A FLOATING PLATFORM: a Porto Marghera history

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The paper is aimed to introduce the morphology of Marghera Area considered as a melt of physical, human and natural resources, and to demonstrate that the project is no anymore a matter of spatial modeling, but rather is driven by the strength of the Idea.
The speech is structured on the following points:
1 - We get in confidence with the physical elements and measures of the lagoon system to understand what is the actual matters we are about to work with.
2 - Looking backwards in the geological and historical arrangement allows us to figure out the most likely structure of the future of this place: The lagoon system (more clearly that other systems) develops due to the delicate action of Human and Natural.
3 - A quick glance to the recent past century, shows us the ruins of a failed ideas: The Marghera industrialization myth is finally over; it lasted less than a century. The industrial platform has been an Intrusion, as an enormous anomaly in to the lagoon's delicate evolution.
At the end of the cycle, the crisis elements of the territory are:
- serious environmental pollution of soils / water;
- low level of infrastructures / mobility;
- expansive and inefficient built system / low density.
4 - Nowadays, the Marghera Area's morphology is composed by a messy system of signs which are the matter of the project Fondaci: a set of infrastructures, key sites, and a unique natural environment.

The Project Fondaci challenges the mechanical relations made out of the traditional string of space \ production \ work \ residential, and shapes the morphology through a set a new paradigms:
- by relating local and global scale
- by using technological opportunities
- by increasing natural capital

The Project is aimed to combine the local morphology of Marghera Area (characterized by high level of livability, huge cultural heritage, unique natural heritage, cultural closure) and the global morphology springing out from the new paradigms (characterized by high level of knowledge, high level of production and consumption, opportunity of creativity, high level of tolerance)

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A FLOATING PLATFORM: a Porto Marghera history

