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IPD is a project delivery approach that integrates people, systems, business structures and practices into a process that collaboratively harnesses the talents and insights of all participants to optimize project results, increase value to the owner, reduce waste and maximize efficiency through all phases of design, fabrication and construction.
IPD principles can be applied to a variety of contractual arrangements and IPD teams will usually include members well beyond the basic triad of owner, architect, and contractor. At a minimum, though, an integrated project includes highly effective collaboration between the owner, the architect, and the general contractor ultimately responsible for construction of the project, from early design through project handover.
Integration Predesign Schematic Design Design Development Construction Documents Agency Permit / Bidding Construction Closeout WHO REALIZE HOW WHAT Traditional WHAT WHO HOW Agency Owner Architect Engineers GC Subs Conceptual-ization Criteria Design Detailed Design Implementation Documents Agency Coord / Final Buyout Construction Closeout REALIZE
Define the processes, structure and metrics up front!
“ When you look at other industries where an entity has control of the design, the fabrication, the financing, the marketing of a product like the airline industry or like Apple-look what they’ve done as a computer company, versus other PC type companies”
Extraordinary results from Collaboration AND Integration
“…… do what you know ….even if it costs more because it protects you…why on earth did you do that….because we’ve been sued five years ago for not doing it…so now we do it on every project whether it makes sense or not…”
Value Proposition of Collaboration From the Construction Industry Institute – UT Austin
Total Project Cost – 10% Reduction
Construction Administration – 24% Reduction
Engineering - $10/hr Reduction
Value Engineering – 337% increase
Profitability – 25% increase
Number of claims – 83% Reduction
Projects with claims – 68% Reduction
Different – Disciplines Vs. Business Models Project Entity Virtual Oganization C C C C Owner Designer Constructor Project D D D D C C C C Owner Designer Constructor Project D D D D
Systems Benchmarking - Informing a budget BUILDING SYSTEMS COST DATA / COST RANGES $/SF COMMENTS Type 1 Type 2 Fire Protection 15/sf to 21/sf 4/sf to 8/sf Increased density of rooms and full height walls drive up number of heads. Seismic bracing requirements. Mechanical 125/sf to 175/sf 30/sf to 60/sf Increased number of zones because of patient care requirements. Increased air changes drives larger HVAC units, increased filtering & controls. Stricter exiting and occupancy requirements increase fire smoke dampers quantity and ductwork routing. Plumbing 70/sf to 90/sf 10/sf to 18/sf Certified med gas system is required through out the hospital. Hospitals have 1 fixture per 350sf vs 1 fixture per 1500sf for an office Electrical 125/sf to 150/sf 30/sf to 45/sf Electrical power system separated into 3 systems, normal, emergency & equipment this triples the distribution cost. IT cabling requirements increased to support patient information requirements. Increased number of electrical system make coordination and installation more difficult. b
Project stakeholders (the designer and constructor) input is most valuable when the budget is least defined
We need to be more pro-active in defining and shaping the budget instead of reacting to it.
The Wisdom of Crowds – 1+1+1 = 10
Open Book - Supports continuous confirmation Spend as little as possible The project can not go like the last one Were going to shop this around I want this to be my gift to the city Let’s invest in doing things once and right We want no one else to be able to do this
Stanford’s Center of Integrated Facilities Engineering (CIFE) Integrated Concurrent Engineering (ICE)
Organizational Hierarchy - Success Targe t - Flat : One facilitator, no managers; culture of working with minimal management supervision
Topology of Stakeholder Social Network - Success Targe t - Pooled : - Collocation; Projection screens; sidebar culture
Design subtask duration - Success Targe t - Less than 10 minutes - Careful activity decomposition into subtasks, training of designers, and design of appropriately supportive software design and analysis applications
Lessons Learned for IPD – A personal perspective
How do we change?
Preparation for an IPD project
Modeling first / Documenting second
Remember that: Integrated Project Delivery is optimized by: