Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
 2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

2009 AAG Conference Las Vegas

128

Published on

Andrea Wheeler (2009) Building with the emotions. Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, 22 - 27 March 2009

Andrea Wheeler (2009) Building with the emotions. Association of American Geographers Annual Conference, 22 - 27 March 2009

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
128
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Building with the Emotions Andrea Wheeler, ESRC Early Careers Interdisciplinary Research Fellow, The University of Nottingham, Institute of Architecture and School of EducationESRC Project (RES-152-27-0001): How Can We Design Schools As Better Learning Spaces and To Encourage Sustainable Behaviour? Co-Design Methodologies and Sustainable Communities. 1
  • 2. Designing New Schools and the Building Schools for the Future programmeThe Building Schools for the Future programme, launched in2004, is described as being set up to improve the fabric of schoolbuildings, either through refurbishment or new buildings, and atthe same time transforming learning and embedding sustainabilityinto the educational experience (Blair, 2004).The UK government has created a unique educationalopportunity with this programme and it has high ambitions,however, so far, only 42 schools have been revitalised using theprogramme funds (Building, 2009). Delays have caused suspicionthat the government will meet its ambitious targets neither interms of schedule, nor indeed, in quality (HoC, 2007).References St Francis of Assisi School, Liverpool,-----“BSF Schools: Why is it so difficult?” Building, 09 January 2009Blair, 2004 PM Speech on Climate Change 14th September 2004, Archive No. 10 Dining HallDowning Street, London,http://www.number-10.gov.uk/output/Page6333.asp (accessed 06 May2008)House of Commons, Education and Skills Committee, “Sustainable Schools:Are we building schools for the future? Published 9th August 2007, p. 3DFES (2006) Sustainable Schools Framework. DfES Publications. 2
  • 3. Ecological modernisation or newways of being in the world? Since 2005 it has been a requirement that major school building projects achieve a minimum BREEAM rating of ‘very good’. More recently, the Government has detailed an ambition to build Zero- Carbon Schools and that all new school buildings be zero carbon by 2016. It has even set up a Zero Carbon Schools Taskforce to explore how to achieve this aim (DCSF, 2007, p. 107). However, there is little to suggest that sustainable schools or even zero-carbon schools will address the question of how to encourage pro-environmental lifestyle change. There is little to suggest that the outcomes could, or should, go beyond “ecological modernisation” of the school and community (Huckle, 2007). Scant attention is being given to relationship to the environment and other or of exploring less exploitative relationships. References DCSF (2007) The Childrens’ Plan: Building Brighter Futures. TSO. 3
  • 4. Sustainable schools cannot make an effective contribution to a more ecologically sustainable and equitable world unless it is understood not just as a “add-on” to the curriculum or “greening” of the school campus. A new thinking is required. But how can we develop with young people the values they need to build sustainable and just communities, when we don’t know what these values are?…..new ways of being in the world? 4
  • 5. We need a better dialogue between users andarchitects…one that recognises and uses thelanguage of emotions Feeling better in school (feeling at home, feeling relaxed). Why is this so significant in the context of education for sustainable development? Can architects respond to the emotions of users? “I want to feel at home in school?” I want to feel relaxed? I want to feel interested by, excited by, lessons? I want to be with my friends It makes me feel better and it helps me learn? This is also a way of very easily engaging children in a discussion of school building. And once talking about feelings, it is a good way to ask” should your new school care more for the environment, or make you feel you care more for the environment and want to look after it? How could we do that? But teachers tend to think architects can only respond to discussions about new classrooms, car parking and football pitches. Visioning processes can be very limited and a missed opportunity. But all this implies it requires a brave discussion of what we are educating children for and why – with them. A discussion about the future world they will be living in (the world we cannot anticipate) … This needs to be an ongoing process, a discussion of how we are in the world, about our ethical relationship to the world and others, and about how this relate to the material worlds of our communities and more immediately our schools – Children need this discussion… 5
