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PLEA 2011 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium July 2011
 

PLEA 2011 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium July 2011

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Andrea Wheeler 2011 What do young people tell us about sustainable lifestyles when they design sustainable schools?

Andrea Wheeler 2011 What do young people tell us about sustainable lifestyles when they design sustainable schools?

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  • [Slide 4] To summarise - We have determined causes of this discrepancy to be caused by factors at the design phase, during construction and during use. These can be due to (a) inaccurate assumptions about materials or material behaviours (b) inaccurate simulation where incorrect values are inputted into calculations (c) or late changes – this we saw in one of the case study schools where the leadership had changed 3 times between design and completion of the school. Factors contributing from construction include (d) inaccurate material specification [poor material choice] (e) Faculty workmanship [poor tools, poorly trained labour]. Factors causing the difference during utilisation are the focus of this presentation these can be due to management, maintenance or education. (f) building not managed well by staff (g) building on maintained well (e) or education which is the main theme of this presentation (by this I mean people not using the building in the why designed intend for a whole host of reasons and where education is used generally to describe initiatives that might change energy behaviours).
  • [Slide 4] To summarise - We have determined causes of this discrepancy to be caused by factors at the design phase, during construction and during use. These can be due to (a) inaccurate assumptions about materials or material behaviours (b) inaccurate simulation where incorrect values are inputted into calculations (c) or late changes – this we saw in one of the case study schools where the leadership had changed 3 times between design and completion of the school. Factors contributing from construction include (d) inaccurate material specification [poor material choice] (e) Faculty workmanship [poor tools, poorly trained labour]. Factors causing the difference during utilisation are the focus of this presentation these can be due to management, maintenance or education. (f) building not managed well by staff (g) building on maintained well (e) or education which is the main theme of this presentation (by this I mean people not using the building in the why designed intend for a whole host of reasons and where education is used generally to describe initiatives that might change energy behaviours).
  • [Slide 4] To summarise - We have determined causes of this discrepancy to be caused by factors at the design phase, during construction and during use. These can be due to (a) inaccurate assumptions about materials or material behaviours (b) inaccurate simulation where incorrect values are inputted into calculations (c) or late changes – this we saw in one of the case study schools where the leadership had changed 3 times between design and completion of the school. Factors contributing from construction include (d) inaccurate material specification [poor material choice] (e) Faculty workmanship [poor tools, poorly trained labour]. Factors causing the difference during utilisation are the focus of this presentation these can be due to management, maintenance or education. (f) building not managed well by staff (g) building on maintained well (e) or education which is the main theme of this presentation (by this I mean people not using the building in the why designed intend for a whole host of reasons and where education is used generally to describe initiatives that might change energy behaviours).
  • [Slide 6] From an extensive literature review which covered Education for Sustainability, Research Methods with Children, Behavioural Change and Sustainable Lifestyles and POE methods that whilst there was often a lack of clear guidelines for staff and pupils about the building, it’s technologies, the utilisation of the building (contrary to what was intended) was embedded in the dynamic relationship between school ethos and school culture. We took an approach to change in schools influenced by Henry Sanoff who writes: 'Ignoring the importance of schools culture is usually associated with a lock of understanding of the dynamics of organizational culture and an assumption that culture is unimportant’ [22, page 2].
  • [Slide 6] From an extensive literature review which covered Education for Sustainability, Research Methods with Children, Behavioural Change and Sustainable Lifestyles and POE methods that whilst there was often a lack of clear guidelines for staff and pupils about the building, it’s technologies, the utilisation of the building (contrary to what was intended) was embedded in the dynamic relationship between school ethos and school culture. We took an approach to change in schools influenced by Henry Sanoff who writes: 'Ignoring the importance of schools culture is usually associated with a lock of understanding of the dynamics of organizational culture and an assumption that culture is unimportant’ [22, page 2].