  1. 1. ANDREA PENNISI IP ERASMUS ATOMS & BITS | JUNE 30TH 2010 LA PIATTAFORMA GALLEGGIANTE una storia di Marghera
  2. 2. EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM LAGOON SIZE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS4 3 2 1 A FLOATING PLATFORM: MARGHERA'S HISTORY
  3. 3. ABSTRACT The paper is aimed to introduce the morphology of Marghera Area considered as a melt of physical, human and natural resources, and to demonstrate that the project is not anymore a matter of spatial modeling, but rather is driven by the strength of the Idea. The speech is structured on the following points:
  4. 4. ABSTRACT 1 - We get in confidence with the physical elements and measures of the lagoon system to understand what is the actual matters we are about to work with.
  5. 5. ABSTRACT 2 - Looking backwards in the geological and historical arrangement of the lagoon allows us to figure out the most likely structure of the future of this place: The lagoon system (more clearly that other systems) develops due to the delicate action of Human and Natural.
  6. 6. ABSTRACT 3 - A quick glance to the recent past century, shows us the ruins of a failed ideas: The Marghera industrialization myth is finally over; it lasted less than a century. The industrial platform has been an Intrusion, as an enormous anomaly in to the lagoon's delicate evolution.
  7. 7. 4 - Nowadays, the Marghera Area's morphology is composed by a messy system of signs which are the matter of the project Fondaci: a set of infrastructures, key sites, and a unique natural environment. ... ABSTRACT
  8. 8. LAGOON SYSTEM LAGOON SIZE
  9. 9. LAGOON SIZE LAGOON SYSTEM The hole surface of the Lagoon = 55,000 he
  10. 10. LAGOON SIZE The hole surface of the Lagoon = 55,000 he 8% is the land surface of Venice and its Island VENICE AND ISLAND
  11. 11. LAGOON SIZE The hole surface of the Lagoon = 55,000 he 8% is the land surface of Venice and its Island 11% is the water surface permanently covered by water: canals and basins CANALS AND BASINS
  12. 12. LAGOON SIZE The hole surface of the Lagoon = 55,000 he 8% is the land surface of Venice and its Island 11% is the water surface permanently covered by water: canals and basins 80% is the humid surface: mud flats, tidal shallows and salt marshes, barene TIDAL WATERS
  13. 13. LAGOON SIZE The hole surface of the Lagoon = 55,000 he 8% is the land surface of Venice and its Island 11% is the water surface permanently covered by water: canals and basins 80% is the humid surface: mud flats, tidal shallows and salt marshes, barene 1500 he is the former industrial platform INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM
  14. 14. LAGOON SIZE VENICE 730 ha PLATFORM 1.500 ha GARDEN CITY+MESTRE 2.000 ha MORPHOLOGIES OF THE BUILT
  15. 15. MORFOLOGIA DEL COSTRUITO
  16. 16. LAGOON SIZE VENICE 730 ha PLATFORM 1.500 ha GARDEN CITY+MESTRE 2.000 ha MORPHOLOGIES OF THE BUILT
  17. 17. LAGOON SIZE VENICE 730 ha PLATFORM 1.500 ha GARDEN CITY+MESTRE 2.000 ha MORPHOLOGIES OF THE BUILT
  18. 18. LAGOON SIZE PLATFORM 1.500 ha
  19. 19. LAGOON SIZE
  20. 20. LAGOON SIZE
  21. 21. LAGOON SIZE
  22. 22. LAGOON SIZE
  23. 23. LAGOON SIZE
  24. 24. EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON
  25. 25. Benedetto Bordone, mappa della laguna 1480 1480 EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM MOST ANCIENT MAP OF THE LAGOON
  26. 26. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Seven main Rivers pour in to the lagoon which tends to shrink The mainlad constitutes the defence of the Repubblic on the west side The Venice Repubblic is fighting for his domain over the Adriatic See LAGOON XIV th c. EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM A CLOSED SYSTEM
  27. 27. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM … LOOKING TOWARD EAST
  28. 28. LAGOON XV th c. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Hydraulic projects to prevent the lagoon from turning into a marsh. Are built the first defensive towers of Mestre and Marghera More than 40 km of river's deviations EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM KEEP IT ALIVE!
  29. 29. LAGOON XVI th c. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi All the rivers are diverted from the Lagoon in to the See EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM KEEP IT ALIVE!
  30. 30. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM mestre and marghera defensive towers in the most famous map of the town 1500
  31. 31. LAGOON XVIII th c. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Venetian hydraulic projects to prevent the lagoon from turning into a marsh reversed the natural evolution of the Lagoon. The natural system of the Lagoon is definitly changing. The ammount of water in to the basin is quickly grown up EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM LAGOON IS CHANGED
  32. 32. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM … HYDRAULIC WORKS
  33. 33. LAGOON XIX th c. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Venice is not an island anymore: the austrians built the rail-way bridge over the lagoon Massive works of reclamation, against the natural expansion of the water system of the lagoon The mainland keeps to be a supporting area of the industrial and commercial activity of Venice EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM MODERNITY IN THE LAGOON
  34. 34. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM THE AUSTRIAN BUILT THE 5 KM LONG RAILWAY BRIDGE IN 5 YEARS 1846
  35. 35. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON SYSTEM THE STUCKY MILL 1895
  36. 36. LAGOON 1917 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Begins the first industrialization: the port of Venice is sided by the new port of Marghera An artificial channel is created between Venice and the mainland The Core of the city moves from San Marco towards Santa Marta Piazzale Roma Rail Way Station Mestre and Marghera become a national railway junction Military infrastructures are settled in Mestre e Marghera due to the WWI EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM INDUSTIALIZATIO N
  37. 37. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM Vittorio Emanuele Channel Forte Marghera Marghera Dock Mestre Train Station LAGOON 1917 INDUSTIALIZATIO N
  38. 38. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM LAGOON 1917 INDUSTIALIZA TION
  39. 39. LAGOON 1935 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi The Escavation of the Industrial Canals alters the natural rhythm of the water 1,200 hectar of lagoon are taken over from the 1917 to 1935 to settle the industries The industrialization moves from the island (venice) towards the mainland (marghera) Mestre and Marghera become workers cities on the main land EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM LAGOON'S OCCUPATION
  40. 40. LAGOON 1940 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM MASSIVE WATER RECLAMATION
  41. 41. MAINLAND MASTERPLAN 1937 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM
  42. 42. LAGOON 1969 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM VENICE IN THE FACTORY
  43. 43. LAGOON 1980 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi The industrial rules are definitively changing Is the decline of the industrial dream In the era of diffuse welfare, Venice and is environment are going in to a era of mass tourism The Venetian economy is omologated and banalized The natural attitude is compromised. Enormous Pollution of the lagoon EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM T R E V I S O PAD OVA M I R A N O J E S O L O C A V A L L I N O END OF THE DREAM
  44. 44. INDUSTRY 1991 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM PRODUCTION IS OVER
  45. 45. PIAZZA SAN MARCO 1980 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM MASSIVE TOURISM
