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Canada did not fight a war for independence. British and French Canadians feared U.S invasion which helped submerge ethnic differences.
War of 1812 U.S declared war on Britain, British Colonies in Canada repelled U.S incursions, giving a great sense of pride to Canada. After the war, Canada experienced an era of rapid growth.
John A. Macdonald (1815-1891) moved to incorporate all of British North America into the Canadian Dominion and created the Continental Railroad in 1885. This facilitated communication and transportation throughout Canada and helped it expand.
In the form of division, rebellion, caudillo rule, and civil war, instability and conflict plagued Latin America throughout the nineteenth century. Most Latin American people lacked education, employment, and political representation.
The Mexican revolution (1911-1920), a bitter and bloody conflict, broke out when middle-class Mexicans joined with peasants and workers to over throw the powerful dictator Porfirio Diaz. Although they did not win the battle, the Mexican Constitution of 1917 addressed the concerns of the revolutionaries and actions were taken to adhere to the problems.
The Little Ice Age was a period between the 14 th and 19 th century of cooling that occurred after the Medieval Warm Period (900 - 1400A.D)
The Little Ice Age exposed all of societies weaknesses, killing crops and washing away farmlands with cold weather and intense long lasting rain.
Killed millions of people worldwide from starvation, spreading of diseases, hysteria, and extreme weather.
Let to the production of Beer and hard liquor, and the prestigious Stradivarius Violin.
There is no definite explanation as to why the Little Ice Age ended, Some believe it is a cycle and is created by the ocean and its conveyer slowdown. Some believe it has to do with heightened volcanic activity in which ashes reach up into the atmosphere and blocks out sun radiation. Some believe in orbital cycles, the way the Earth revolves around the sun, that we are constantly cooling down over the centuries.
The Frozen Thames, 1677 Norse Ruins, Greenlanders 1408
Frontiers of the Americas
The Louisiana Purchase, on April 30 th , 1803 the 17 States that made up the U.S nearly doubled its size adding 828,000 Square Miles overnight. At a price of $15 Million. (About 4 cents per acre)
The U.S purchased the land from France’s Louisiana Territory under President Thomas Jefferson.
The city of New Orleans controlled the Mississippi River through its location; other locations for ports had been tried and had not succeeded. New Orleans was already important for shipping agricultural goods to and from the parts of the United States west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Jefferson decided to purchase Louisiana because he felt uneasy about France and Spain having the power to block American trade access to the port of New Orleans. With the purchase, America secured a route directly to New Orleans.
The Louisiana Purchase helped lead America toward its expansion by expanding its territories. This gave farmers room to farm and the country room to grow.
Louisiana Purchase (Green) Thomas Jefferson
Frontiers of the Americas
Prince Alexander Philipp Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied (September 23, 1782 - February 3, 1867) was a German explorer, ethnologist and naturalist. He took along Karl Bodmer (6 February 1809 – 30 October 1893) who was a Swiss painter of the American West, went on a Missouri River expedition from 1832 through 1834.
Bodmer’s work is important because these types of paintings show today’s people glimpses of the past to have some pride and dignity about themselves and their ancestors. His work gives us a profoundly moving yet highly accurate view of the American Frontier of the 1830’s.
The frontier in Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina was a violence based environment. Men would fight with knives to gain respect, prove a point, or simply because someone insulted them.
Violence and fighting was more than proving a point, it was a way of life.
Crossroads of Freedom
The Mexican-American War was an armed conflict between the United States and Mexico from 1846 to 1848 quickly following the annexation of Texas. The Mexican government had long warned the United States that annexation would mean war and when Texas joined the U.S. as a state in 1845, the Mexican government broke diplomatic relations with the U.S.
America won the war by capturing Mexico City which forced Mexico to agree to the sale of its northern territories to the U.S.
The major consequence of the war was the forced territories of Alta California and New Mexico to the U.S. in exchange for $18 million and in addition, the United States forgave debt owed by the Mexican government to U.S.
The Mexican Cession of 1848 is a historical name in the United States for the region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in 1848.
The United States of America had taken actual control of the Mexican territories and Mexico acknowledged the loss of Texas, New Mexico, and California in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Mexican Cession), which was signed on February 2, 1848, ratified by the U.S. Senate on March 10, 1848, and by the Mexican government on May 19, 1848.
American occupation of Mexico City Green – Mexican Cession Red – Texas territory
Crossroads of Freedom
The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a civil war fought between eleven southern slave states who wanted to be independent from the United States (the confederacy), and twenty northern slave free states along with five slave states on the boarder (the union).
In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal.
After four years of bloody fighting mostly done in the southern states, the confederacy surrendered and slavery was abolished and outlawed across the entire nation.
The main theme of this war was to end slavery. Cotton was a mega cash crop in the south where slavery was active. President Abraham Lincoln set out to stop slavery, and in the end, one way or another, succeeded. This also strengthened the role of the Federal Government in the United States.
Blue + Yellow – Union States Red – Confederate States Black - Territories
Crossroads of Freedom
The Haitian Revolution (1791–1804) was a period of conflict in the French colony of Saint-Domingue, which led to the elimination of slavery there and the founding of the Haitian republic.
The Haitian Revolution is the single most recognizable rebellion and is known as one of the most defining moments in the history of Africans in the New World.
Haiti was the first independent nation in Latin America, the first post-colonial independent black-led nation in the world, and the only nation whose independence was gained as part of a successful slave rebellion.
This revolution was influential in the slave rebellions in the U.S and Great Britain. It struck fear in the U.S Government that the revolt in Haiti would inspire similar revolts in the U.S.
This fear resulted in a growing conservatism in US political culture, and leaders began to turn against the ideology of the French Revolution when they saw its influence in the Caribbean.
The neighboring revolution brought the slavery question to the forefront of US politics, and the resulting intensification of racial divides and sectional politics ended the idealism of the Revolutionary period.
This revolution eventually led to the abolishment of slave trade in 1807, and stood as a model for achieving emancipation for slaves in the United States.
Crossroads of Freedom
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of conflicts declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815, sparked by the French Revolution of 1789.
As a direct result of the Napoleonic wars, the British Empire became the foremost world power for the next century.
During the Napoleonic period, nationalism became increasingly significant. This would shape much of the course future European history. Its growth influenced the beginning of some states and the end of others, and as a result, the map of Europe changed dramatically in the following hundred years.
The wars played a key role in the independence of the American colonies from their European motherlands. The conflict significantly weakened the authority and military power of the Spanish Empire, which seriously hampered the contact of Spain with its American possessions. This provided an opening for nationalist revolutions in Spanish America.
When the war was finished, in order to prevent another such war, Europe was divided into smaller states according to the balance of power theory. Meaning, no European state would become strong enough to dominate Europe in the future.
Napoleon as King of Italy Battle of Waterloo, the end of the Napoleonic Wars.