PLEA 2011 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium July 2011 PLEA 2011 Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium July 2011 Presentation Transcript

  • Post-Occupancy Evaluation of New Schools with the Participation of Children Dr Andrea Wheeler, Dr Masoud Malekzadeh and Professor Dino Bouchlaghem
  • Why are all thesepeople sointerested?Problem. Why is the difference betweenpredicted and actual energy use ofschools so high?Objective. Understand this differenceand determine a way to assess thisdifference.Action: Our emergent approach forsustainable schools. Observations.Results: POE already making adifference in schools. The importance ofapplication of whole school methods forthe construction industry. 2
  • The Problem. What we think is causing thedifference between predicted and in-use energyconsumption. Inaccurate assumptions Late changes (design changes that are not 1. Design and modelled and change simulation performance) 2. Construction Inaccurate material specifications Faulty workmanship
  • School management and leadership Facilities management maintenance Behaviours3. Use Why can‟t people change what they do?
  • Culture, Consumerism, Consumption day “On our first they sat us down and told us what we couldn‟t do in the school – from the start it made us feel it wasn‟t ours . Influenced by school ethos, school history, lifestyle andquality of life factors(material aspiration and consumption) and is motivated by wider social norms.
  • Understanding and working with schoolculture – motivating school change.School culture has been defined as the dynamicrelationship between community history and valuesand school ethos... There’s a lot of difficulties working with them [the construction company] ...If there is a problem with the school, it’s the schools fault. [...] If there’s a problem they will blame the school... it ends up just being a frustration. [...] And then obviously on the purchasing side, whenever anything needs to be changed, if we need a new gat e or pathway, whatever it is, we have to go through them and the costs are so significantly high” (Building Manager)
  • Action. What we did. Three weeks ofworkshops.Open Discussion (to elicit information on design use, school ethos and community values, Henry Sanoff, 2001).“Walk-Through” (Watson, C. & Thomson, K., 2005) but using video to engage children and to capture word and image.An energy “quiz” (adapted Gill, Z.M., Tierney, M.J., Pegg, I.M. and Allan, N. 2010).Individual drawings/list An approach that could work with all ages – youngermaking children drawing speculative imaginary “designs” older children making lists of potential improvement.Big group “negotiated” (Huckle, 2010, Biesta, 2009) Thinking aboutdesign solutions sharing, democratic approach to designing, critical thinking.The Return. 7
  • The Objective. Improving school design and emergent technologies andsupporting emergent ontologies (POE that adopts innovative pedagogy).‘What if we no longer assume that we can knowthe essence and nature of the human being? – or,if we treat the question of what it means to behuman as a radically open question, a questionthat can only be answered by engaging ineducation rather than as a question that needs tobe answered before we can engage in education‟(Biesta, 2006: 4-5).Biesta, Gert (2009) „Creating Spaces for learning or Making Room for Education‟ lecture aspart of the Transforming Our Schools series, The University of Nottingham.http://uilapech01.nottingham.ac.uk:8080/ess/echo/presentation/98746c05-2f71-4a99-85c0-136bb4b7fd4a
  • Examples. (Energy Behaviours, School Culture and Social Norms) Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 – Attitudes to energy “I think we should but we have gotten ““I dont even think we are trying. It feels “...if no one moves in the classroom then the efficiency and used to everything and dont want to go like they dont even think they care. But lights go out and so it‟s like when people go sustainability back to basics” they are always banging on about it. out of the room the lights go off and so the bills (different session) “They are telling us to They are always telling us to save energy are lower. So do you think the bills are lower in be energy efficient but... They stand there but why not them”. this new school? You‟re paying less for your in science and say you need to save electricity and gas or not? Possibly not, energy and then I say well turn your lights because it‟s bigger.” off” THE ENERGY QUIZ Do you think it’s the computers you use at CLIP 3 (about leaving lights and computers on) home at use the most energy? Umm, yes but and What do you think stops you then, if you know it has the lights. an impact on the environment, and you know what to do? Some people forget sometimes, it’s everyone that’s got to take part. It’s like I do something good,TRANSCRIPTS but it’s everyone that has to take part. It’s like I do something good but someone else is still doing something… So you feel even though you’re doing your bit, others will let you down? Yes, others will let us down. If everyone contributed then yeah… 9
