Università degli Studi di BresciaFacoltà di IngegneriaCorso di Laurea Magistrale in Ingegneria Gestionale Boroncini Annamaria Brianza Alberto Ghio Andrea
Explore how public research and private research interface each other, how they complement each other (particular attention to the linear model and to the chain-linked model); Focus on the biotechnology sector; Some suggestions concerning the model (linear Vs. chain- linked) that better explains the innovation processes in this sector personal opinions
Stephan P. (1996), “The Economics of Science” (http://www.jstor.org/stable/2729500 ) Balconi M., Brusoni S., Orsenigo L. (2008), “In Defence of the Linear Model: An Essay” (http://ftp.unibocconi.it/pub/RePEc/cri/papers/WP216Balconi BrusoniOrsenigo.pdf ) McMillan S.G., Narin F., Deeds D.L., (2000), “An analysis of the critical role of public science in innovation: the case of biotechnology” (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00487333 9900030X)
The public nature of knowledge and the reward structure of science; No rivalry, no excludability; Difficulty for providers to capture the economic returns; Public research vs. Private research; Main assumption: public research is conducted mainly by universities (basic research) and private research is conducted mainly by firms (applied research) (Balconi, Brusoni and Orsenigo (2008)) Interaction between basic research and applied research.
LINEAR MODEL VS. CHAIN-LINKED MODEL Linear Model:
Linear model starts from basic research (mainly in universities) and then the knowledge is transferred to the firms marketable products; To do this, firms need to undertake a long and uncertain development activity.
Firms want to satisfy the needs or the requests of the market collaboration with universities; Linear model is “technology push” while the Chain-Linked model is “market pull”.
Balconi, Brusoni and Orsenigo (2008): Pharmaceutical Industry Linear Model; McMillan, Narin and Deeds (2000): biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are mainly based on basic science Our interpretation: Linear Model Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Firms Companies Percent of science 79.1% 83.1% references originating in public scienceResearch question: is it always right in every biotechnology’s sector?
Example of sub-sectors that seem to be much chain-linked: Agriculture Industry Crops that reduce the use of fertilizers Food Industry Improved taste or appearance of foodSeveral biotech sub-sectors are mainly “market pull”.
In some biotechnology’s fields the innovation processes seem to follow the linear model, in others the chain-linked one, and this depends very much on the intrinsic characteristics of each field. Our goal: some sectors analysis and the relative knowledge transfer.