Future of ICT


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A lecture for UTAS students in EPC353

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  • 07-10-10
  • 07-10-10 The prescribed text links related to this lecture are Moursund chpt 9 and Finger et al chapter 8 As we go through this lecture please consider these 2 questions The image shows the steps involved in teaching with ICT –namely content, pedagogy and technology (hence we need skills in all 3 areas)
  • 07-10-10 This lecture is more a brief reflection on what has occurred, is currently occurring and may be possible
  • 07-10-10 Enigma machine and Colossus code breaker. Modern computing can probably be traced back to the 'Harvard Mk I' and Colossus (both of 1943). Colossus was an electronic computer built in Britain at the end 1943 and designed to crack the German coding system - Lorenz cipher (or Enigma code). The 'Harvard Mk I' was a more general purpose electro-mechanical programmable computer built at Harvard University with backing from IBM. These computers were among the first of the 'first generation' computers. First generation computers were normally based around wired circuits containing vacuum valves and used punched cards as the main (non-volatile) storage medium. Another general purpose computer of this era was 'ENIAC' (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) which was completed in 1946. It was typical of first generation computers, it weighed 30 tonnes contained 18,000 electronic valves and consumed around 25KW of electrical power. It was, however, capable of an amazing 100,000 calculations a second. The next major step in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor in 1947. This replaced the inefficient valves with a much smaller and more reliable component. Transistorised computers are normally referred to as 'Second Generation' and dominated the late 1950s and early 1960s. Despite using transistors and printed circuits these computers were still bulky and strictly the domain of Universities and governments. On November 15th, 1971, Intel released the world's first commercial microprocessor, the 4004. Fourth generation computers were developed, using a microprocessor to locate much of the computer's processing abilities on a single (small) chip. Coupled with one of Intel's inventions - the RAM chip (Kilobits of memory on a single chip) - the microprocessor allowed fourth generation computers to be even smaller and faster than ever before. The 4004 was only capable of 60,000 instructions per second, but later processors (such as the 8086 that all of Intel's processors for the IBM PC and compatibles is based) brought ever increasing speed and power to the computers. Supercomputers of the era were immensely powerful, like the Cray-1 which could calculate 150 million floating point operations per second. The microprocessor allowed the development of microcomputers, personal computers that were small and cheap enough to be available to ordinary people. The first such personal computer was the MITS Altair 8800, released at the end of 1974, but it was followed by computers such as the Apple I & II, Commodore PET and eventually the original IBM PC in 1981. The internet's history can be traced back to ARPANET - which was started by the US Dept. of Defense for research into networking sometime in 1969.
  • The trend has continued for more than half a century and is not expected to stop until 2015 or later. [2] The capabilities of many digital electronic devices are strongly linked to Moore's law: processing speed , memory capacity , sensors and even the number and size of pixels in digital cameras . [3] All of these are improving at (roughly) exponential rates as well. [4] This has dramatically increased the usefulness of digital electronics in nearly every segment of the world economy. [5] [6] Moore's law precisely describes a driving force of technological and social change in the late 20th and early 21st centuries. The law is named after Intel co-founder Gordon E. Moore , who described the trend in his 1965 paper. [7] [8] [9] The paper noted that number of components in integrated circuits had doubled every year from the invention of the integrated circuit in 1958 until 1965 and predicted that the trend would continue "for at least ten years". [10] His prediction has proved to be uncannily accurate, in part because the law is now used in the semiconductor industry to guide long-term planning and to set targets for research and development . [11] This fact would support an alternative view that the "law" unfolds as a self-fulfilling prophecy , where the goal set by the prediction charts the course for realized capability. 07-10-10
  • Moore’s Law and technical developments so far indicate ICT is likely to keep changing in the future. Colossus would now run on a pocket calculator… Weather predictions for state governments in 1998 can be done on a standard desktop computer of 2005 Laptops/netbooks now have the processing power of a similar computer Smartphones (iphones, Android smartphones) have almost the same processing power as well. Inference: computer COST and SIZE keep shrinking. What kinds of changes do we predict will occur in educational use of ICT? Discussion for 10 minutes. 07-10-10
  • 07-10-10 The Internet today has over 1.5 Billion users (remember only around 6.5 Billion in the world) and from 2000-2008 its growth was around 291% ICT use in schools can be thought of In Education ICT is used for: Learning to know Learning to do Learning to live together Learning to be Learning to live together Learning to be
  • 07-10-10 Technology can help us develop, deliver and assess the curriculum Technology can also enable students to become more engaged in the teaching and learning process
  • Personalised learning The use of virtual learning environments (or LCMSs) makes it possible for a teacher to supervise 25 different lessons in the same classroom. De-schooling or separation of socialisation and education Schooling is often dependent upon behaviour management. Education suffers where behaviour is unruly. ICT offers the chance to undertake education at home – and socialisation could become the focus of gatherings in a shared space (school) under supervision. Knowledge replaced by capability If you don’t know it, you Google it. Knowledge will become less valuable – personal capability to achieve will become more useful. Higher order thinking The Calculus in Year 6/7 project shows children using computers (some as young as 10 years) can achieve at a first year engineering undergraduate level. 07-10-10
  • Access to infrastructure 50% of DoE teachers in 2005 said ICT equipment in schools was unreliable. Tasmanian schools are not following NSW or Uruguay in making a netbook available to every student (at home and at school). With such low availability, IT remains a ‘disruptive technology’ because teachers are having to implement rosters to ensure fair shares of limited resources. NAPLAN and the ACARA national curriculum Whilst trials of national ICT literacy have been conducted, they are not yet compulsory throughout Australia. Tests of literacy and numeracy however are required every 2 years. Much of these tests would be trivial or have substantially different emphases if candidates could use computers. According to the draft national curriculum, ICT is to be integrated into every subject. But this is using ICT very poorly for functions which are not exemplary or even where it is counterproductive. Teacher’s opinions Pre-service teachers rarely see good examples of ICT use in classrooms, and as a cusp generation, are unlikely to have experienced this themselves. I have been approached by a student going into a classroom with high levels of ICT use for advice. How was she to cope with preparing lessons on the web? For a classroom where pupils used computers ALL THE TIME? This can be a highly apprehensive situation. 07-10-10
  • 07-10-10 Remember that the future is not yet written – so we all have a duty of care to shape the best possible futures that we can As teachers we do this by knowing what we teach (content), knowing how to teach it (pedagogy) and knowing how best to use the tool that are at our disposal (technology)
  • Future of ICT