  • 3 CASE STUDY SCHOOLSCASE STUDY 1 CASE STUDY 2 CASE STUDY 3 10 10
  • CASE STUDY 3: First impressionsResearchers: What doyou think of this newschool, what were your We had more space in the old one, outdoorfirst impressions? What is space, but, everything else is better...this school like compared It was, very cold in the old school, it liketo the old school? seemed old, old fashioned, no colour in it. It was all mixed together, and not we don’t have to go outside anymore. It was a very long way getting up all the stairs and toResearchers: When they walk outside the doors and go to lessons.told you, you were going And we’d get told off if we were late [Yearto get a new school, what 9]were your thoughts? Can’t wait, excited, I thought it would be in like 2 weeks. (Do you think the new school inspires you? Or isn’t it the buildings “The first day I got lost, then it that inspire you?) We have more (ICT) was quite easy because every room is marked out, every equipment in this school. We didn’t have level too, there‟s three enough in the old school so everyone has a different colours.” (Year 7 pupil, first s chance to do more ... 11
  • CASE STUDY 3: Energy efficiency – Researchers: Are “I think we should stop lighting the you aware that this school in the day as the sun lights it up a lot and we‟re wasting is quite an energy Yeah, because like if no one electricity” (Final „design‟ session, Year 8 pupil). efficient school? moves, or people go out of the “Are the lights movement sensitive? I don‟t think in the room, the lights automatically corridors they are. They could be go off. movement sensitive, but even just a switch” (final „design‟ session,) Researchers: Do you think the bills for the school are lower in this No because it’s bigger... There’s more school? Are you are computers, projectors, interactive paying less for electricity whiteboards... (But on the other hand you have and gas? better windows that keep heat in?) But you can’t open them and you get too hot... But thenSometimes they [the you have air conditioning. But you only have itclassrooms] are really warm in ICT but when you do it’s nice and cool andand the windows don‟t open.None of the windows open. then it gets too cold [different voice]. InOnly the lower ones. In thesummer it‟s really hot” (Year 7 normal classrooms you have this thing thatpupil.) Researcher 1: “Are brings air in form outside, but if it’s hotthere things you think thearchitect could have done outside it’s just bringing in hot air.better?” “Just the windows.” 12 12(final session)
  • CASE STUDY 3: Space and using it (ornot being allowed to) What was said ! Researchers: So your No, we’ve got a big field, But we’re only complaint is that not allowed to go on it, the back... (So you have less outdoor what are they doing?) We don’t know , it space now? looks finished but we’re not allowed on it. Researchers: What We’re not allowed to use the about the changing showers as there’s not time. (Would rooms? you like to?) Yeah, ‘cause you’re smelly. Only the after school clubs can. [Different voice] But if you’re really dirty you can, you can if you have permission. They close the Researchers: What toilets on the about the toilets? top floors so we can only use They’re ok some of them 13 13
  • CASE STUDY 3: Space and using people(and Sometimes it run past it not working) What was the floor. That’s what over said ! and knock you and it just goes happened to my friend. Researcher: Would you They open up the assembly hall at lunch and like to have social space break so you can sit at a table and have your for yourself ? own little gossip. The canteen is all crowded. They put all the tables...we’ve got benches at the sides but all the year 11 and 10s sit there (is it Researcher: If I were to because they get there first?) No, because they’re tell the architects something older. (How about the queues?) We’re supposed about what you thought to have year queues (7,8,9 – Line 1) but no-one about the school, what does, so it’s cold and hot food. But they don’t would I tell them? listen and so they go anywhere... There are too many rooms that don’t get Researcher: What used, like these small rooms. (Should we turn about the break out these into classrooms?) spaces, do you use them? There are quiet areas but people tend to nick the chairs and put them in classrooms. (Do you think we should change them?) No, we use 14 14 them to just talk... [35.18 032]
