Investigating Cooridinated Data Exfiltration
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Investigating Cooridinated Data Exfiltration

on

  • 1,578 views

My presentation on investigating coordinated data exfiltration with Dr. Golden Richard at GFIRST 2011.

My presentation on investigating coordinated data exfiltration with Dr. Golden Richard at GFIRST 2011.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,578
Views on SlideShare
1,564
Embed Views
14

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
25
Comments
0

4 Embeds 14

http://www.linkedin.com 5
https://www.linkedin.com 4
http://www.slashdocs.com 3
http://www.docshut.com 2

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Investigating Cooridinated Data Exfiltration Investigating Cooridinated Data Exfiltration Presentation Transcript

  • Inves&ga&ng  Coordinated  Data  Exfiltra&on     Golden  G.  Richard  III   University  of  New  Orleans  and     Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC   &   Andrew  Case   Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC    
  • 2   Speaker’s  Introduc&on  (1) Golden  G.  Richard  III   •  Professor  of  Computer  Science  and  University   Research  Professor  @  University  of  New  Orleans   •  Director,  Greater  New  Orleans  Center  for   Informa9on  Assurance  (GNOCIA)   •  Co-­‐founder,  Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC   •  GCFA  cert   •  United  States  Secret  Service  Cybercrime   Taskforce   •  Member  of  the  American  Academy  of  Forensic   Sciences  (AAFS)      
  • 3   Speaker’s  Introduc&on  (2)  Andrew  Case  •  Senior  Security  Analyst  •  GCFA  cert  •  Blackhat,  DFRWS,  and  SOURCE  speaker  •  Experienced  digital  forensics  inves9gator,   penetra9on  tester,  and  reverse  engineer  
  • 4   Digital  Forensics  Solu&ons  /  UNO  •  Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC   –  New  Orleans  company  with  offices  in  the  Garden  District   –  Full  service  digital  forensics,  data  recovery   –  Rela9onships  for  seamless  digital  forensics  /  e-­‐discovery   –  Security  assessment,  secure  erasure  of  media,  security  training   –  Research:  new  tools  and  techniques  •  GNOCIA  /  University  of  New  Orleans   –  Pioneering  curriculum  in  digital  forensics  and  reverse   engineering   –  Digital  forensics  research:  new  tools  and  techniques   –  Educa9on:  Crea9ng  a  strong  local  tech  workforce   –  Liaison  with  local,  state,  federal  law  enforcement  to  solve   difficult  cases  
  • 5   The  Purpose  of  This  Talk  •  Provide  some  basic  background  on  digital   forensics  techniques  applicable  to  data   exfiltra9on  cases  •  Illustrate  the  extent  to  which  data  exfiltra9on  can   be  performed  in  a  straighZorward  manner  on  a   normal  computer  •  And  how  data  exfiltra9on  can  be  inves9gated  •  A  recent  case  we  inves9gated  required  analyzing   almost  every  common  data  exfiltra9on  technique  •  We  believe  this  case  serves  as  a  great  learning   example  for  other  inves9gators  
  • Digital  Forensics?    ★★  •  (Benevolently)  prey  on  mechanisms  designed  with   performance  (not  privacy)  in  mind  •  Crea9ve  uses  of  data  intended  mostly  for  other  things  •  Correla9on  of  simplis9c  data  sources  to  create  richer   context  •  In  some  cases:    logs,  etc.  actually  meant  to  be  used  for   forensic  purposes  
  • 7   Agenda  •  Introduc9on  to  Data  Exfiltra9on  Issues  •  Overview  of  our  Recent  Case  •  How  to  Inves9gate  Exfiltra9on  •  Wri9ng  a  Proper  Case  Report  •  Conclusion     [Some  brief  background  on  various  digital  forensics  issues  and  techniques  as  we  go—please  feel  free  to  ask   ques&ons  to  clarify  anything  that  isn’t  clear]  
  • 8   Data  Exfiltra&on  Introduc&on  •  Data  exfiltra9on  is  the  removal  of  sensi9ve   informa9on  from  an  owner’s  control  •  Common  examples  include:   –   A  rogue  employee  removing  informa9on    from  a   company’s  computer  systems   –  Aaackers  stealing  data  aber  they  have  gained   access  to  an  internal  network   –  Malware  stealing  and  expor9ng  sensi9ve  data  
  • 9   How  Exfiltra&on  Occurs  1.  A  malicious  user  (or  program)  gets  access  to   sensi9ve  data  2.  The  data  is  then  gathered  and  moved  outside   of  the  owner’s  network  3.  Commonly  used  methods   •  Removable  Media  (USB,  CD/DVD,  Smartphones)   •  Internet-­‐Based  (Email,  File  Uploads,  Dropbox,   FTP,  SCP,  etc.)   •  Malware  (transmission  via  email,  TCP,  UDP,  etc.)  
