The initiation phaseIt can be divided into six steps: Establish the Develop a Undertake a Terms of Business Case Feasibility Study Reference Appoint the Set up a Perform Project Team Project Office Phase Review
Develop a business case: A business case is created to define abusiness problem or opportunity in detail and identify a preferredsolution for implementation.Undertake feasibility study: The purpose of a feasibility study isto assess the likelihood of each alternative solution optionachieving the benefits outlined in the business case.Establish the terms of reference: After the previous steps, a newproject is formed and at this point terms of reference are created.They define the vision, objectives, scope and deliverables.Appoint the project team: a project manager is generallyappointed before this stage and with his help, the team is formed.Set up a project office: defining the physical environment – theplace, the equipment, communication infrastructure, tools, etc.Perform a phase review: This is a checkpoint to ensure that theproject has achieved its objectives. (at the initiation’s phase end)
The planning phase Create a Create a Create a Project Plan Resource Plan Financial Plan Create a Create a Create an Quality Plan Risk Plan Acceptance Plan Create a Create a Contract theCommunication Plan Procurement Plan Suppliers Perform Phase Review
Create a project plan: A work breakdown structure (WBS) isidentified which includes a hierarchical set of phases, activitiesand tasks to be undertaken to complete the project, then . Thisproject plan is the key tool used by the project manager to assessthe progress of the project throughout the project life cycle.Create a resource plan: After the project plan is formed, the levelof resource required to undertake each of the activities and taskslisted within the project plan will need to be allocated. A scheduleis assembled for each type of resource so that the projectmanager can review the resource allocation at each stage in theproject.Create a financial plan: is made to identify the total quantity ofmoney required to undertake each phase in the project (in otherwords, the budget).
Create a quality plan: This is made to ensure the qualityexpectations of the customer. It defines the term quality, someprecise targets, a quality assurance plan, and it identifies thetechniques that control the actual quality level of eachdeliverable.Create a risk plan: The next step is to document all foreseeableproject risks within a risk plan, and also define the actions thatwill prevent each risk from occurring or reduce it’s impact.Create a acceptance plan: we need the customer’s acceptancethat the deliverables produced by the project meet or exceedrequirements. This plan has to clarify the completion criteria foreach deliverable and provide a schedule of acceptance reviews.Create a communications plan: Prior to the execution phase, it isrequired to identify how each of the stakeholders will be kept intouch. (means of communication, frequency, and responsibilities)
Create a procurement plan: The procurement plan provides adetailed description of the products (that is, goods and services)to be acquired from suppliers, the justification for acquiring eachproduct externally as opposed to from within the business, andthe schedule for product delivery.Contract the suppliers: Although external suppliers may beappointed at any stage of the project, it is usual to appointsuppliers after the project plans have been documented but priorto the execution phase of the project.Perform a phase review: At the end of the planning phase, aphase review is performed. This is a checkpoint to ensure that theproject has achieved its objectives as planned.
Build the deliverables:This phase involves physically constructingeach deliverable for acceptance by the customer. The activitiesundertaken to construct each deliverable will vary depending onthe type of project being undertaken.Monitor and control: While the project team are physicallyproducing each deliverable, the project manager implements aseries of management processes to monitor and control theactivities being undertaken by the project team.Time management: Time management is the process of recordingand controlling time spent by staff on the project. As time is ascarce resource within projects, each team member should recordtime spent undertaking project activities on a timesheet form.Cost management: Cost management is the process by whichcosts/expenses incurred on the project are formally identified,approved and paid.
Quality management: Quality management is the process bywhich quality is assured and controlled for the project, usingquality assurance and quality control techniques.Change management: Change management is the process bywhich changes to the project scope, deliverables, timescales orresources are formally requested, evaluated and approved priorto implementation.Risk management: is the process by which risks to the project areformally identified, quantified and managed.Issue management: the method by which issues currentlyaffecting the ability of the project to produce the requireddeliverable are formally managed.Procurement management: the process of sourcing productsfrom an external supplier.
Acceptance management: is the process of gaining customeracceptance for deliverables produced by the project.Communications management: Communications management isthe process by which formal communications messages areidentified, created, reviewed and communicated within a project.Perform a phase review: At the end of the planning phase, aphase review is performed. This is a checkpoint to ensure that theproject has achieved its objectives as planned.Project closure Perform Review Project Project Closure Completion
Perform project closure: involves winding up the project.This includes: • Determining whether all of the project completion criteria have been met; • Identifying any outstanding project activities, risks or issues; • Handing over all project deliverables and documentation to the customer; • Cancelling supplier contracts and releasing project resources to the business; • Communicating the closure of the project to all stakeholders and interested parties.
Review project completion: The final activity within a project isthe review of its success by an independent party. Success isdetermined by how well it performed against the definedobjectives and conformed to the management processes outlinedin the planning phase. To determine how well it performed, thefollowing types of questions are answered:• Did it result in the benefits defined in the business case?• Did it achieve the objectives outlined in the terms of reference?• Did it operate within the scope of the terms of reference? 0 Didthe deliverables meet the criteria defined in the quality plan?• Was it delivered within the schedule outlined in the projectplan?• Was it delivered within the budget outlined in the financialplan?
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