  46. 46. LAGOON 2050 The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi Until the XVII century the fortune of Venice has been linked to its connections with the East “Fondaco Project” is able to attract culture and eastern experiences in order to trigger a new development cycle involving the West. The ex industrial platforms of Marghera Port should become the innovation vanguard in the north east, bridge between West and East and one of the European Union’s qualified platforms dedicated to the refounding of its relation system. EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM FONDACO PROJECT
  47. 47. FUTURE SETTING The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi EVOLVING OF THE LAGOON- SYSTEM MIT New York Talk Exchange illustrates the global exchange of information in real time by visualizing volumes of long distance telephone and IP (Internet Protocol) data flowing between New York and cities around the world. Look for the position of Venice...
  48. 48. INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi
  49. 49. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM
  50. 50. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM
  51. 51. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 1917 The port of Marghera is the first settement of the Platform The port work mainly with the following industrial sector 55% chimichal 35% mechanic 10% other 2010 The port activities barely “survives” at the industrial disposal
  52. 52. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 1925 The shipyard of FINCANTIERI built: Cruise, Ferries, Cargo 1980 Is one of the most pruductive firm of the whole area. More than 3.000 workers and 2.5 big Ship produced per year 2010 Less than 800 workers (most of then with precarious working contract) 17 severe accident per year
  53. 53. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM Activitie 1950 Since 1950 begins the chemical era The main industries are: ENEL- energy production ENICHEM – sintesys product ENI – rafinery Marghera total workers 1930 196519651980 3,000 33,200 29,00025,000 1990 19,000 2000 12,000
  54. 54. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 1913 Around the Platform arise 2 main settelment: Mestre e Marghera Garden City 1962 Marghera Garden City: more than 30,000 people 1972 In Mestre dwell 180,000 people
  55. 55. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 1970 Between Industrial and residential areas arise a services belt Industrial Releted small enterprised Citizens services
  56. 56. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 2007 More than 4,000 ha not use in Porto Marghera area
  57. 57. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM 1990 The Technopole of Marghera get birth in the early 90s. 2000 The Huge Urban Park is built on a site facing the lagoon 2010 Vega employs 2,000 people in 200 firms
  58. 58. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM MAP OF POLLUTION Inorganic Cyanides Metals: Aluminum, Silver, Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium (trivalent and hexavalent), Iron, Manganese, Mercury, Nickel, Lead, Copper and Zinc Phenols: Total organochlorine solvents, Chloroform, Tetrachloroethylene, Trichloroethylene Chlorinated organic compounds: Total aromatic organic solvents, Benzene, Toluene, Xylene. the poloclorobifeniti polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)pesticides and herbicidesdioxins. POLLUTION LOADS URBAN INDUSTRIAL AGRICOLTURE
  59. 59. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi THE INDUSTRIAL PLATFORM IPPC/SAR 2100 SCENARIO SCENARIO CLIMATE SENSIBILITY ICE MELTIN G EMISSION CO2 FORCAST CM FIRST 1.5° SCARS O LOW 13 SECOND 2.5° MEDIO MEDIE 49 THIRD 4.5° ELEVA TO HIGHT 94 LEVEL OF WATER
  60. 60. MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi
  61. 61. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS
  62. 62. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS TWO CITIES IN ONE
  63. 63. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS RECENT INFRASTRUCTURES
  64. 64. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS MARGHERA GARDEN CITY
  65. 65. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS MARGHERA GARDEN CITY
  66. 66. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS STREET SYSTEM OF MARGHERA
  67. 67. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS TRAM WAY SYSTEM
  68. 68. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS TRAM WAY SYSTEM
  69. 69. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS RAIL WAY SYSTEM
  70. 70. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS RAIL WAY SYSTEM
  71. 71. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS STRIKES IN PORTO MARGHERA'S FACTORY
  72. 72. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS VERY LITTLE WORK POWER
  73. 73. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS MESTRE URBAN HIGH WAY
  74. 74. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS MESTRE JAM
  75. 75. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS AIRPORT MARCO POLO
  76. 76. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS AIRPORT MARCO POLO
  77. 77. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS WILDLIFE
  78. 78. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS WILDLIFE
  79. 79. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS CANALS, BARENE
  80. 80. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS CANALS, BARENE
  81. 81. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS DELICATE SYSTEM
  82. 82. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS CONTAMINATED ENVIRONMENT
  83. 83. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS MOSE WATER CONTROL
  84. 84. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS VIA TORINO OFFICE DISTRICT
  85. 85. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS REFURBISHMENT
  86. 86. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS VEGA TECHNOLOGICAL PARCK
  87. 87. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS SAN GIULIANO PARK
  88. 88. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS
  89. 89. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS CONCLUSIONS The Project Fondaci challenges the mechanical relations made out of the traditional sequence of space production work residential, and shapes the morphology through a set a new paradigms: - by relating local and global scale - by using technological opportunities - by increasing natural capital [...]
  90. 90. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi MESSY SYSTEM OF SIGNS CONCLUSIONS The Fondaco Project is aimed to combine the local morphology of Marghera Area (characterized by high level of livability, huge cultural heritage, unique natural heritage, cultural closure) and the global morphology springing out from the new paradigms (characterized by high level of knowledge, high level of production and consumption, opportunity of creativity, high level of tolerance)
  91. 91. The History of the Marghera Area | IP Erasmus Atoms & Bits | Andrea Pennisi BIBLIOGRAPHY Storia di Mestre e Marghera Mancuso, Venezia è una città, Venezia 2010 Longhi, Venezia Industriale Industriosa, Venezia 1999 Longhi, Il grappolo Metropolitano di Mestre, Venezia 2003 Sardo e altri, Mestre Novecento, Venezia 2009 Industria Gianluca Palma, Porto Marghera: evoluzione attuale e prospettive, Venezia 2009 Ambiente Quaderni Habitat, Laguna Estuari Delta, Udine 2009 Atlante della Laguna, www.atlante.silvenezia.it Callegaro, Elementi di crisi dell'ecosistema lagunare, Venezia 2009 Dati e statistiche Consorzio Venezia Nuova Servizio Statistica e Ricerca, Comune di Venezia. www.comune.venezia.it/statistica COSES, www.coses.it/ Immages www.fassiophoto.com Laboratorio Mestre Novecento, Comune di Venezia

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