Food Additives and Child Hyperactivity To investigate whether food additives are attributed to hyperactivity in children. ...
Hypothesis  – food additives have an effect on hyperactivity on children Null Hypothesis  – food additives do not have an ...
Participants and Recruitment <ul><li>Recruiting: </li></ul><ul><li>Letters will pass through schools in London and Newcast...
Test Groups: The investigation consists of 4 experimental groups: 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Group 1a (3-5 years)  All 40 children...
The independent variable (IV) of the experiment is the food additive administered within the drink.  Food additives: Orang...
Procedure – Time Plan Test is to be conducted in August, when all children are on school holidays. This helps with assessm...
Data Log <ul><li>Parental Survey – data collection method 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The Parent or Guardian will be given a separ...
Data Analysis <ul><li>T-Test – to determine statistical difference to tell us whether there is a significant behaviour dis...
Ethics and Controls <ul><li>When conducting the experiment; various ethical  controversies  as well as inability to contro...
Disclaimer <ul><li>We cannot  control all aspects of the children's life; different children possess different characteris...
References <ul><li>Bender, A. E and Bender, D. A. (2007).  Food tables and Labelling . Oxford: Oxford University press. </...
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Food Additives And Child Hyperactivity

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Food Additives And Child Hyperactivity

  1. 1. Food Additives and Child Hyperactivity To investigate whether food additives are attributed to hyperactivity in children. By Olivia Anderson, Emily Williams, Gabi Roberts, Anne-Marie Bevan, Laura Sands, Melanie Tracey & Katrina Sohrabian U14623 3 rd of November 2008
  2. 2. Hypothesis – food additives have an effect on hyperactivity on children Null Hypothesis – food additives do not have an effect on hyperactivity on children Working Theory Experimental Style The experimental design style we chose to use is: Single blind study - This is specifically used to prevent research outcomes from being influenced and skewed by the end result.
  3. 3. Participants and Recruitment <ul><li>Recruiting: </li></ul><ul><li>Letters will pass through schools in London and Newcastle; from us via teachers to parents and guardians of the children </li></ul><ul><li>Only parents and guardians who express an interest will be contacted </li></ul><ul><li>Children will only be considered when parents sign consent forms concerning the experiment – with regards to contents of additives and a health screening process. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: </li></ul><ul><li>Two age ranges: 3-5years and 8-10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 160 subjects – consisting of 4 groups of 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Two areas of the country being tested: London and Newcastle </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity is not a factor in this experiment </li></ul><ul><li>The same children are used to produce comparable results </li></ul><ul><li>All children will take a computer test before they participate in this experiment, answering 10 short questions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Test Groups: The investigation consists of 4 experimental groups: 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Group 1a (3-5 years) All 40 children have a history of hyperactivity, but are healthy without any other medical condition (not on any medication, or do not have any special needs). 10 boys, 10 girls from a London area . 5 boys and 5 girls = lower socio-economic group CDE. 5 boys and 5 girls = higher socio-economic group ABC. 10 boys, 10 girls from Newcastle area . 5 boys and 5 girls = lower socio-economic group CDE. 5 boys and 5 girls = higher socio-economic group ABC. Group 1b (8-10 years) Same as group 1a but with children aged 8 to 10 years, sample size = 40 Group 2a( Age: 3-5yrs) All 40 children have no history of hyperactivity, but are healthy without any other medical condition (not on any medication, or have any special needs). 10 boys, 10 girls from London area . 5 boys and 5 girls = lower socio-economic group CDE. 5 boys and 5 girls = higher socio-economic group ABC. 10 boys, 10 girls from Newcastle area . 5 boys and 5 girls = lower socio-economic group CDE. 5 boys and 5 girls = higher socio-economic group ABC.   Group 2b (8-10 years) same as group 2a, but using children aged 8-10 years old. Each experimental group consists of 40 individuals thus, the total sample size is 160 children. Additive Experiment
  5. 5. The independent variable (IV) of the experiment is the food additive administered within the drink. Food additives: Orange = Tartrazine E102, Sunset yellow E110, Quinoline yellow E104 Blue =Indigo Carmine E132 (Synthetic ‘coal tar’ dye).   The four products for testing : Test product A1 - Orange coloured fruit flavoured drink. Which contains only these isolated food colourings: Tartrazine E102, Sunset yellow E110, Quinoline yellow E104. Test product A2 – Orange coloured fruit flavoured drink without the food additives. (placebo). Test product B1 - Blue coloured fruit flavoured drink. Which contains only these isolated food colourings. Test product B2 – Blue coloured fruit flavoured drink without the food additives. (placebo). Drinks have been chosen as they are easy to administer, and acceptable to give to young children as part of their everyday routine. Products A2 and B2 are placebo. Variables