    1. 1. The ‘Future’ of ICT … if we only dare to imagine…
    2. 2. Links <ul><li>Moursund chapter 9 </li></ul><ul><li>Finger et al. chapter 8 </li></ul><ul><li>Questions to ponder.. </li></ul><ul><li>How can teachers ensure that we have a say in the shaping of the future? </li></ul><ul><li>How can understanding the history of ICT development influence our future use of ICT in schools? </li></ul>
    3. 3. ICT then… now… & the what if’s
    4. 4. A brief history of ICT Quite a trip!
    5. 5. Moore’s Law <ul><li>The number of transistors that can be placed inexpensively on an integrated circuit doubles approximately every two years </li></ul>
    6. 6. Think… <ul><li>Colossus (cracked Enigma code and won WW2) </li></ul><ul><li>Cray supercomputers for weather forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Laptops/netbooks </li></ul><ul><li>SmartPhones </li></ul><ul><li>What next ……..?? </li></ul>
    7. 7. ICT use in education today <ul><li>ICT has the potential to transform education through innovative learning teaching and assessment situations </li></ul><ul><li>learning occurs in complex, highly active situations ….. </li></ul><ul><li>GOAL: pupils required to solve complex and challenging problems through reflections and interaction with higher-level cognitive learning </li></ul>
    8. 8. Making a difference with technology for learning Technology for learning helps to raise standards Technology helps to improve attendance Technology supports personalisation Technology improves efficiency and reduces administrative burden The results of e-mature schools improve faster than those of other schools School e-maturity correlates with lower absence rates Greater curriculum choice Enhanced inclusion Continuity of learning Streamline administrative tasks Integrated e-registration systems Digital resources Making a difference with technology for learning: evidence for school leaders. Becta 2006
    9. 9. Opportunities and Challenges
    10. 10. Opportunities <ul><li>Personalised learning </li></ul><ul><li>De-schooling or separation of socialisation and education </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge replaced by capability </li></ul><ul><li>Higher order thinking </li></ul>
    11. 11. Challenges <ul><li>Access to infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>NAPLAN and the ACARA national curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher’s opinions </li></ul>
    12. 12. The way forward <ul><li>Know your content </li></ul><ul><li>Know your pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to use the technology tool </li></ul>