AP Biology


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AP Biology

  1. 1. AP Biology Summer Assignment By: Andrew Shaw
  2. 2. Amniotic Egg <ul><li>Eggs which contain a yolk to nourish the developing organism. Amniotic eggs protect the developing organism, as well as aid in gas and energy exchange. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Annelid <ul><li>The annelids are a large phylum of segmented worms, with over 17,000 modern species including ragworms, earthworms and leeches. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Commensalism <ul><li>commensalism is a class of relationship between two organisms where one organism benefits but the other is unaffected. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Connective Tissue <ul><li>Connective tissue makes up a variety of physical structures including, tendons, blood, cartilage, bone, adipose tissue, and lymphatic tissue. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Detrivore <ul><li>Detritivores are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming decomposing organic matter. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Dicot <ul><li>The dicotyledons, also known as dicots, are a group of flowering plants whose seed typically has two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Echinoderm <ul><li>Echinoderms are a phylum of marine animals. Echinoderms are found at every ocean depth, from the intertidal zone to the abyssal zone. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Lichen <ul><li>Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic association of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Frond <ul><li>The term frond refers to a large, divided leaf. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Bryophyte <ul><li>Bryophyte is a traditional name used to refer to all land plants that do not have true vascular tissue and are therefore called 'non-vascular plants'. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Endoskeleton <ul><li>An endoskeleton is an internal support structure of an animal, composed of mineralized tissue. Endoskeleton develops within the skin or in the deeper body tissues. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Cuticle of a Plant <ul><li>A cuticle is a term used for any of a variety of tough but flexible, non-mineral outer coverings of an organism, or parts of an organism, that provide protection. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 3 Chambered Heart <ul><li>The three chambered amphibian heart consists of the right and left atria and a single ventricle. In the amphibian heart, oxygenated and deoxygenated blood are kept somewhat separate, largely as a result of the timing of the contractions of the left and right atria. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ectotherm <ul><li>An ectotherm refers to organisms that control body temperature through external means. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Eukaryote <ul><li>A eukaryote is an organism whose cells contain complex structures enclosed within membranes. The defining membrane-bound structure that sets eukaryotic cells apart from prokaryotic cells is the nucleus, or nuclear envelope, within which the genetic material is carried </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parasitism <ul><li>Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Pollinator <ul><li>A pollinator is the biotic agent (vector) that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Spore <ul><li>A spore is a reproductive structure that is adapted for dispersal and surviving for extended periods of time in unfavorable conditions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Xylem <ul><li>Xylem is one of the two types of transport tissue in vascular plants. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Tropism <ul><li>A tropism is a biological phenomenon, indicating growth or turning movement of a biological organism, usually a plant, in response to an environmental stimulus. </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Sporophyte </li></ul><ul><li>Sporophyte, the generation of a plant or algae that has a double set of chromosomes. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Bilateral symmetry <ul><li>In bilateral symmetry (also called plane symmetry), only one plane, called the sagittal plane, will divide an organism into roughly mirror image halves </li></ul>
  24. 24. Radial Symmetry <ul><li>When several cutting planes produce roughly identical pieces. An organism with radial symmetry exhibits no left or right sides. They have a top and a bottom (dorsal and ventral surface) only. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Porifera <ul><li>Sponges are animals of the phylum Porifera. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nematode <ul><li>The nematodes or roundworms are the most diverse phylum and one of the most diverse of all animals. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Seed Dispersal <ul><li>Seed dispersal is the movement or transport of seeds away from the parent plant. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Vestigiality describes homologous characters of organisms that have seemingly lost all or most of their original function in a species through evolution. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Territorial Behavior <ul><li>The methods by which an animal, or group of animals, protects its territory from incursions by others of its species. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Mycelium <ul><li>Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a mass of branching, thread-like hyphae. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Mullerian Mimicry <ul><li>Müllerian mimicry is a natural phenomenon when two or more harmful species, that may or may not be closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Keystone Species <ul><li>A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionate effect on its environment relative to its biomass. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Hydrophobic <ul><li>In chemistry, hydrophobicity is the physical property of a molecule that is repelled from a mass of water. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Gymnosperm <ul><li>The gymnosperms are a group of seed-bearing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and Gnetales. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Epithelial Tissue <ul><li>Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Endosperm <ul><li>Endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most flowering plants around the time of fertilization. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Batesian Mimicry <ul><li>Batesian mimicry is a form of mimicry typified by a situation where a harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species directed at a common predator. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Asexual Reproduction <ul><li>Asexual reproduction is a mode of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single parent, and inherit the genes of that parent only, it is reproduction which does not involve meiosis, ploidy reduction, or fertilization. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Anther and Filament <ul><li>Anther: Contain pollen sacs.
  40. 40. Filament: The stalk of the Anther. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Angiosperm <ul><li>The flowering plants (angiosperms), also known as Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Analogous Structures <ul><li>An analogy is a trait or an organ that appears similar in two unrelated organisms. </li></ul>
  43. 43. Stigma and Style of a Carpel <ul><li>the female reproductive organ of flowering plants, consisting of an ovary, style (sometimes absent), and stigma. The carpels are separate or fused to form a single pistil. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Rhizome <ul><li>In botany and dendrology, a rhizome is a characteristically horizontal stem of a plant that is usually found underground, often sending out roots and shoots from its nodes. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Predation <ul><li>In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey (the organism that is attacked). </li></ul>
  46. 46. Platyhelminthes <ul><li>The flatworms, known in scientific literature as Platyhelminthes are a phylum of relatively simple bilaterian, unsegmented, soft-bodied invertebrate animals. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Coevolution <ul><li>In biology, coevolution is the change of a biological object triggered by the change of a related object. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Altruistic Behavior <ul><li>Altruism is a well-documented animal behaviour, which appears most obviously in kin relationships but may also be evident amongst wider social groups, in which an animal sacrifices its own well-being for the benefit of another animal. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Kinesis <ul><li>Kinesis is a movement or activity of a cell or an organism in response to a stimulus. </li></ul>Woodlice are decreasingly active as humidity increases.
  50. 50. Autotroph <ul><li>An autotroph is an organism that produces complex organic compounds (such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) from simple inorganic molecules using energy from light (by photosynthesis) or inorganic chemical reactions </li></ul>
  51. 51. Monocot <ul><li>Monocotyledons, also known as monocots, are one of two major groups of flowering plants that are traditionally recognized, the other being dicots. Monocot seedlings typically have one cotyledon, in contrast to the two cotyledons typical of dicots. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Deuterostome <ul><li>Deuterostomes are a superphylum of animals. They are a subtaxon of the Bilateria branch of the subregnum Eumetazoa, and are opposed to the protostomes. </li></ul>