  • 10   Consequences  of  Exfiltra&on  •  Consequences  can  be  severe  •  Immediate  effect:   –  Loss  of  intellectual  property  and  other  sensi9ve   informa9on   –  Expensive  incident  response  process  must  begin   –  Possible  requirements  for  disclosure  to  be  made   and  compensa9on  of  affected  par9es  •  Long  term  effect:   –  Loss  of  trust  by  clients   –  Liability  /  Lawsuits  /  Other  legal  issues  
  • 11           Our  Scenario  
  • 12   Preliminary  Informa&on  •  A  former  employee  of  a  financial  ins9tu9on   (our  client)  was  suspected  of  stealing  sensi9ve   informa9on  and  using  it  to  bring  business  to   his  new  employer  •  We  were  to  inves9gate:   1.  Was  data  stolen?   2.  If  so,  how?   3.  What  data  was  taken   4.  If  other  people  were  involved  in  the  incident  
  • 13   Data/Equipment  to  Inves&gate  •  We  were  given  the  suspected  user’s  laptop  •  The  user’s  Blackberry  was  remote  wiped  upon   his  leaving  the  company  as  per-­‐policy   –  No  backups  made  before  wiping   –  Never  got  access  to  this  informa9on  •  We  were  supposed  to  receive  a  copy  of  the   user’s  archived  Outlook  email  (PST  file)   –  This  was  never  provided  
  • 14           Inves&ga&on    
  • 15   Ini&al  Analysis  •  Imaged  hard  drive  of  laptop  •  The  suspect’s  laptop  was  running  XP  SP2  •  Internet  Explorer  only  browser  installed  •  The  user  was  not  a  local  administrator  •  The  machine  had  over  20  System  Restore   Points   –  We  will  be  discussing  the  importance  of  this   throughout  
  • 16   System  Restore  Points    •  System  Restore  Points  are  created  to  backup   cri9cal  files  when  de-­‐stabilizing  opera9ons  are   performed  on  the  OS   –  System  updates   –  3rd  Party  sobware  installa9ons   –  Installa9on  of  unsigned  drivers   –  …  •  Good  source  for  historical  copies  of  the  Windows   registry    •  In  our  case,  System  Restore  Points  allowed   orderly  examina9on  of  data  over  five  months  old  
  • 17   Inves&ga&on  Flow  •  Inves9gate  Removable  Media   –  Determine  which  removable  media  was  used,   which  files  were  moved,  when  they  moved,  and  to   where  •  Inves9gate  Web  Based  Ac9vity   –  Determine  if  files  were  transferred  over  network  •  Inves9gate  Accessed  Files   –  Find  any  files  that  were  inappropriately  accessed  •  Determine  if  other  people  were  involved     –  Look  for  emails  and  other  communica9on  
  • 18         Inves&ga&ng     Removable  Media    
  • 19   First  Steps  •  USB  history  analysis  typically  requires   analyzing  two  sources:   –  USBSTOR  registry  informa9on   –  The  setupapi.log    file   –  Renamed  and  split  under  Win7:   •  setupapi.app.log  and  setupapi.dev.log  •  Details  aber  a  brief  discussion  of  the  Windows   registry  
  • 20           Briefly:  Windows  Registry    
  • 21   Windows  Registry  •  Can  be  a  forensics  goldmine  •  Lots  of  informa9on,  fairly  difficult  to  “clean”  •  Usernames  •  Internet  history  •  Program  installa9on  informa9on  •  Recently  accessed  files  •  Devices  (USB,  et  al)  •  Network  configura9on  
  • 22   Registry:  Windows  9x  •  On  Windows  95/98:  •  “system.dat”  and  “user.dat”  files  •  If  mul9ple  users,  look  in  Windowsprofiles<acct>  for   individual  user.dat  files  •  “system.dat”   –  System-­‐wide  informa9on  •  “user.dat”  (one  “original”  one,  then  others  as  users  are   created)   –  User  informa9on  •  Careful,  because  on  Windows  9x,  new  user  profiles  are  oben   based  on  previously  created  profiles!  
