Modern Latin America Andrew Elsey HIST141 Summer 2011
Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>The Haitian War for Independence (1791-1803) began as a struggle between the privileged white planters and the less privileged mixed races and rapidly became an all-out race war when the third and largest racial element, the pure blacks, ultimately dominated. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American wars for independence were an outgrowth of deep-seated political, economic, and social frustrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Within Latin America, The Europeans were exalted while everyone else was repressed. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade was exclusive and monopolistic, conducted by Europeans in European ships. This limited the growth of the colonies. </li></ul><ul><li>Latin American wars for independence were fought primarily between 1791 and 1824, with notable exceptions such as those in Santo Domingo (1820-44) and Cuba (1868-98). </li></ul><ul><li>Spain invaded Mexico in 1829; reintroduced colonial rule in Santo Domingo in 1861; and fought Chile and Peru in 1865-66. </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary wars began immediately after the wars of independence and continued throughout the nineteenth century. The American desire to expand permeated its society. Even private citizens took it upon the self-anointed right to territorial expansion. </li></ul>
Latin America’s Wars <ul><li>The desire to rule in order to satisfy one's ambitions has also led to war in Latin America. Strong-willed individuals (caudillos), routinely used force to achieve their personal needs. A few caudillos were motivated purely by patriotism for the fatherland and a few by purely selfish desires. Most were motivated by a combination of these and other factors. </li></ul><ul><li>The power of a caudillo was his ability to deliver on his word, his men’s loyalty was to him personally and could be lost if he was defeated in battle, or unable to deliver what he has promised. </li></ul><ul><li>In the decades following independence, the unresolved struggle between conservatives, who favored a monarchy, and liberals, who wanted a republic, led to wars. The most bloody were the French intervention in Mexico (1861-67) in support of the Mexican Conservatives and the Brazilian Civil War of 1893-94. </li></ul><ul><li>The Monroe Doctrine of 1823 did outline a policy for intervention in Latin America in order to prevent a monarchic counterrevolution against republican governments. </li></ul><ul><li>The ten causes for war in Latin America-race war were; the ideology of independence, the controversy of separation versus union, boundary disputes, territorial conquests, caudilloism, resource wars, interclass struggles, interventions caused by capitalism, and religious wars-were intertwined and profoundly influenced the region throughout the nineteenth century. </li></ul>French legionnaires during the French Intervention in Mexico
Buenos Aires versus the Provinces <ul><li>Even before independence had been secured, the main political issue for the United Provinces was into how many countries would it fragment. Bolivia and Paraguay began to break away as early as 1810 and Uruguay in 1816. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant friction existed between the older population centers in the interior, such as Cordoba and Santa Fe, and the upstart port of Buenos Aires. The vast space in between was dominated by the gauchos. </li></ul><ul><li>The Provincials primarily relied on the gauchos to form their armies. Typically, such armies had three times as many cavalry as infantry. Although armed with muskets and rifles, native weapons were favored due to the scarcity of gunpowder. </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the cavalry was armed with lances which frequently were the most lethal weapons on the battlefield. A boleadora was three stones or lead balls attached to rawhide thongs about five feet long which were tied together. When throwing, the user held one ball and swung the others to gain momentum before releasing it. </li></ul>A Boleadora
The French Intervention in Mexico <ul><li>Napoleon III's decision during 1861 to intervene in Mexico in order to make Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian of Austria its emperor reignited the still simmering conflict between Mexican Liberals and Conservatives. </li></ul><ul><li>The government of Benito Juarez emerged from the War of the Reform (1857-60) almost destitute. It owed 82.2 million pesos to foreign interests (70 million to British, 9.4 million to Spanish, and 2.8 million to French). </li></ul><ul><li>On October 31, 1861, Great Britain, France, and Spain signed the Convention of London, meaning they agreed to send a joint expedition to seize Vera Cruz </li></ul><ul><li>Juarez' position was most difficult. His nation was in shambles, his treasury empty, and his army exhausted. He ordered a defense prepared. However, he did not want to prod the invaders to action. </li></ul><ul><li>The French army naively believed that it had come to Mexico to tip the scales in favor of the majority of Mexicans who were waiting to overthrow the Liberals. Initially, their generals believed that this could easily be accomplished by capturing Juarez and, failing this, taking Mexico City. </li></ul><ul><li>Juarez had no illusion as to the difficulty of his task. His first strategy was to prevent the French army from reaching Mexico City. Should he be unsuccessful, Juarez could escape to the north to ensure the survival of the Liberal government. Juarez would fight a war of attrition against the invader by relying on the guerrilla bands should Mexico City be captured by the French. </li></ul>
Chapter 15 Mexico: The Umbilical cord <ul><li>Mexico lies under America’s strategic umbrella. They do not worry about security, rather harsh adjustment to international competition, wider income gaps, and drug and people trafficking into the United States. Most illegal drugs consumed in the USA are from Columbia and trafficked through Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>China rapidly outpaced Mexico in manufacturing and exporting to the USA even with Mexico’s superior location. This has caused Mexico to loose 300,000 people jobs and is directly related to the massive spike in immigration to the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Mexican immigrants are a double edged sword because they take the jobs that are hard and no body wants but strain the already under funded education and health care systems. </li></ul><ul><li>In order for America to fix Mexico we would practically have to buy it. </li></ul><ul><li>After the United States expelled convicts back to their countries in central America, gang formation grew drastically. Today it is estimated that there are over 100,000 gang members across the region. </li></ul>MS-13 Gang Member
Chapter 17 Columbia: The Andean Balkans? <ul><li>If south America is going to connect to the world it will happen through Columbia. The Pan-American highway would be a land and energy artery for central and north America. </li></ul><ul><li>The country is split by three Andean Mountain ranges creating distinct cultural patterns recognizable in the colorful ponchos worn like flags by the indigenous people. </li></ul><ul><li>60% of the region remains in poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>There are eight cities each with over 1 million people each having its own interests and loyalties. To make it worse, there are three political poles of power fighting for control in these cities. The government, drug traffickers, and paramilitary groups. These groups have been in civil war for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite efforts by the United States government and the Columbian government, Columbia remains the source of almost all the cocaine and half the heroin sold in the United States today. </li></ul>Cocaine seized by the government in Columbia.