  • YOUR SCHOOL, Walk-Throughs, What pupils said !What‟s good about first Year 7 playgroundimpressions 15
  • YOUR SCHOOL, Walk-Throughs, What pupils said ! “We like to sit under the stairs where there is carpet and a radiator, but we‟re not allowed. We just like to sit there because it is inside. We just like having a quieter area you can sit and just be with your friends [...] They should have little benches [outside] people can sit on and a shelter in the winter. I know it is cold but I do like to go outside to get some fresh air. And also the lads when they play football would have Break out spaces somewhere for their bags” (Year 10 pupil). 16
  • CASE STUDY 3: Critical Thinking and emergent lifestyles ““I dont even think we are trying. It feels like they dont even think they care. But they are always banging on about it. They are always telling us to save energy but why not them”. “I think we should but we have gotten used to everything and dont want to go back to basics” (different session) “They are telling us to be energy efficient but... They stand there in science and say you need to save energy and then I say well turn your lights off” 17 17
  • The democratic design process (lists and drawings) I thought the amount of natural light let in, compared to Researcher: Do you the amount of unneeded light on could be improved; we want to tell us what could turn the lights off. And more tables and benches to you’ve written down? sit on. Lights left on stairs, I don’t think they are movement sensitive They should have little benches people can sit on and a shelter in winter. I know it is cold but IResearcher: So we are do like to go outside and get some fresh air.talking about good andbad things...or reallythree lists, good bad andhow we can make it In the entrance there’s a separatebetter. entrance, we don’t need that. I don’t think we should have it because we can’t use cards or anything like that. 18 18
  • Comparing: Same problems as with otherschools? Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 – Windows and “We also have this automatic window thing “In the whole school there are automatic “Sometimes they [the classrooms] are really warm ventilation systems for when it gets too stuffy. When you windows that you have to open and close and the windows don‟t open. None of the windows produce too much CO2 the windows open, with a key and there are only about four open. Only the lower ones. In the summer it‟s its automatic [...] If you talk too much in keys in the whole school. So that kind of really hot” (Year 7 pupil.) Researcher 1: “Are there classroom they open (laughs)”. means that you can‟t open the windows things you think the architect could have done in some departments because you better?” “Just the windows.” haven‟t got a key.”Circulation, stairs and “...everyone pushes you out of the way [...] “This is a very big area, the rooms are “The first day I got lost, then it was quite easy lifts and it takes you about 10 minutes to get very big, and there is alot of room for because every room is marked out, every level too, out and you have to try to hold onto the people to just wander up and down the there‟s three different colours.” (Year 7 pupil, first handrails to pull yourself forward [...] I go corridors. Huge rooms, lots of big open session) down with my brother and he makes a little circle and I walk. [...] Older people think spaces down here. This is the area you are not allowed at lunchtime. You are not Not allowed they are cocky and they can do everything allowed up the stairs in the corridor at all. and so they go down the wrong side of the People have thrown things, the lights stairs” (Year 7 pupil) have been broken, there are lots of dents in the ceiling”.Natural and artificial “It happens [automatic lights switch on] “In the art and music corridor there are “I think we should stop lighting the school in the light when you go in, but when you go out full size windows, they go down the full day as the sun lights it up alot and we‟re wasting everyone turns them off anyway. In PE length of the building, the problem is that electricity” (Final „design‟ session, Year 8 pupil). thats what happens as they will go off in you have to, if you have projectors on in “Are the lights movement sensitive? I don‟t think in the changing rooms and in PE you just an art department you can‟t actually see the corridors they are. They could be movement have to jump about a bit. In the store because they don‟t have blinds so you sensitive, but even just a switch” (final „design‟ rooms it is straight on. You walk in and it can‟t actually lower the blinds so the session, different group of pupils) just turns on. Cleaners‟ cupboards and projector can see so then you can‟t really stuff”. see anything.” Artificial Lighting 19 19