  • 23   Registry:  NT/Win2K/XP  •  “ntuser.dat”   –  List  of  most  recently  used  files   –  Each  user  has  a  separate  “ntuser.dat”  file   –  documents  and  sesngsuser  •  “default”  in  <windowsdir>system32config   –  Ini9al  system  sesngs  •  “SAM”   –  User  account  sesngs,  security  sesngs  •  “security”   –  Security-­‐related  sesngs  •  “sobware”   –  Installed  programs,  sesngs,  usernames,  passwords  •  “system”   –  Misc.  system  sesngs  
  • 24  Last  Write  Times  for  Registry  Keys  
  • 25   **  VERY  IMPORTANT  **     “Select”  key  chooses   which  control  set  is  current,   which  is  “last  known  good”     configura9on   SYSTEM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 26   What  user   accounts  are  on   the  machine?   SAM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 27   Which  &mezone   does  the   computer  use?   SYSTEM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 28   Which  files  were   recently     accessed  by  a   par&cular    user?   NTUSER.dat  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 29   Which  URLS  were   typed  recently  by   a  par&cular  user?   NTUSER.dat  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 30   SOFTWARE  file   Which  programs  are   installed  on  the  machine?     Which  license  keys  are  in   use?  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 31   Which  programs  run   automa&cally  when  a   par&cular  user  logs  in?   NTUSER.dat  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 32   Which  programs   run  automa&cally   when  ANY  user   SOFTWARE  file   logs  in?  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 33   Two  Jumpdrive   Elite  thumbdrives   750GB  USB  hard   drives  (same  type)   What  has  been     plugged  in?   SYSTEM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 34   Networking  info   SYSTEM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 35   Disk  info   SYSTEM  file  Copyright  2004-­‐2011  by  Golden  G.  Richard  III.  
  • 36   Summary:  Registry  Forensics  •  Last  write  9mes  for  individual  registry  keys   can  be  used  to  infer  useful  informa9on  •  Overall,  lots  of  informa9on,  some  of  which   can’t  be  obtained  elsewhere  •  Extreme  care  is  needed  during  analysis  •  Lots  of  mysterious  data  •  Much  of  the  informa&on  is  essen&ally   undocumented  and  meaning  is  determined   experimentally  
  • 37   USBSTOR  •  The  SYSTEM  registry  hive  contains  a  history  of   connected  USB  devices   –  Registry  files  backed  up  by  System  Restore  Point  facility  •  All  of  this  informa9on  is  stored  under  the   CurrentControlSetEnumUSBSTOR  key     •  Contains  an  entry  for  each  USB  device  that  was   connected  to  the  machine   •  Also  contains  the  “Friendly  Name”  and  serial  number  of   each  aaached  device   •  The  only  9mestamp  informa9on  available  is  last   wriaen  9me  for  key  corresponding  to  par9cular  USB   device!  
  • 38   Analyzing  the  Registry  Files  •  Aber  gathering  all  of  the  SYSTEM  files…   –  Current   –  Historical  (via  System  Restore  Points)  •  …Used  Regripper  [6]  USBSTOR  plugin  to   enumerate  previously  aaached  USB  devices  •  Then  wrote  a  wrapper  script  to  dump  this   informa9on  into  Excel  •  Now  we  had  informa9on  on  connected  USB   devices  going  back  many  months    
  •   39   Results  of  USBSTOR  Analysis    •  Eight  USB  drives  were  used  during  the  target   9me  range   –  Six  were  thumb  drives  with  capacity  ranging  from   2  to  8GB   –  One  USB  device  was  the  previously  men9oned   user’s  Blackberry  smartphone   –  Last  was  a  digital  camera  •  Next  step  was  to  determine  the  extent  of  use   for  the  six  thumb  drives  
  • 40   Analyzing  setupapi.log  •  Text  file  in  c:Windows  (under  XP)  •  Tracks  device  installa9on,  service-­‐pack   installa9on,  hoZix  installa9on,  etc.  for  the  setup   applica9on  •  Reveals  the  first  9me  each  device  was  plugged  in,   as  Windows  selects  appropriate  device  drivers  •  USBSTOR  registry  key  tells  us  the  last  9me  a   device  was  connected  •  We  used  SetupAPI  Extractor  [15]  to  analyze  the   file  rather  than  simply  viewing  it  as  a  text  file    
  • 41   Using  setupapi.log  Informa&on  •  Using  the  first  and  last  connect  9mes  gives  us   a  9me  range  for  each  device  •  Use  this  informa9on  to  assign  drive  leaers  to   specific  thumb  drives   –  Discussed  next    •  Also  helped  build  a  clearer  9meline  of  the   suspected  user’s  ac9vity  
  • 42   Inves&ga&ng  Individual  Drives  •  Used  procedure  illustrated  on  next  slide  to   determine:   –  Drive  leaer  mapped  to  a  USB  device   –  The  first  and  last  9me  each  device  was  connected  •  Have  to  be  careful  when  assigning  drive  leaers   –  Mul9ple  drives  can  be  mapped  to  same  leaer  over   9me   –  Need  to  correlate  9me  informa9on  between  drive   and  files  accessed  to  substan9ate  
  • 43  USB  Analysis  Process  [4][5][11]  
  • 44         Inves&ga&ng     Network-­‐Based  Exfiltra&on  
  • 45   Email  Examina&on:  Overview  •  Two  email  services  were  used  to  exfiltrate  files:   –  Gmail   –  Company  Email  (Exchange)  •  We  were  told  during  the  pre-­‐inves9ga9on  phase  that   the  IT  team  knew  of  a  Gmail  account  for  the  user   under  inves9ga9on  •  Needed  to  find  all  contact  with  suspect’s  new   employer  while  s9ll  employed  by  our  client  •  We  didn’t  have  PST  access,  our  only  hope  was  web-­‐ based  email  •  Knew  that  only  fragments  would  be  recovered  from   Gmail  
  • 46   Inves&ga&ng  Gmail  •  Two  pieces  of  evidence  were  discovered  from   Gmail:   –  A  number  of  file  exfiltra9on  instances   –  Evidence  of  contact  between  suspect  and  new   employer  well  before  our  client  suspected    •  How  did  we  find  this  informa9on?  