  6. 6. Procedure – Time Plan Test is to be conducted in August, when all children are on school holidays. This helps with assessment precision, as it would be more difficult to control whilst children were at school. Process for administering the test products - timing of experiment. Week - 1. Orange test product A1. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 2. Orange test product A1. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 3. Orange test product A2. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 4. Orange test product A2. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 5. Break from test. Week - 6. Break from test. Week - 7. Blue test product B1. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 8. Blue test product B1. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 9. Blue test product B2. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Week - 10. Blue test product B2. Given to groups 1a, 1b, 2a and 2b. Experiment duration: 10 weeks. One 250ml drink will be given to each child at 9am, 1pm and 5pm as this accords with typical meal times for children. The additives in this experiment have been selected because they are renowned for causing hyperactivity in children. Hyperactivity behaviour is defined as interrupting, fiddling, temper tantrums, and lack of concentration.
  7. 7. Data Log <ul><li>Parental Survey – data collection method 1 </li></ul><ul><li>The Parent or Guardian will be given a separate log for their child that they will fill in 3 times a day, an hour after each drink is administered. </li></ul><ul><li>Below is the table in which the data is logged for the averages of each testing group. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Test - Data collection method 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of 10 simple questions to directly measure the concentration and behaviour levels of the children. </li></ul><ul><li>The test will be taken on computers provided by the investigators </li></ul><ul><li>Will be taken one hour after each designated drink has been consumed by the child </li></ul><ul><li>The investigators will score the child concentration and behaviour levels accordingly. </li></ul>Drink Week Time Group 1A Group 1B Group 2A Group 2B Orange Drink A1 1 9am 1pm 5pm Orange Drink A1 2 “ Orange Drink A2 3 “ Orange Drink A2 4 “ BREAK 5 “ BREAK 6 “ Blue Drink B1 7 “ Blue Drink B1 8 “ Blue Drink B2 9 “ Blue Drink B2 10 “
  8. 8. Data Analysis <ul><li>T-Test – to determine statistical difference to tell us whether there is a significant behaviour distinction between behaviour with placebo versus additive. We are using a T-test in this experiment as it is an appropriate method to assess whether the means of two groups are statistically different to each other. It is a reliable procedure in this case as it allows us to analyse the difference in the results obtained from our experiment. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ethics and Controls <ul><li>When conducting the experiment; various ethical controversies as well as inability to control certain aspects of the experiment, must be considered. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical considerations: </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality is a large issue when using children as the subjects within an experiment; therefore all precautions must be taken to provide confidentiality for the children. </li></ul><ul><li>Parental consent MUST be given in writing to ensure that they understand what their child is participating in. </li></ul><ul><li>No pressure must be put on child or parent to participate within the experiment, consequently only individuals which respond to the letter will be accepted. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure a safe level of additive is added to the drink so that child is at no health risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Health screening should occur before the child participates in the experiment, this will ensure that the child has no allergies or health problems that could interfere with the experiment or put them at risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Controls: </li></ul><ul><li>Diet MUST not be changed over the 10 week period – follow diet plan </li></ul><ul><li>Same amount of additives distributed in each drink </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo and other drinks must look and taste the same </li></ul><ul><li>Within the 250ml the same quantity of additives will be added to the drinks and given to the children. The amount has not been increased for the older children because we want to ensure comparable results. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Disclaimer <ul><li>We cannot control all aspects of the children's life; different children possess different characteristics and habits. For instance: </li></ul><ul><li>Different bodily metabolism rates </li></ul><ul><li>Different sleep amounts and patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Amount of physical activity differs </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional events </li></ul>
  11. 11. References <ul><li>Bender, A. E and Bender, D. A. (2007). Food tables and Labelling . Oxford: Oxford University press. </li></ul><ul><li>Hanssen, M. (1987). E for Additives. London: Thorsons. </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkup, L. (1994). Experimental Methods: An introduction to the analysis and presentation of data. Milton: John Wiley and Sons. </li></ul><ul><li>Wood, W. G. And Martin, D. G. (1974). Experimental Method. London: The Athlon Press University of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Research Method Knowledge Base., ‘The T-Test’., 2006., Retrieved online on 24 th October 2008 from: http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/stat_t.php </li></ul>

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