  • What did you and others say about yourschool and it‟s design? Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 – Social space “We go up to the shop at dinner time but at “This is the atrium space [...] It does get a “We like to sit under the stairs where there is(strongly related to the break we just stay around. Ill just stand bit messy because there are not enough carpet and a radiator, but we‟re not allowed. Welunchtime experience) around over there or walk around. We chairs and people have to wander around just like to sit there because it is inside. We just have got a coffee machine now that we and hope for the best and see if they can like having a quieter area you can sit and just be are allowed to use and a lot of people find a seat at lunchtime [...] It is used as with your friends [...] They should have little stand around there [...] At dinner we play the packed lunch area at lunchtime and benches [outside] people can sit on and a shelter football on the Astroturf and a lot of chairs come out of the cupboard over in the winter. I know it is cold but I do like to go different years join in”. “...we go out to there for people to sit on but there isn‟t a outside to get some fresh air. And also the lads chippy. Its nicer. There are just year 10s lot of space and there isn‟t enough room when they play football would have somewhere for and 11s and theres no queues [...] We go for everybody to „sit-in‟”. their bags” (Year 10 pupil). most days (different voice). Not every time to eat just to get out of the madness” (Year 10 pupils). Gym, fitness suites, (Dialogue from „walk-through‟) “As you can (From a „walk-through‟) “The drains in “...we should have lockers, we have to carry ourdance rooms, changing see we have these lockers but no one this department are very dodgy and the PE kit around all day. I think we should have rooms and showers uses them, you can see they are broke” changing rooms smell a lot because the lockers where the PE room is so that when we Researcher 1: Do you have to carry all drains get blocked and if something have PE... or in our form room.” (From a final your PE clothes around all day?” yeah, in happens it means you have to ring up „design‟ session) a bag”. (different „walk-through‟ session) Liverpool to put it on the caretakers list that the drains need fixing because that‟s where [building company] Headquarters are.” The Wallk Through 20 20
  • What did you and others say about yourschool and it‟s design? Case Study 1 Case Study 2 Case Study 3 –Outside space, sports “That‟s the field and the tennis courts and “Up at the top we have a MUGA. Multi- “At the moment we‟re in a different playground tofacilities and multi use there were the Astroturf is that‟s where we use games area. There are some people all the other years. [...] I think it is better I think it‟s games areas had our old building you can‟t come down on it right now. And then we have the bus because older kids are just bigger and if we‟re on here at break but you can at dinner.” station. There is a stage thing that, an the same playground they can hurt us easier.” Researcher 2: “So does it have a fence or outdoor thing, for a band, but we‟ve (Year 7 pupil.) something for where you cannot go in the never used it”. break time?” “No a teacher just stands there”. Quality of space/ “It [Global Conference Room] is for “It‟s a good job the camera doesn‟t pick Researcher 1: “Are there things you like the most innovative design meetings as well but while we are learning up smell because it stinks. [The school about the building? Things your primary school there are cameras. There is meant to be a had a ongoing problem with smells from didn‟t have, or just things you like?” “It‟s better camera here. Where you can learn with the drains.] Sometimes it smells, the because you get to move around the school and other schools and you can learn the same drains arn‟t very good.” not just stay in one classroom.” (Year 7 pupil.) lessons. But weve never done it”. (Year 10 pupils on “walk-through”) ICT and computers “All the computers are always on, they are “In there [computer room] as well is the “On hot days the IT suites are the best because of never switched off by the power. They are study centre [full of computers] and it the air conditioning.” always on standby. [...] its just that the gets very hot and even if the air con is on monitor is off. You just logoff and you dont only slight areas get it and it gets very shut it down”. hot.” 21 21