  • 47   Gmail:  Technical  Details  •  Gmail  makes  a  number  of  efforts  to  avoid  disk   forensics  of  messages  read  and  sent   –  Puts  messages  in  separate  iframes   –  Uses  SSL  and  no-­‐cache  browser  direc&ves  •  Uses  similar  techniques  for  other  parts  of  the   Gmail  interface   –  Contacts,  labels,  searches,  etc.  •  Essen9ally,  simple  examina9on  of  browser   cache  isn’t  going  to  yield  much  
  • 48   Scalpel  Overview  •  File  carving  is  typically  used  to  recover  deleted   files,  based  on  the  structure  of  file  types  •  Scalpel  is  a  file  carver  [3],  but  can  also  be  used   as  a  very  efficient  indexer  for  specific  search   terms   –  Latest  version  is  mul9threaded  and  can  use  GPUs   (CUDA)  for  high  performance  opera9on  •  The  audit  file  created  by  Scalpel  (audit.txt)   contains  loca9ons  of  every  discovered   instance  of  every  search  term  
  • 49   Using  Scalpel  •  We  ran  Scalpel  to  find  all  instances  of  the  new   employer’s  email  domain  •  We  then  used  the  Sleuthkit  to  quickly  map   these  offsets  to  files  within  the  filesystem   –  See  [2]  for  an  updated  method  on  how  to  do  this  •  Produced  hits  in  both  web  cache  files  and   pagefile.sys,  the  Windows  swap  file  
  • 50   pagefile.sys  Analysis  •  Hits  in  pagefile  are  on  previously  viewed   Gmail  Inbox  indices  (illustrated  on  the  next   slide)  •  These  indices  contain  a  number  of  useful   ar9facts  about  email  messages:   –  Time  received   –  Message  fragment   –  Sender   –  Aaachment  names  (if  any)  
  • 51   Gmail  Inbox  View  •  The  image  above  is  a  screenshot  of  the  Inbox   view  •  The  default  view  shows  50  messages  •  We  were  able  to  recover  a  number  of  instances   of  these  using  Scalpel  on  the  pagefile  
  • 52   U&lizing  Message  Fragments  •  Aber  gathering  all  message  indices     discovered  in  the  pagefile…  •  …We  created  a  new  Scalpel  config  file  and   carved  again  on  the  pagefile  to  try  to  recover   message  fragments  •  This  produced  fragments  of  en9re  message   bodies  sent  through  Gmail  by  the  rogue   employee   –  This  is  where  it  got  interes9ng!  
  • 53   Message  Fragments:  Gold  Mine  •  The  recovered  message  bodies  revealed  the   employee  under  inves9ga9on  had  contacted   his  new  employer  a  number  of  months  before   leaving  the  company  •  Well  before  our  client  had  suspected  •  The  uncovered  messages  were  par9cularly   damaging  •  Revealed  precise  details  of  plan  to  steal  and   later  u9lize  our  client’s  data  
  • 54    Gmail  Aeachments  •  Aber  discovering  aaachment  names  in  the   fragments,  we  used  this  data  to  discover   which  files  were  transferred  •  Analysis  revealed  a  number  of  files  were   emailed  from  the  user’s  local  Outlook   installa9on  to  his  Gmail  account  •  Filenames  were  matched  to  those  in  LNK  files   and  MRU  lists  (discussed  later)  
  • 55         Inves9ga9ng     Web  Browser  Ac9vity  
  • 56   Three  Components  of  Browser   Ac&vity  •  History   –  Gives  a  list  of  sites  visited,  including  when  and   specific  URLs  •  Cache   –  Copies  of  files  downloaded  from  webservers   (HTML,  javascript,  images,  etc)   –  MAC  9mes  can  be  used  in  9meline  analysis  •  Cookies   –  Provide  addi9onal  informa9on  about  user’s   interac9on  with  a  web  site  
  • 57  Analyzing  Browser  History  Using  IEHistoryView  
  • 58  Analyzing  Cache  Contents  Using  IECacheView  
  • 59  Analyzing  HTTP  Cookies  
  • 60   Flash  Cookies  •  Flash  applica9ons  are  provided  client  storage   through  local  shared  objects  (LSOs)  •  Browsers  are  only  recently  giving  users  the  ability   to  delete  them   –  Previously  had  to  find  LSOs  within  the  filesystem  and   manually  delete  •  Stored  outside  of  the  normal  cookie/cache   storage  subsystem   –  “Private”  browsing  modes  DO  NOT  affect  flash   cookies!  •  Analysis  leads  to  informa9on  about  websites   visited,  when  they  were  visited,  etc.  