  • 6. What are we educating for? Transforming the Educational Culture of Schools… by learning tocare for the future environment? Is there a conflict with policy? What would an architectural practice be like that could respond to children’s worlds and cultures, to their values and priorities (is this a place where children would feel more at home, more relaxed, more engaged?) Another question: Is this a way to respond to difference in architecture (differences of gender and race?) Are girls and boys in the world differently? Do they have different emotions, attachments, values and interests. Can we respond. What is stopping us? These questions are deep – what are we educating for? Are we educating young people to be able to adapt to the social and physical, political or financial consequences of climate change? (Is this possible or even desirable. Is this in conflict with government policy despite the rhetoric? How much of a tension do young people feel in attempting to reconcile the need for reduced consumption with peer pressure, tradition and habits. 6
  • 7. We need new pedagogies…Gert Biesta:“…education is not just about the transmission of knowledge, skills and values, but isconcerned with the individuality, subjectivity, or personhood of the student, with their‘coming into the world’ as unique, singular beings (Beista, 2006, p. 27).Could new pedagogies be developed that allow young people to explore how they feelin relationship to the environment (built and natural) and others with the aim ofexploring or developing more just or ethical relationships? 7
  • 8. Participation, Participatory Action Research,Theatre Practices, Alternative ArchitecturalPractices and New Law…Design processes are an opportunity for dialogue between users andarchitects.A new law to place a duty on all maintained schools in England andWales to consider the views of children and young people was passed bythe House of Lords on 11th November 2008. The is one of the firstmajor actions to protect children’s rights taken by new children’sminister Baroness Delyth Morgan of Drefelin. She stated: “As aminimum, schools should seek and take account of pupils’ views onpolicies on the delivery of the curriculum, behaviour, the uniform,school food, health and safety, equalities and sustainability, not simplyon what colour to paint the walls” (Baroness Morgan, 2008). This is newlaw is being argued as having the potential to transform the culture ofschools.The new law is being argued as transforming the culture of schools.But the link between participation and sustainable behaviour is complex.There is an ethical dilemma concerning the imposition of values for theenvironment and a need for educational approaches that avoid this What is the vision of a transformedimposition and stress discovery and critical thinking. school culture in the minds of Baroness? And what is the vision in theReferences: minds of children: What do they thinkMorgan, Baroness (2008) Official Report, House of Lords, 11 November 8 they should be educated for?2008; Vol. 705, c. 573.
  • 9. Philosophical, Sociological and PedagogicalQuestionsIf sustainable behaviour is to be encouraged,honestly and effectively young people will have toenter into a discussion of community, relation, socialcohesion and all the political and philosophicalcomplexities this entails.Children’s social interactions: What would it be ifarchitects could respond to these different values,priorities, interests, wishes – the importance childrenplace on certain activities and relationships?Is this a way to develop an approach to respondingto difference in architecture – sexisms, racisms etc,(cf. Luce Irigaray or Elaine Unterhalter’s ‘pedagogiesof connection’).References:Irigaray, Luce (2008) Sharing the World. Continuum.Aikman, Sheila and Unterhalter, Elaine (2005) Beyond Access: Transforming Policy and Practice for Gender Equality in Education.Oxfam. http://publications.oxfam.org.uk/oxfam/add_info_010.asp 9
  • 10. WorkshopsSo what do young people tell us? How do they understand sustainability and what asustainable school should be? What relationships are they passionate about? Whatfriendships do they value? What times and places? How is the social world of childrenconstructed, and how is it different to the adult consumer worlds? What tensions,confusion, and contradictions do young people feel? 10
  • 11. Discussions 1. “Global Warming Panic”: I feltfrightened when I first heard about global warming…Children described how they had been frightened by discussions of global warming and also feltsuspicious of the extreme perspective they felt in some of the arguments they had heard.V1: Has anyone seen that movie? The Day after Tomorrow?V2: YesV1: Some people that that is going to happen, The Day after Tomorrow.V3: Oh is that the one where the earth gets flooded? Yes, the world all gets flooded and stuff like that.V4: I gave all my clothes to the Tsunami when that happened.V3: What do you wear then?V2: I don’t know what’s going to happen to the world, who knows what’s going to really happen. Whether we’re going to get finished off by flooding, whether it’s going to fly into the Sun, whether we’re all going to die due to global warming.V3: We’ve got a few years left.V2: Whether the magma’s going to come out and flood the world with magma. Who knows whether someone will create a zombie virus and bring zombies, dead people back to life. Who knows if aliens don’t exist and they might destroy the earth. I’m just coming up with theories about what might happen to the earth. I’m thinking be might implode. 11