  • Summary User Findings 1. Contradictions between what adults say and what they tell children to do. 2. Poorly functioning building features (windows, heating and ventilation systems, circulation, dining spaces) and either over provision or under provision of space and facilities, together with teachers prohibiting use of facilities (toilets locked, . 3. Lack of ownership of PFI buildings 4. Lack of understanding of the „sustainable‟ design features of the new school building – solar heating panels 5. Convoluted facilities management procedures 6. A mismatch between designers intention and teachers ability to manage the behaviours of pupils – (many examples – dining biggest issue) 22
  • Summary Technical Findings
  • Stories and Statistics (Mixedmode methodologies and analysis)Simple content analysis, Adults contradictory behaviours, everyone has totranscripts – themes do their bit, ownership and agency.emergingNarrative analysis (children‟s Emergent lifestyles, ways of being, ways of living –story telling it‟s role and supporting them.meaning)Visual analysis Design Themes, dining spaces, ICT, artificial lighting, comfort.Comparison with numerical data Verification– energy use (electricity andgas) and school temperatures,lighting and ICT complaints.Comparison (return visit). VerificationWhat are the children saying 24 24
  • RecommendationsArtificial Lighting Artificial lights left on during the night (switching off lights – all but essential – 6pm 7.30 am?) Lights in corridors being left on in daylight need to be better addressed – better motion timers, accessible controls to allow them to be switched off?Heating Better and immediate controls (children can change temperatures in rooms?) Efficient BMS. 18 degrees for classrooms, children suggest hotter. Could turn down? Maintenance issues for PfI schools resolved?ICT Timers to hibernate mode, Eco-groups to make sure white boards and computers are switched off (shaming teachers?)Dining Experience All schools we visited had problems with the deign of dining spaces. Designers need to understand that management issues for 1000 + pupils will take precedent and whilst dining spaces are being designed for multiply sittings this is very difficult for teachers to manage.Behaviour change? 20% Eco-Teams, eco-warriors, educational initiatives - More radicalreduction educational changes, coming in later in the morning, 6 weeks holiday in winter? 25 25
  • RESULTS: CASE STUDY 1 Problem areas to be addressed (ICT and artificial lighting), more integration? Individual teachers in the school took an immediate interest in making changes to whiteboards and computers left on in the school. The ICT and artificial lighting problems addressed by management on a larger scale would also resolve childrens‟ complaints about contradictory behaviour by adults information about environmental concerns. Even this simple action would be expected to also make significant savings to the school energy bills. 26 26
  • RESULTS: CASE STUDY 2 Negotiations with council to pay their own bills The School plans to enter into discussion with the local authority to gain responsibility for paying their own bills and putting measures in place to save 20%. They intend to discuss also with the construction company owners/facilities management team how to gain control from their desks of the BMS system, how to develop a better way of ensuring lights and ICT are turned off – with the intention of using the saving money for new educational initiatives in the school. 27 27
  • RESULTS: CASE STUDY 3 Modifications to the School Building over the Summer. The School planned after our workshops to make changes to the school to improve the dining experience, open up the MUGA and save money by a different artificial lighting strategy in corridors. This would also mean that the school will be on track to make significant savings on its consumption of energy. 28 28
  • THE IMPORTANCE OF ADAPTED “WHOLESCHOOL” POE for the Construction IndustryThe Advancement of knowledge.Improving Design Quality.Improving Energy Efficiency.Lowering Actual Energy Use in Buildings.Educational benefits, engaging with young people, improvingknowledge of sustainable design amongst children and young people.Supporting emerging lifestyles.Changing behaviours through initiatives attentive to school culture.Allowing construction companies to address their social obligations tobuildings more sustainable communities. 29 29
  • THANK YOU! a.s.wheeler@lboro.ac.ukm.malekzadeh@lboro.ac.uk