  • 61   Analyzing  Flash  Cookies  •  The  loca9on  of  the  files  is  opera9ng  system   dependent:   – hap://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Local_Shared_Object#File_loca9ons  •  A  few  tools  exist  for  analysis,  but  none  seem   completely  stable:   – Minerva              -­‐  hap://blog.coursevector.com/ minerva   – SOLReader    -­‐  hap://www.sephiroth.it/python/ solreader.php  
  • 62   Using  Browser  Analysis  •  Browser  analysis  revealed  many  accesses  to   Gmail  as  well  as  informa9on  related  to  the   new  employer  •  “9tle”  and  other  URL  informa9on  recorded  in   the  history  file  helped  in  analysis  discussed   later  
  • 63  END  OF  HOUR  1:  Ques&ons  /  Comments?   •  Contact  Golden:   –  golden@cs.uno.edu   –  golden@digdeeply.com   –  @nolaforensix   •  Contact  Andrew:   –  andrew@digdeeply.com   –  @aarc   •  Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons:   –  Daryl  Pfeif  (CEO)   –  daryl@digdeeply.com   –  504-­‐874-­‐0787     –  hap://www.digitalforensicssolu9ons.com   –  hap://dfsforensics.blogspot.com   –  @dfsforensics      
  • Inves&ga&ng  Coordinated  Data  Exfiltra&on   (2nd  Hour)     Golden  G.  Richard  III   University  of  New  Orleans  and     Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC   &   Andrew  Case   Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons,  LLC    
  • 65           Inves&ga&ng  Files  Transferred   During  the  Exfiltra&on  
  • 66   Recap  •  At  this  point  in  the  inves9ga9on  we  have:   –  Shown  that  a  number  of  thumb  drives  were   previously  aaached  to  the  computer  under   inves9ga9on   –  That  files  were  sent  to  an  external  Gmail  address   from  a  company  Email  address   –  That  the  target  employee  had  contacted  his  new   employer  many  months  before  leaving  our  client  
  • 67   Updated  Workflow  •  We  now  had  two  goals:   –  Find  out  which  files  were  accessed  by  the  user   –  Find  out  which  were  then  transferred  onto  USB   drives   –  Determine  the  loca9on  of  the  files  sent  via  Gmail    
  • 68   Finding  Accessed  Files  •  Windows  provides  a  number  of  forensics   ar9facts  related  to  historical  file  access  •  Three  main  ones  were  used  in  this   inves9ga9on:   –  LNK  Files   –  MRU  Lists   –  File  Access  History  
  • 69           LNK  File  Analysis  
  • 70   LNK  Files  •  Link  files  (.lnk)  are  Windows  shortcut  files  •  Similar  to  symbolic  links  under  Unix  •  The  metadata  contained  in  these  files  is  very   useful  during  forensics  inves9ga9ons   –  MAC  9mes  of  target  file   –  Full  path  to  target  file   –  Whether  target  is/was  local  or  on  the  network   –  Network  share  informa9on   –  Volume  serial  number  (used  to  match  to  specific   drive)  
  • 71  lnk-­‐parse  [10]  on  a  Local  File   MAC  Times  of  Target  File   Target  Hard  Drive   Target  File  
  • 72  parse-­‐lnk  Output  for  Network  Share   MAC  Time  of  Target  File   Size  of  File   The  network  share  related  to   the  file,  including  path  
  • 73   Using  LNK  Files  •  The  target  computer  had  a  large  number  of   relevant  LNK  files  •  (Some)  LNK  files  are  backed  up  within  System   Restore  Points!  •  These  files  were  helpful  for  two  purposes:   1.  Iden9fying  which  files  were  moved  to  which  USB   drives   2.  Iden9fying  which  files  were  downloaded  from   which  network  shares   •  More  on  this  in  a  minute…  
  • 74   Automa&ng  LNK  File  Analysis  •  Since  there  were  so  many  LNK  files,  we   needed  to  automate  the  process  •  Wrote  a  script  to  parse  lnk-­‐parse  output  and   write  contents  to  an  Excel  sheet  •  Could  then  quickly  determine  which  files,   network  shares,  and  9mes  were  involved  in   the  exfiltra9on  
  • 75   LNK  File  Research  •  There  a  few  very  good  resources  on  LNK  file   analysis:   –  “The  Meaning  of  Life”  [9]   •  21  page  research  paper  on  analysis  with  LNK  files   –  Forensics  Wiki  Page  [7]   –  Forensics  Focus  Ar9cle  [8]  
  • 76           Analyzing  MRU  Lists  