  • 12. 2. “Is it really our responsibility as children?”In the context of discussion about my role and purpose as a researcher, there were alsodiscussions of whether it was indeed children’s responsibility to change their own behaviour. Thiscan be seen in an example of dialogue from a workshop, during initial focus-group-typediscussions:Researcher: So what do you think it would take to make people behave more sustainably?V1: There’s a lot of rubbish on the field, more bins around the back for the school… […]V2: Supermarkets are saying to people [to recycle], but they put drinks in packets and wrappers […]V3: On some packing it says you can recycle it, but some people just chuck it on the floor […]V2: Because some games, computer games, there’s like plastic and you’ve got to separate it […] they should make an easier way torecycle.V3: It’s not just like the public getting it wrong because the Government aren’t really doing much about it […] and they aresending it to India!Researcher: Yeah, I saw that TV programme too.V2: Everyone is just worrying about the credit crunch, the credit crunch at the moment.V3: It might be about the public, but it is the Government as well. 12
  • 13. 3. The Credit Crunch, Greed, Consumerism, “…people want, want, want…”There were also discussions of greed and the cost of being environmentally friendly. Young people understood sustainable lifestyles as more costly, and yet they could also understand the criticism that consuming less may be less expensive. A typical transcript from a workshop with Year 7 children demonstrates this:Researcher: Do you think the credit crunch […] or the ‘economic crisis’ has something to do with global warming?V1: Yeah [boys responding to the question].V1: Because the banks are lending money, but people aren’t paying it back…V2: Because it’s like [a man] maxed out like six credit cards and killed himself, and then his wife had to pay it off.V1: Because like if moneys gone out of your bank account you won’t have enough money to buy light bulbs.V2: People want, want, want, they want to go on holidays, they want big cars, they want their children to have the latest video games.Researcher: Do you think people could stop behaving like this?V1: Some kids get spoilt a bit sometimes […] because kids get spoilt my Dad started saying things I don’t need and I want I have to buy it myself. It teaches me how it’s going to be like when I grow up. You’re limited in what you can buy. And ones that get spoilt should do it as well […] because when they’re older it’s not going to happen and you need to work 13it. for
  • 14. 4. “The problem of habit: “It takes a lot to break habits…” The idea that sustainable behaviour is a matter of habit was also part of the discussion, as demonstrated in conversation with one of the girls in the workshops: V3 [girl]: Is it about habits? It takes a lot to break habits. […] you know with the green umm… thing it’s the way you’ve been brought up, I think, and the way you act. If you act like you share all the time, you won’t be greedy, but if you don’t share and you say “no I want that now” not later, that’s just greed. V1: And if you want it, it’s better for like the credit crunch and everything, and it’s cheaper, a week later. 14
  • 15. 5. “Children’s agency: “..it’s like you act, you don’t have to copy them” Significantly the young people interviewed also believed they had agency and could behave in the way they wanted to: Researcher: Do you think it is young people that recycle and care more than their parents? V1: Yeah they might. V2: Depends on their attitude. V1: I want to say that it doesn’t depend much on the adults, it’s like you act, you don’t have to copy them. You can just say “no”, “not doing that”. V3: Life is too short to live someone else’s life. V4: Life is what you make it. V2: That was on an advert. 15
  • 16. WorkshopsDeveloping an approach which starts from their interests/passions and from theirdesigns (whether fantasy, play or criticism of the existing – or all). Creating a spacefrom which to explore sustainable behaviour, a potentially new ethics and the tensionsinvolved (peer pressure, tradition or belief, or family forms).The images are fantasies of being in school, how young people would like to feel (theyare also importantly created in the context of discussing what a sustainable schoolmight be like).Video clips show young people developing critical skills in addition to discussing theirdesires. 16
  • 17. WORKSHOPS-A documentary about the school we’ve designed…or doing being a researcher …Year 7 GirlsThe Documentary about The Documentary – the The Documentary – It’sthe school we designed… design…It’s all about about governments, and(1) drama, rest and free time cars as well… (to play and relax) in school (2) 17
  • 18. WORKSHOPS(Year 8s. The school we designed and …the disappearing Cherry Blossom Tree) The Documentary – it’s Year 8 Group: What a Year 8 Group: The School not just about schools sustainable school should We’ve Designed… – End be like…(for everyone) 18
  • 19. WORKSHOPS(School 3. Some reflection…and Year Six) Year 6 My School and a critic 19
  • 20. WORKSHOPSSchool 2Politics and the credit Adults the environmentcrunch and ownership 20
  • 21. Conclusions…There us a real need for new pedagogieswhich in the context of sustainabledevelopment can explore with youngpeople how we can be in the world,inhabit the world together, share theworld, live ethically and in justcommunities. These are social andpolitical questions. There is much rhetoricsurrounding Building Schools for theFuture (BSF) and we urgently need spacesand cross-disciplinary approaches toexplore these difficult issues. THANK YOU andrea.wheeler@nottingham.ac.uk 21 www.sustainability-and-schools.com

×