycle in which the polypeptide is elongated by 1 amino acid per cycle. Elongation adds 1 amino acid
Exon Exonsare the DNA bases that are transcribed into mRNA and Exonsare the eventually code for bases being amino acids in the copied proteins
Frame Shift Mutationa genetic mutation caused by indels (insertions or deletions) of a number of nucleotides that is not evenly divisible by three from a DNA sequence Sickle cell anemia is caused by a frame shift mutation
Helicase Theyare motor proteins that move directionally along a nucleic acid phosphodiester backbone, separat ing two nucleic acid strands Does this count…
Initiation Initiation involves the small subunit of the ribosome binding to the 5 end of mRNA with the help of initiation factors (IF). Initiator proteins break the bonds between the base pairs
Intron Long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information Sequence of human T intron 7 DNA
Ligase an enzyme that can catalyse the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond DNA “glue”
Missense Mutationa point mutation in which a single nucleotide is changed, resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino this can render the resulting acid[ protein nonfunctional. Such mutations are responsible for diseases such as Epidermolysis bullosa
mRNA a molecule of RNA that encodes a chemical "blueprint" for a protein product. mRNA is transcribed from a DNA template, and carries coding information to the sites of protein synthesis RNA Protein Synthesis Model
Mutagens is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic material, usually DNA, of an organism and thus increases the frequency of mutations above the The Teenage natural background level. Mutant Ninja Turtles were mutated by a mutagen
Nonsense Mutation pointmutation in a sequence of DNA that results in a premature stop codon Sickle cell anemia is caused by a nonsense mutation
Nuclease anenzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between the nucleotide The enzyme DNA subunits of nucleic nuclease checks acids all the pairs in the DNA chain for any mistakes
Point Mutationa type of mutation that causes the replacement of a single base nucleotide with another nucleotide of the genetic material,
Polymerases primary function of a polymerase is the polymerization of new DNA or RNA against an existing DNA or RNA template in the processes of replication and RNA Polymerase transcription.
Polyribosomesa cluster of ribosomes linked together by a molecule of messenger RNA and forming the site of protein synthesis
Primary Transcript an RNA molecule that has not yet undergone any modification after its synthesis
Primase anenzyme involved in the replication of DNA
Promotora region of DNA that facilitates the transcription of a particular gene
Redundancy(in DNA) DNAthat contains repeated sequences at each end called terminal repeats
Replication biologicalprocess that occurs in all living organisms and copies their DNA
Semiconservative model themechanism by which DNA is replicated in all known cells.
Spliceosomea complex of snRNA and protein subunits that removes introns from a transcribed pre-mRNA (hnRNA) segment
TATA Box isa DNA sequence that indicates the point at which a genetic sequence can be read and decoded.
Telomerasea ribonucleoprotein that is an enzyme which adds DNA sequence repeats
Termination Eukaryotes initiate DNA replication at multiple points in the chromosome, so replication forks meet and terminate at many points in the chromosome
Terminator sectionof genetic sequence that marks the end of gene or operon on genomic DNA for transcription.
Transcription Transcription is the process of creating a complementary RNA copy of a sequence of DNA
Transcription Factors is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereb y controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA
Translation the cell uses messenger RNA to produce proteins
Translocation Chromosomal translocation, that is a chromosomal segment is moved from one position to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome.
Transformation the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake, incorporatio n and expression of exogenous genetic material (exogenous DNA) from its surroundings and taken up through the cell membrane
tRNA an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 73 to 93 nucleotides in length, that is used in biology to bridge the four-letter genetic code (ATCG) in messenger RNA
Wobblea non-Watson- Crick base pairing between two nucleotides in RNA molecules