  • 77   Most  Recently  Used  (MRU)  Lists  •  MRU  lists  store  informa9on  about  the   documents  most  recently  accessed  by  a  user   for  a  par9cular  applica9on  •  Stored  in  the  Windows  Registry   –  Again,  System  Restore  Points  give  us  access  to   historical  MRU  lists  as  well  as  current  ones  •  Common  examples  are  when  you  click  ‘File’  in   an  applica9on’s  menu  and  see  a  list  of   previously  opened  documents  
  • 78   Popular  MRU  Lists  •  Microsob  Office   –  For  all  applica9ons  (Word,  Excel,  PPT,  etc)  •  Internet  Explorer   –  Recently  typed  URLS  (The  URL  dropdown)  •  Adobe   –  Recently  accessed  PDF  files  •  An  extensive  list  of  over  30  MRU  loca9ons  and   associated  applica9ons  can  be  found  at  [12]  
  • 79   Using  MRU  Lists  •  Gathered  the  current  and  historical   SOFTWARE  registry  files  •  Used  Regripper  to  acquire  all  of  the  relevant   MRU  lists   –  Most  important  were  Office  and  Adobe  •  (Again)  we  wrote  a  script  to  parse  output  and   write  to  an  Excel  sheet  
  • 80   Analyzing  the  MRU  lists  •  The  combined  MRU  lists  provided  filenames   and  paths  to  numerous  files  of  interest  to  the   case   –  Spread  out  across  the  local  drive,  thumb  drives,   and  network  shares  •  A  number  of  these  files  were  also  duplicates   of  those  found  in  the  LNK  files   –  Great  for  correla9on  and  soundness  of  findings  
  • 81           More  on  Browsing  History  
  • 82   More  File  Accesses  •  Web  browser  history  also  revealed  access  to  a   number  of  internal  web  applica9ons  that   create  reports  •  The  filename  of  these  reports  contained  the   parameters  (date,  search,  etc)  used  to  create   them   –  This  was  visible  in  the  URL  (GET  parameter)  
  • 83   Web  Applica&on  Reports  •  We  then  found  copies  of  these  reports  on  the   local  machine  •  Contained  informa9on  on  other  employees   that  the  target  user  was  not  officially   authorized  to  view  
  • 84   “File”  Accesses  •  The  “browser”  history  files  also  keep  records   of  access  to  specific  files  (file:///)   –  Including  full  path  name  and  MAC  9me  type   informa9on  •  Analysis  of  these  files  on  the  target  machine   revealed  access  to  more  unauthorized  files   –  Beyond  what  was  found  through  LNK  and  MRU   analysis  
  • 85         Inves&ga&ng     Recycle  Bin  Ac&vity  
  • 86   Recycle  Bin  Forensics  •  Windows  trash  can  facility  for  dele9ng  files  •  Files  maintained  in  a  hidden  directory  un9l  the  user   emp9es  the  Recycle  Bin,  then  insecurely  deleted  •  The  Recycle  Bin  maintains  a  history  of  files  deleted   within  INFO2  files  •  INFO2  files  contain:   –  The  fullpath  of  the  deleted  file   –  The  date  the  file  was  moved  to  the  recycle  bin   –  The  sequence  in  which  files  were  moved  to  the  recycle  bin  •  A  great  resource  on  INFO2  analysis  can  be  found  at   [14]  
  • 87   Analyzing  the  Recycle  Bin  •  Analysis  of  INFO2  files  found  on  the  target   machine  revealed  that  many  of  the  files  found   through  previous  analysis  had  been  deleted  by   the  user  •  The  9mestamps  of  the  dele9on  were  very   close  to  the  exfiltra9on  9mes  •  Very  damaging  evidence  
  • 88         Inves&ga&ng     Network  Share  Access  
  • 89   Network  Share  Access  •  In  many  corporate  environments,  including   the  one  in  this  case,  departments  store  all   informa9on  on  network  shares  •  Employees  should  technically  only  have  access   to  specific  files,  but  implemen9ng  this   properly  is  painful  •  This  makes  inves9ga9ng  network  share  access   a  must  in  data  exfiltra9on  cases  
  • 90   Analyzing  Network  Shares  •  CurrentControlSetServicesLanManagerShares   contains  informa9on  about  network  shares  on   the  computer   –  Again,  historical  records  were  also  available   through  restore  points   –  Allowed  quick  mapping  of  drive  names  to  places   on  the  network  
  • 91   Using  Network  Shares  •  Aber  determining  which  drive  leaers   corresponded  to  which  network  shares,  we   gathered  the  filenames  that  were  accessed  •  We  then  sent  this  informa9on  to  the  IT   security  team   –  They  were  able  to  find  all  these  files  and  we   subsequently  used  this  informa9on  in  our  report    