Chapter 17 Columbia: The Andean Balkans? <ul><li>Catching drug czars is about equally effective as catching terrorists; unless the root causes are addressed, the problem only multiplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Being a guerilla is a way of life in Columbia, and it is the only country where rebels seem to die of old age. </li></ul><ul><li>Drivers run red lights at night in fear of car jacking, businessmen are often kidnapped and held for large ransoms. The country faces internal, not external threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Columbia has never experienced hyper-inflation or mass debt defaults, and has the best performing stock exchange in the region. Columbia seems to be succeeding in reversing the damage done from the recent drug boom. </li></ul><ul><li>President Ernesto Samper announced that there is as much tolerance living along side drug traffickers in Columbia as much as there was a tolerance in the United States for drug users. </li></ul><ul><li>The USA could do more to help Columbia. By slacking on a free trade agreement and not lifting its heavy farm subsidies, America still causes unfair competition on Columbian exports. </li></ul>Columbian guerilla leader
Chapter 18 Brazil: The Southern Pole <ul><li>Brazil is the United States of South America. It takes up around half of the continent and boarders every country in South America except two, Chile and Ecuador. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil is South America’s magnet, it attracts labor and investment from all sides. Brazil has no goal to compete with military power, but rather to benefit from its natural resources and massive economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazils prime climate on its lush central and southern regions makes it the worlds largest exporter of beef, oranges, sugar, coffee, poultry, pork, and soy. Combined earning $100 Billion per year. This only accounts for 10% of the Brazilian economy. </li></ul><ul><li>The discovery of massive oil and gas fields along the Atlantic coast has elevated Brazils status in the global energy trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil has always looked multidirectionally, persevering in its quest to become the anchor of Latin diplomacy. </li></ul><ul><li>Brazil’s domestic and diplomatic evolution parallels that of China, both are seen as natural leaders. Brazil exports nearly half of its total to developing countries. </li></ul>South America Brazil in Yellow
Benito Juarez <ul><li>Benito Juárez was a Mexican lawyer and politician who served five terms as president of Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the first Mexican leader who did not have a military background, and also the first to lead a country in the Western hemisphere. </li></ul><ul><li>He resisted the French occupation, overthrew the Empire, restored the Republic, and used liberal efforts to modernize the country. </li></ul><ul><li>Benito Juárez is remembered as being a progressive reformer dedicated to democracy, equal rights for his nation's indigenous peoples, his antipathy toward organized religion, especially the Catholic Church, and what he regarded as defense of national sovereignty. </li></ul><ul><li>His period of his leadership is known in Mexican history as La Reforma, and constituted a liberal political and social revolution with major institutional consequences: the expropriation of church lands, bringing the army under civilian control, liquidation of peasant communal land holdings, the separation of church and state in public affairs, and also led to the almost-complete disenfranchisement of bishops, priests, nuns and lay brothers. </li></ul><ul><li>La Reforma represented the triumph of Mexico's liberal, federalist, anti-clerical, and pro-capitalist forces over the conservative, centralist, corporatist, and theocratic elements that sought to reconstitute a locally-run version of the old colonial system. </li></ul>Benito Juárez
Napoleon Bonaparte <ul><li>Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution. As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815. </li></ul><ul><li>He is best remembered for his role in the Napoleonic Wars, during which he established hegemony over much of Europe and sought to spread revolutionary ideals. It was as a result of these wars, and his success in them, that he is generally regarded as one of the greatest military commanders of all time. </li></ul><ul><li>He trained as an artillery officer in mainland France. </li></ul><ul><li>After a streak of victories, France secured a dominant position in continental Europe, and Napoleon maintained the French sphere of influence through the formation of extensive alliances and the appointment of friends and family members to rule other European countries as French client states. </li></ul><ul><li>Napoleon's campaigns are studied at military academies throughout much of the world. </li></ul>Napoleon Bonaparte
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.