  • 92           Piecing  the  Evidence  Together  
  • 93   Results  So  Far  •  At  this  point  we  had  a  wealth  of  informa9on:   –  We  knew  exfiltra9on  occurred  over  USB  devices   and  Gmail   –  We  knew  which  files  were  transferred  and  the   9me/date  of  transfer  for  some  of  them   –  We  knew  that  contact  was  made  with  the  future     employer  and  exact  details  
  • 94   Data  to  Correlate  •  We  had  drive  leaers,  filenames,  and  access   9mes  from  our  evidence  sources  •  Needed  to  create  a  9meline  of  user  ac9vity  for   each  file  of  interest   –  File  Access   –  File  Transfer  (if  any)   –  File  Dele9on  (if  deleted)  
  • 95   Performing  the  Correla&on  •  Used  access  9mes  from  LNK  files,  browser   history,  etc.  to  determine  when  interac9on   with  a  file  started  •  Used  LNK  files  related  to  USB  drives  to   determine  when  copied  •  Used  browser  history  and  Gmail  view  index  to   determine  when  a  file  was  emailed  •  Used  INFO2/Recycle  Bin  to  determine  if/when   a  file  was  deleted  
  • 96   Correla&on  Results  •  For  many  files  of  interest,  we  could  show  that,   within  a  5  minute  9me  period,  the  file  was   accessed,  exfiltrated,  and  then  deleted  •  We  could  also  which  files  were  simply  viewed   and  then  discarded    •  Made  for  compelling  (and  hard  to  refute)   evidence  
  • 97         Inves&ga&ng  Collusion     with  Other  Employees  
  • 98   Next  Steps  •  Our  last  step  was  to  determine  if  other   employees  were  involved  •  We  requested  a  list  of  first  and  last  names,   user  logins,  and  email  addresses  from  IT   security  for:   –  Close  co-­‐workers  of  the  target   –  Other  people  who  recently  leb  the  company  •  We  used  this  informa9on  as  our  star9ng   point…  
  • 99   Inves&ga&on  Process  •  We  took  the  informa9on  given  from  IT  to   build  a  Scalpel  configura9on  file  as  previously   described  •  This  would  (hopefully)  find  all  informa9on   related  to  these  other  employees…  
  • 100   First  Clue  •  Emails  were  found  between  the  suspect  and   his  secretary,  related  to  the  new  company  •  We  then  requested  the  computer  of  the   secretary  •  Analysis  of  her  computer  revealed  sharing  of   USB  thumb  drives   –  Based  on  USB  serial  numbers  and  inves9ga9on  of   USBSTOR  in  the  registries  
  • 101   Further  Analysis  of  the  Second  PC  •  Similar  evidence  was  found  on  the  secretary’s   PC  as  on  the  ini9al  targets   –  Use  of  removable  media   –  Downloading  of  unauthorized  files  from   fileservers   –  Emailing  of  files  to  outside  accounts  •   Also  found  emails  to  a  third  person  within  the   organiza9on   101  
  • 102   Analyzing  Employee  Three  •  Aber  finding  emails  from  secretary  to   employee  three,  we  requested  his  computer   as  well  •  Analysis  of  this  computer  revealed  sharing  of   USB  drives  by  all  three  employees  •  Also  revealed  contact  by  employee  three  to   new  company  
  • 103           Wri&ng  a  Usable  Report  
  • 104   Mortal  Sins  of  Repor&ng  •  Do  NOT:  •  Include  opinions  (especially  legal  ones)   –  You  weren’t  asked  to  be  a  lawyer   –  Will  hurt  your  credibility  •  Include  informa9on  you  could  not  verify   –  Will  come  up  in  tes9mony  and  can  hurt  your   credibility    
  • 105   Report  Outline  •  Every  report  should  contain  at  least  these   sec9ons:   –  Execu9ve  Summary   –  Evidence  Catalogue   –  Findings  Sec9ons   –  Conclusion   –  Aaachments  
  • 106   Report  -­‐  Execu&ve  Summary  •  Should  contain  a  high  level  overview  of  the   case  results  and  be  less  than  one  page  •  Purpose  is  to  allow  execu9ves  to  quickly   understand  the  outcome  of  the  inves9ga9on  •  Should  answer  three  ques9ons:   –  Was  data  exfiltrated?   –  If  so,  were  you  able  to  conclude  who  was   responsible  for  the  exfiltra9on?   –  If  so,  what  data  was  taken  and  how  much  of  it?  
  • 107   Report  -­‐  Evidence  Catalogue  •  The  rest  of  the  report  should  be  for  managers   and  IT  staff  who  need  technical  details  •  The  evidence  catalogue  should  contain  these:   –  A  descrip9on  of  all  evidence  analyzed   –  A  picture  of  each  piece  of  evidence   –  Any  unique  informa9on  (serial  numbers)   –  Hashes  of  the  data,  if  applicable   –  How  copies  of  the  evidence  was  acquired  
  • 108   Report  -­‐  Findings  Sec&ons  •  The  bulk  of  the  report  should  be  your  findings  •  Should  be  broken  into  logical  sec9ons   –  Similar  to  how  this  presenta9on  flowed  •  Needs  to  include:   –  Your  exact  inves9ga9on  methodology   –  A  lis9ng  of  tool(s)  used   –  The  relevance  of  each  finding  to  the  case  
  • 109   Report  -­‐  Conclusion  •  The  conclusion  should  be  a  factual  summary   of  the  case   –  Again  -­‐  NO  opinions  •  Can  include  recommenda9ons  for  further   inves9ga9on   –  For  example,  our  ini9al  report  recommended   acquiring  the  computer  of  the  secretary    
  • 110   Report  -­‐  Aeachments  •  All  processed  data  from  the  case,  such  as  the   Excel  sheets  we  men9oned,  should  be   included  as  aaachments  to  the  report   –  On  digital  media  (CDs,  DVDs,  etc.)   –  Or  printed,  as  appropriate  •  This  makes  handling  the  files  (prin9ng,   searching,  etc)  much  easier  for  everyone   involved  
  • 111   Conclusions  •  Data  exfiltra9on  inves9ga9on  is  a  labor-­‐ intensive  process  •  Requires  a  wide  range  of  skills  on  part  of  the   inves9gator   –  We  only  inves9gated  Windows  machines  during   this  case,  and  s9ll  needed  a  number  of  tools  and   skillsets  •  The  resul9ng  report  must  be  carefully  wriaen  
  • 112  END  OF  HOUR  2:  Ques&ons  /  Comments?   •  Contact  Golden:   –  golden@cs.uno.edu   –  golden@digdeeply.com   –  @nolaforensix   •  Contact  Andrew:   –  andrew@digdeeply.com   –  @aarc   •  Digital  Forensics  Solu9ons:   –  Daryl  Pfeif  (CEO)   –  daryl@digdeeply.com   –  504-­‐874-­‐0787     –  hap://www.digitalforensicssolu9ons.com   –  hap://dfsforensics.blogspot.com   –  @dfsforensics      
  • 113   References  (Click  Through)  [1]  hap://www.digdeeply.com/Scalpel/  [2]  hap://dfsforensics.blogspot.com/2011/01/exploring-­‐sleuthkits-­‐new-­‐tskloaddb.html  [3]  hap://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/File_Carving  [4]  hap://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/USB_History_Viewing  [5]  haps://blogs.sans.org/computer-­‐forensics/files/2009/08/usb_device_forensics_xp_guide.pdf  [6]  hap://regripper.wordpress.com/  [7]  hap://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/LNK  [8]  hap://www.forensicfocus.com/link-­‐file-­‐eviden9ary-­‐value  [9]  hap://computerforensics.parsonage.co.uk/downloads/TheMeaningofLIFE.pdf  [10]  hap://sourceforge.net/projects/jafat/files/lnk-­‐parse/  [11]  haps://blogs.sans.org/computer-­‐forensics/files/2009/08/usb_device_forensics_vista_win7_guide.pdf  [12]  hap://www.forensicswiki.org/wiki/List_of_Windows_MRU_Loca9ons  [13]  hap://www.nirsob.net/u9ls/iehv.html  [14]  hap://cdnetworks-­‐us-­‐1.dl.sourceforge.net/project/odessa/ODESSA/White%20Papers/Recycler_Bin_Record_Reconstruc9on.pdf  [15]  hap://www.argen.org/downloads/files/SAEX.zip